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Technical Paper

2-D Imaging of Soot Formation Process in a Transient Spray Flame by Laser-induced Fluorescence and Incandescence Techniques

In order to investigate the soot formation process in a diesel spray flame, simultaneous imaging of soot precursor and soot particles in a transient spray flame achieved in a rapid compression machine was conducted by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and by laser-induced incandescence (LII) techniques. The 3rd harmonic (355nm) and the fundamental (1064nm) laser pulses from an Nd:YAG laser, between which a delay of 44ns was imposed by 13.3m of optical path difference, were used to excite LIF from soot precursor and LII from soot particles in the spray flame. The LIF and the LII were separately imaged by two image-intensified CCD cameras with identical detection wavelength of 400nm and bandwidth of 80nm. The LIF from soot precursor was mainly located in the central region of the spray flame between 40 and 55mm (270 to 370 times nozzle orifice diameter d0) from the nozzle orifice. The LII from soot particles was observed to surround the soot precursor LIF region and to extend downstream.
Technical Paper

3 - Valve Stratified Charge Engines: Evolvement, Analysis and Progression

A historical review of the patents and literature pertaining to 3-valve stratified charge engines is presented in this paper. This very old invention appears to be a practical approach for the “clean engine” being sought for vehicular use since it has the intrinsic capability of simultaneously giving good fuel economy and producing minimal objectionable exhaust emissions. The prime requisites of this engine are a rich prechamber charge and a very lean main chamber charge regardless of prechamber volume, nozzle diameter, valving and spark plug location. Fuel-air equivalence ratios of the charges in the two combustion chambers are significantly important in order to achieve the proper optimization. These ratios should be about 15% rich for the prechamber and 15 to 30% lean for the main chamber at the moment of ignition.
Technical Paper

3-D Analysis of the Flow Through a Multihole V.C.O. Nozzle for D.I. Diesel Engine

A 3-D analysis of the flow through a multihole, V.C.O. (Valve Covered Orifice) nozzle for D.I. Diesel Engine has been carried out. The analysis was performed by means of a finite element code. The nozzle comprises five injection holes. Aims of the analysis were: the investigation of the pressure drops along the conical clearance between the needle and the nozzle; the evaluation of the energy losses in the injection holes; the disclosure of the velocity profile at the injection hole outlets. the differences of flowrate for each hole with geometrical asymmetries. This kind of analisys is the first step of a more complete spray analysis; in fact, the spray from an injection hole is influenced by the injection pressure and the velocity profile. In particular, the needle lift and the needle tip deviation have been parametrized. The analysis betters both the theoretical knowledge of this kind of nozzle and the hydraulic phenomena occurring inside.
Technical Paper

3-D Numerical Study of Flow Mixing in Front of SCR for Different Injection Systems

The urea Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) exhaust system has been proved to be the reliable aftertreatment device with the capability of reducing tail pipe NOx emission by 75% to 90%, HC by 50% and Particulate Matter (PM) by 30%. Constrained by increasingly stringent packaging envelope, flow mixing in front of substrate is becoming one of the major concerns to achieve ideal performance of higher NOx conversion and lower ammonia (NH3) slip. Three dimensional CFD simulations are performed in current study to investigate flow mixing phenomenon in a SCR system. First, for a traditional tube injector with single or multiple nozzles, the effects of mass flow rates of injected NH3 and exhaust gas on flow mixing and pressure loss are investigated. Then, a concept of ring shape injector with multiple nozzles are initiated and built for 3-D CFD simulations. The comparisons of flow mixing index and injection pressure are made between two type injectors.
Technical Paper

