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Technical Paper

15 Years of Transfer Path Analysis VINS in the Vehicle NVH Development - Selected Results

2014-06-30
2014-01-2047
Transfer path analysis is a powerful tool to support the vehicle NVH development. On the one hand it is a fast method to gain an overview of the complex interplay in the vehicle noise generation process. On the other hand it can be used to identify critical noise paths and vehicle components responsible for specific noise phenomena. FEV has developed several tools, which are adapted to the considered noise phenomena: Powertrain induced interior noise and vibration is analyzed by VINS (Vehicle Interior Noise Simulation), which allows the deduction of improvement measures fast enough for application in the accelerated vehicle development process. Further on vehicle/powertrain combinations not realized in hardware can be evaluated by virtual installation of the powertrain in the vehicle, which is especially interesting in the context of engine downsizing from four to three or six to four cylinders.
Technical Paper

2002 Pontiac Montana Frequency Improvements Employing Structural Foam

2001-04-30
2001-01-1609
This paper documents a joint development process between General Motors and Dow Automotive to improve primary body structure frequencies on the GM family of midsize vans by utilizing cavity-filling structural foam. Optimum foam locations, foam quantity, and foam density within the body structure were determined by employing both math-based modeling and vehicle hardware testing techniques. Finite element analysis (FEA) simulations of the Body-In-White (BIW) and “trimmed body” were used to predict the global body structure modes and associated resonant frequencies with and without structural foam. The objective of the FEA activity was to quantify frequency improvements to the primary body structure modes of matchboxing, bending, and torsion when using structural foam. Comprehensive hardware testing on the vehicle was also executed to validate the frequency improvements observed in the FEA results.
Technical Paper

A BE Model for the Analysis of the Effects of Seats in the Passenger Compartment Acoustic Behaviour

1999-05-17
1999-01-1790
The aim of this work is to validate a BE numerical methodology to calculate how the acoustic properties of seats can affect the acoustic behaviour of the passenger compartment of a vehicle. An analytical model, based on the Delany and Bazley approach, was implemented in order to simulate the acoustic impedance of the foam-fabric system. This model has been validated with absorption coefficient measurements on a certain number of foam-fabric combinations. The calculated impedance was used as input for a BEM analysis of the interior cavity of a trimmed vehicle. The measured impedance of trimming components as floor carpet, door panels and parcel shelf were included into the cavity model. The acoustic field due to a known source with and without seats was calculated, in the frequency range 20-400 Hz: the calculated FRFs are in good agreement with the measured ones.
Technical Paper

A CFD/SEA Approach for Prediction of Vehicle Interior Noise due to Wind Noise

2009-05-19
2009-01-2203
For most car manufacturers, aerodynamic noise is becoming the dominant high frequency noise source (> 500 Hz) at highway speeds. Design optimization and early detection of issues related to aeroacoustics remain mainly an experimental art implying high cost prototypes, expensive wind tunnel sessions, and potentially late design changes. To reduce the associated costs as well as development times, there is strong motivation for the development of a reliable numerical prediction capability. The goal of this paper is to present a computational approach developed to predict the greenhouse windnoise contribution to the interior noise heard by the vehicle passengers. This method is based on coupling an unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver for the windnoise excitation to a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) solver for the structural acoustic behavior.
Technical Paper

A Case Study on Reducing the Fuel Pulse Noise from Gasoline Engine Injectors

2020-04-14
2020-01-1276
There are many noise sources from the vehicle fuel system to generate noise inside a vehicle. Among them, the pressure pulsation due to the rapid opening and closing of gasoline engine injectors can cause undesirable fuel pulse noise. As the pressure pulsation propagates in the fuel supply line toward to rear end of the vehicle, the pressure energy is transferred from fuel lines to the vehicle underbody through clips and into the passenger compartment. It is crucial to attenuate the pressure pulsation inside the fuel line to reduce the fuel pulse noise. In this paper, a case study on developing an effective countermeasure to reduce the objectionable fuel pulse noise of a V8 gasoline injection system at engine idle condition is presented. First, the interior noise of a prototype vehicle was tested and the objectionable fuel pulse noise is exhibited. The problem frequency ranges of the pulse noise were identified.
Technical Paper