3D Large Scale Simulation of the High-Speed Liquid Jet Atomization

In this paper three-dimensional Large Eddy Simulations (i.e., LES) by using a PLIC-VOF method have been adopted to investigate the atomization process of round liquid jets issuing from automotive multi-hole injector-like nozzles. LES method is used to compute directly the effect of the large flow structure, being the smallest one modelled. A mesh having a cell size of 4 μm was used in order to derive a statistics of the detached liquid structures, i.e. droplets and ligaments. The latter have been identified by using an algorithm coded by authors. Cavitation modeling has not been included in the present computations. Two different mean injection nozzle flow velocities of 50 m/s and 270 m/s, corresponding to two mean nozzle flow Reynolds numbers of 1600 and 8700, respectively, have been considered in the calculations as representative of laminar and turbulent nozzle flow conditions.
Technical Paper

4th Generation Diesel Piezo Injector (Realizing Enhanced High Response Injector)

Diesel common rail injectors are required to utilize a higher injection pressure and to achieve higher injection accuracy in order to meet increasingly severe emissions, less fuel consumption, and higher engine performance demand. In addition to those requirements, in conjunction with optimized nozzle geometry, a more rectangular injection rate and stable multiple injections with shorter intervals are required for further emissions and engine performance improvement by optimizing the combustion efficiency.
Journal Article

A 1d Model for the Prediction of Flash Atomization in Gdi Multi-Hole Injectors: Preliminary Results

A flash evaporation model is being developed to capture the effects of bubble nucleation and growth inside multi-hole injector nozzles to investigate the flash evaporation in fuel injector sprays in Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI). The 1D flash evaporation model is a key tool for providing the 3D Eulerian-Eulerian or Lagrangian spray simulation model with the right droplet size in order to properly predict the effect of degree of superheating on mixture formation. Super heating conditions are likely to be found under partial load conditions in GDI applications or they might be deliberately induced to enhance fuel atomization and vaporization. A quasi-1D nozzle flow model has been developed to help quantifying the effects of main physical and geometrical parameters in promoting fuel flash evaporation. This model is based on an weakly compressible homogenous two-phase mixture assumption. A non-equilibrium model is used to predict the vapour formation rate along the nozzle.
Technical Paper

A CFD Investigation on the Nozzle of Orifices Distributing in Different Space Layers

A series calculation methodology from the injector nozzle internal flow to the fuel spray was applied to investigate the internal flow and spray of a nozzle whose orifices distributed in different space layers. The nozzle internal flow calculation using an Eulerian three-fluid model and a cavitation model was performed. The needle valve movement during the injection period was taken into account in this calculation. The transient data of spatial distributions of velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, dissipation rate, void fraction rate, etc. at the nozzle exit were extracted. These output data were transferred to the spray calculation, in which a primary break-up model was applied to the Discrete Droplet Model (DDM). The calculation results were compared with the results of the measurement data of spray. Predicted spray morphology and penetration showed good agreement with the experiental data.
Technical Paper

A CFD Study of the Effect of the Needle Movement on the Cavitation Pattern of Diesel Injectors

The onset and development of the inner cavitating flow in Diesel injectors is analyzed in relation with the needle movement, using Computational Fluid Dynamics studies realized with moving mesh. Two real six-hole injector geometries have been considered, one with cylindrical nozzles, the other with conical nozzles. A full analysis of the flow results is presented, including a dynamic picture of the developing pattern. Results show that depending on the needle lift, the cavitation pattern varies strongly throughout the nozzle, and affects the characteristics of the flow at the nozzle exit. A kind of hysteresis in the development of the flow has also been observed between needle opening and closing.
Technical Paper

A Chassis Dynamometer Study of the Effects of AGO Detergent and Ignition Improver on Vehicle Fuel Consumption

The benefits of diesel fuel additives have been demonstrated in a broad range of performance and operational areas, from the refinery, through storage and distribution, to fuel dispensing and vehicle operation. The customer is certainly aware of their effects on fuel performance in many of these respects, such as cold-weather operation, ease of starting, foaming, odour, etc. An area of particular interest in customer perception, however, is fuel economy. Excluding the use of after-market fuel-treatment devices, it is claimed that additives of different types can improve fuel economy, for example by improving combustion, by maintaining injection equipment in optimum condition, or by reducing engine frictional losses.
Journal Article

A Chemical and Morphological Study of Diesel Injector Nozzle Deposits - Insights into their Formation and Growth Mechanisms

Modern diesel passenger car technology continues to develop rapidly in response to demanding emissions, performance, refinement, cost and fuel efficiency requirements. This has included the implementation of high pressure common rail fuel systems employing high precision injectors with complex injection strategies, higher hydraulic efficiency injector nozzles and in some cases <100µm nozzle hole diameters. With the trend towards lower diameter diesel injector nozzle holes and reduced cleaning through cavitation with higher hydraulic efficiency nozzles, it is increasingly important to focus on understanding the mechanism of diesel injector nozzle deposit formation and growth. In this study such deposits were analysed by cross-sectioning the diesel injector along the length of the nozzle hole enabling in-depth analysis of deposit morphology and composition change from the inlet to the outlet, using state-of-the-art electron microscopy techniques.
Technical Paper

A Combined 3D/Lumped Modeling Approach to Ammonia SCR After-treatment Systems: Application to Mixer Designs

In practical applications of ammonia SCR aftertreatment systems using urea as the reductant storage compound, one major difficulty is the often constrained packaging envelope. As a consequence, complete mixing of the urea solution into the exhaust gas stream as well as uniform flow and reductant distribution profiles across the catalyst inlet face are difficult to achieve. This paper discusses a modeling approach, where a combination of 3D CFD and a lumped parameter SCR model enables the prediction of system performance, even with non-uniform exhaust flow and ammonia distribution profiles. From the urea injection nozzle to SCR catalyst exit, each step in the modeling process is described and validated individually. Finally the modeling approach was applied to a design study where the performance of a range of urea-exhaust gas mixing sections was evaluated.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Turbulence Models in Axisymmetric Nozzle Flow

Two turbulence models have been studied to determine which of the models should be used in further Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) research. A zero-equation turbulence model, Baldwin-Lomax (B-L), is easy to use, requires no history of the flow, and requires little in the way of additional computations or additional computer memory space [1]. A two-equation k-ε model, Yang-Shih (Y-S), is more difficult to implement, does require flow history, and requires many more computations and much more computer space; however, it is potentially more accurate than the B-L model [2]. Using both Navier-Stokes (NS) and Parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) solvers, the two models and their codes were validated against the testbed of the Wright Laboratory (WL) Mach 12 wind tunnel nozzle.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Unit Injector and Pump Line Nozzle Systems

The paper presents a comparative analysis of the parameters of the injection process in unit injector and pump line nozzle systems. The analysis is based on numerical programs which simulate the working processes of the both systems. The basic assumptions underlying the physical models used in these programs are discussed and the good agreement between numerical results and actual processes is shown. The analysis takes into account the most important parameters for the combustion performance efficiency of injection and durability of the system. The results confirm the essential advantages of unit injection systems for fuelling high-speed diesel engines with direct injection.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Modeling and Simulation of Gasoline Direct Injection using KIVA-4 code

In the present study a LES numerical modeling is carried out for a GDI using KIVA-4 CFD code. Thereby a comprehensive model for the fuel injection process as encountered in IC engine injectors is integrated in a Eulerian-Lagrangian framework. The injector represents a continental piezoinjector with outwardly opening nozzle. The model includes atomization, collision, evaporation and SGS turbulence models. The atomization is described with a combined primary and secondary atomization model. For the primary atomization, a LISA model is used, which is based on the assumption of formation of unstable hollow sheet close to nozzle exit, while a TAB based model is used for the secondary atomization. A new appropriate collision-coalescence model that is independent of mesh size and type is suggested and integrated into the spray model. It accounts for different regimes of droplet-droplet interactions (e.g. bouncing separation, stretching separation, reflective separation and coalescence).
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation of Flash-Boiling Multi-hole Injectors with Gasoline-Ethanol Blends