A Case Study on the Improvement of Idle Quality of an SUV Car with DI Diesel Engine

2003-05-05
2003-01-1464
With its advantage on the economic and environmental reason the preference of vehicles with diesel engine is growing in the domestic market as well as European market. And automobile makers are enthusiastic in the development of diesel engine vehicles with more comfortable interior atmosphere in order to meet consumers' requirements. Generally, when compared with gasoline engine, diesel engine has much bigger vibratory input to the mounting structure and produces higher level in interior noise and body vibration. In this paper, the improvement of NVH quality at the idle state of an SUV car with DI diesel engine has been achieved through tuning engine mounts based on TPA (Transfer Path Analysis) for low frequency vibration and interior booming noise.
Technical Paper

A Comparison Between Active and Passive Approaches to the Sound Quality Tuning of a High Performance Vehicle

2013-05-13
2013-01-1878
Sports car sound quality regularly has two conflicting targets, meeting customer's expectations for interior noise and enhancing the driving experience whilst complying with exterior noise legislation. To help with this balancing act acoustics engineers have an ever growing arsenal of tools to choose from. The conventional sound character development approach would typically involve the tuning of existing vehicle systems, primarily the air-intake and exhaust system. Increased flexibility to interior noise sound character tuning has been offered by the development of sound enhancement devices. The number of sound enhancement devices now commercially available has grown significantly in recent years but the systems can be broadly split into two main categories. Passive systems such as intake sound generators that aim to boost the levels of existing noise sources and more recently the advent of electronic sound enhancement through loud speakers and inertia shakers.
Journal Article

A Computational Approach to Evaluate the Automotive Windscreen Wiper Placement Options Early in the Design Process

2013-05-13
2013-01-1933
For most car manufacturers, wind noise from the greenhouse region has become the dominant high frequency noise contributor at highway speeds. Addressing this wind noise issue using experimental procedures involves high cost prototypes, expensive wind tunnel sessions, and potentially late design changes. To reduce the associated costs as well as development times, there is strong motivation for the use of a reliable numerical prediction capability early in the vehicle design process. Previously, a computational approach that couples an unsteady computational fluid dynamics solver (based on a Lattice Boltzmann method) to a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) solver had been validated for predicting the noise contribution from the side mirrors. This paper presents the use of this computational approach to predict the vehicle interior noise from the windshield wipers, so that different wiper placement options can be evaluated early in the design process before the surface is frozen.
Technical Paper

A Computational Approach to Evaluate the Vehicle Interior Noise from Greenhouse Wind Noise Sources

2010-04-12
2010-01-0285
For most car manufacturers, aerodynamic noise is becoming the dominant high frequency noise source (≻500 Hz) at highway speeds. Design optimization and early detection of issues related to aeroacoustics remain an experimental art implying high cost prototypes, expensive wind tunnel sessions, and potentially late design changes. To reduce the associated costs as well as development times, there is strong motivation for the development of a reliable numerical prediction capability. This paper presents a computational approach that can be used to predict the vehicle interior noise from the greenhouse wind noise sources, during the early stages of the vehicle developmental process so that design changes can be made to improve the wind noise performance of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

A Computational Approach to Evaluate the Vehicle Interior Noise from Greenhouse Wind Noise Sources - Part II

2011-05-17
2011-01-1620
For most car manufacturers, aerodynamic noise is becoming the dominant high frequency noise source (≻ 500 Hz) at highway speeds. Design optimization and early detection of issues related to aeroacoustics remain mainly an experimental art implying high cost prototypes, expensive wind tunnel sessions, and potentially late design changes. To reduce the associated costs as well as development times, there is strong motivation for the development of a reliable numerical prediction capability. This paper presents a computational approach that can be used to predict the vehicle interior noise from the greenhouse wind noise sources, during the early stages of the vehicle developmental process so that design changes can be made to improve the wind noise performance of the vehicle.
Journal Article

A Computational Process for Early Stage Assessment of Automotive Buffeting and Wind Noise

2013-05-13
2013-01-1929
A computational process for early stage vehicle shape assessment for automotive front window buffeting and greenhouse wind noise is presented. It is a challenging problem in an experimental process as the vehicle geometry is not always finalized. For example, the buffeting behavior typically worsens during the vehicle development process as the vehicle gets tighter, leading to expensive late counter measures. We present a solution using previously validated CFD/CAA software based on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). A CAD model with realistic automotive geometry was chosen to simultaneously study the potential of different side mirror geometries to influence the front window buffeting and greenhouse wind noise phenomena. A glass mounted mirror and a door mounted mirror were used for this comparative study. Interior noise is investigated for the two phenomena studied. The unsteady flow is visualized and changes in the buffeting and wind noise behavior are explored.
Journal Article

A Computational Process to Effectively Design Seals for Improved Wind Noise Performance

2019-06-05
2019-01-1472
The ability to assess noise transmitted through seals to cabin interiors early in the design process is very important for automotive manufacturers. When a seal design is inadequate, the noise transmitted can dominate the interior noise, making the wind noise performance of the vehicle unacceptable. This can cause launch delays, increasing costs and risking loss of sales. Designing seals using conventional experimental processes is challenging, since the location and strength of flow noise sources are not known when the seal design is planned. Making changes to the seal system after the tooling stage is expensive for manufacturers as tooling and redesign costs can be considerable. Deliberate overdesign by adding multiple layers of seals in a wide range of locations also can reduce profit by unnecessarily raising part and manufacturing costs.
Technical Paper

A Correlation Study of Computational Techniques to Model Engine Air Induction System Response Including BEM, FEM and 1D Methods

2003-05-05
2003-01-1644
Induction noise, which radiates from the open end of the engine air induction system, can be of significant importance in reducing vehicle interior noise and tuning the interior sound to meet customer expectations. This makes understanding the source noise critical to the development of the air induction system and the vehicle interior sound quality. Given the ever-decreasing development times, it is highly desirable to use computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools to accelerate this process. Many tools are available to simulate induction noise or, more generally, duct acoustics. The tools vary in degrees of complexity and inherent assumptions. Three-dimensional tools will account for the most general of geometries. However, it is also possible to model the duct acoustics with quasi-three-dimensional or one-dimensional tools, which may be faster as well.
Technical Paper

A Data Analysis Approach to Understand the Value of a Damping Treatment for Vehicle Interior Sound

2003-05-05
2003-01-1409
An in-vehicle study was conducted to understand how damping treatments on the floor of a vehicle affect the interior sound in the vehicle. Three differently formulated damping treatments were tested on three similar sport utility vehicles for this purpose. Numerous on-road sound and vibration data were collected under different operating conditions, and were reduced to understand the value of the damping treatment in controlling interior noise caused by powertrain and rolling-tire/road interaction. The paper discusses different data analysis procedures that were used in this study to understand whether there is a damping treatment that performs better than others in spite of variances in test vehicles, and still minimize the adverse influence of other variables that are related to the vehicle performance variation itself.
Technical Paper

A Disciplined Approach to Minimize Rattle Issues in Automotive Glove Box Assembly

2018-06-13
2018-01-1481
Nowadays, perception of automotive quality plays a crucial role in customer decision of vehicle purchase. Hence, automotive OEM’s are now working on the philosophy of “Quality Sound”. Out of all the Noise, Vibration & Harshness (NVH) issues identified in a vehicle, the ranking of Buzz, Squeak & Rattle (BSR) stands high and glove box rattle is one of the issues that is continuously observed in all customer verbatim. Specific issues like lid rattle and latch rattle are predominant and gets worse over mileage accumulation. Also minimizing BSR issues in glove box is difficult due to complex latch mechanism. While deciding the bump stop specifications more weightage is given to efforts. The bump stop is selected in a way as not to increase the glove box opening and closing efforts, but the selected bump stops will not provide enough preload to glove box lid leading to rattle issues.
Technical Paper