Gasoline-direct injection using multi-hole nozzles is prone to flash-boiling due to the transfer of thermal energy to the fuel combined with the sub-atmospheric pressures present in the cylinder during injection. Flash boiling is governed by a finite rate interphase heat-transfer mechanism and hence a thermal non-equilibrium model was used for simulations. Additionally, the fuel composition plays an important role in flash boiling and hence, any modeling of this phenomena must account for the type of fuel being used. In the current work, in addition to single component fuels, a non-ideal mixing model is used to calculate the properties of gasoline-ethanol blends. The flash boiling of the different single and multi-component fuels is compared and a parametric study is conducted to observe the importance of flash boiling. The purpose of this study is to use CFD calculations to propose dimensionless parameters that can help to understand how multiple time scales interact.
Journal Article

A Computational Study of Flashing Flow in Fuel Injector Nozzles

Flash boiling conditions, where the fuel is superheated with respect to cylinder pressure, are often found in gasoline direct injection engines. This phenomenon affects the flowrate of the fuel and can cause choking of the nozzle. In this work we present multi-dimensional simulations of flashing internal injector flow. The modeled fluid quality (mass fraction of vapor) tends towards the equilibrium quality based on the Homogenous Relaxation Model. The relaxation time is dependent on the local pressure, the vapor pressure, and the void fraction. Simulations of the internal flow are presented and, where possible, validated with experimental data. Both two- and three- dimensional computational results show geometrically-induced phase change, similar to cavitation, near the nozzle entrance. Near the nozzle exit plane the phase change occurs at all radial locations and can be quite sensitive to temperature.
Technical Paper

A Design Approach to Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control

A decentralized, multivariable controls methodology is being developed for the functional integration of a fighter's aerodynamic controls with those of its propulsion system (inlet, engine, and thrust vectoring/reversing nozzle). Integrated controls account for, and take advantage of the significant cross-coupling between these system elements. A high-fidelity, six-degrees-of-freedom (6 DOF) aircraft simulation has been developed, incorporating advanced tactical fighter features such as variable cycle engines, variable geometry inlets, 2D-CD TV/TR nozzles, canards and a propulsive lift concept. A comprehensive evaluation test plan, including a piloted simulation, has been developed to validate this integrated-controls design methodology. Preliminary results show significant benefits of integrated control in terms of enhanced aircraft maneuverability, precise flight path control, reduced pilot workload, and fault tolerant system design.
Technical Paper

A Detailed Computational Analysis of Cavitating and Non-Cavitating High Pressure Diesel Injectors

Demands for higher power engines have led to higher pressures in fuel injectors. Internal nozzle flow plays a critical role in the near nozzle flow and subsequent spray pattern. The internal flow becomes more difficult to model when the injector pressure and internal shape make it more prone to cavitation. Two Bosch injectors, proposed for experimental and computational studies under the Engine Combustion Network (namely “Spray C” and “Spray D”) are modeled in the computational fluid dynamics code ANSYS Fluent. Both injectors operate with n-dodecane as fuel at 150 MPa inlet pressures. The computational model includes cavitation effects to characterize any cavitating regions. Including compressibility of both liquid and vapor is found to be critical. Also, due to high velocity gradients and stresses in the nozzle, turbulent viscous energy dissipation is considered along with pressure work resulting from significant pressure changes in the injector.
Technical Paper

A Dual Fuel Injector for Diesel Engines

The authors designed and produced a new dual fuel injector that allows two different kinds of fuel to be injected. This injector contains both a throttle type nozzle and a hole type which are located coaxially. The injection timing as well as the fuel quantity can be controlled individually. The running test using two lines of gas oil brought a good reduction of NOx and exhaust smoke. The experiment using gas oil and alcohol also brought a satisfactory reduction of exhaust emission.