A Finite Element Method for Effective Reduction of Speaker-Borne Squeak and Rattle Noise in Automotive Doors

2011-05-17
2011-01-1583
Increasing sound quality with advanced audio technology has raised the bar for perceived quality targets for minimal interior noise and maximal speaker sound quality in a passenger vehicle. Speaker-borne structural vibrations and the associated squeak and rattle have been among the most frequent concerns in the perceived audio quality degradation in a vehicle. Digital detection of squeak and rattle issues due to the speaker-borne structural vibrations during the digital vehicle development phase has been a challenge due to the physical complexity involved. Recently, an effective finite element method has been developed to address structure-borne noise [1] and has been applied for detecting the issues of squeak and rattle in passenger vehicles due to vehicle-borne vibrations at vehicle, component and subcomponent levels [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8].
Technical Paper

A Generalized Psychoacoustical Model of Modulation Parameters (Roughness) for Objective Vehicle Noise Quality Evaluation

1999-05-17
1999-01-1817
In the assessment of vehicle noise quality, sound characteristics caused by modulation play an important role because they contribute significantly to the perceived annoyance. The sensations can be roughness, rumble or fluctuation strength depending mainly on the modulation frequency range. The proposed generalized model for modulation parameters was developed as part of a research program with the aim of establishing an onboard analysis system for vehicle interior noise quality based on objective sound parameters. The model can be adjusted by model parameters to calculate versions of roughness, thereby accentuating different psychoacoustical assumptions. The model was successfully tested as reported in [1].
Technical Paper

A Method and Apparatus for Generating Full Vehicle Roof System Rain Noise for the Purpose of Development, Benchmarking and Interior Noise Performance Measurement

2001-04-30
2001-01-1490
The direct excitation of a vehicle roof system by a repeatable method and the corresponding interior sound pressure level generated by that excitation can be a key characteristic of the total interior acoustic signature of a vehicle. After nine years of work and five design iterations, a test method and apparatus has been developed that exposes a vehicle to a repeatable and measurable artificial rain excitation. The test apparatus, method and performance data are reviewed. Performance data is shown for several different vehicles and roof systems.
Technical Paper

A New 2.3L DOHC Engine with Balance Shaft Housing - Steps of Refinement and Optimization

1997-02-24
970921
Ford introduced a new in-line 4-cylinder 2.3L DOHC 16-valve engine in its European D-class Scorpio vehicle. The engine is based on the proven 2.0L-DOHC engine with 8 or 16 valves. The new engine replaces the 2.0L DOHC 8-valve version. Primary focus of the development of this new 2.3L engine was on the noise and vibration improvement, both for the engine and for the vehicle interior noise. One measure to achieve this target was the application of balance shafts. In this paper, the development of the new engine will be described from the design stage to the production version. It will focus on the design of the balance shaft housing and all relevant engine NVH features. The various stages of the design and detailed optimization are explained. The NVH prediction by CAE methods is verified with experimental results. The influence of optimized components like the oil pan, front cover and the chain tensioner on the noise behavior will be discussed.
Journal Article

A New Method of Characterizing Wind Noise Sources and Body Response for a Detailed Analysis of the Noise Transmission Mechanism

2016-04-05
2016-01-1304
Interior noise caused by exterior air flow, or wind noise, is one of the noise-and-vibration phenomena for which a systematic simulation method has been desired for enabling their prediction. One of the main difficulties in simulating wind noise is that, unlike most other noises from the engine or road input, wind noise has not one but two different types of sources, namely, convective and acoustic ones. Therefore, in order to synthesize the interior sound pressure level (SPL), the body sensitivities (interior SPL/outer source level) for both types of sources have to be considered. In particular, sensitivity to the convective input has not been well understood, and hence it has not been determined. Moreover, the high-frequency nature of wind noise (e.g., the main energy range extends up to 4000 Hz) has limited the effective application of CAE for determining body sensitivities, for example, from the side window glass to the occupants’ ears.
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