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Technical Paper

100 Million Smart Assistants on Wheels…

2006-10-16
2006-21-0014
Cars are undergoing major design changes, and typical usage scenarios are already showing significant departures from the main goal. What used to be mostly a transportation means is quickly becoming a mobile micro-world that replicates features, functions and services traditionally available in homes and offices. This paper will identify industry trends in the Driver-Machine-Interface area, and will try to anticipate how quickly and to what extent cars will morph into smart assistants to make the driving experience richer and even more enjoyable than it is today.
Technical Paper

1983 Ford Ranger Truck HSLA Steel Wheel

1982-02-01
820019
The demand for improved fuel economy in both cars and trucks has emphasized the need for lighter weight components. The application of high strength steel to wheels, both rim and disc, represents a significant opportunity for the automotive industry. This paper discusses the Ranger HSLA wheel program that achieved a 9.7 lbs. per vehicle weight savings relative to a plain carbon steel wheel of the same design. It describes the Ranger wheel specifications, the material selection, the metallurgical considerations of applying HSLA to wheels, and HSLA arc and flash butt welding. The Ranger wheel design and the development of the manufacturing process is discussed, including design modifications to accommodate the lighter gage. The results demonstrate that wheels can be successfully manufactured from low sulfur 60XK HSLA steel in a conventional high volume process (stamped disc and rolled rim) to meet all wheel performance requirements and achieve a significant weight reduction.
Technical Paper

1987 Thunderbird Turbo Coupe Programmed Ride Control (PRC) Suspension

1987-02-01
870540
This paper describes Programmed Ride Control (PRC), the automatic adjustable shock absorber system designed and patented by Ford Motor Company. The system utilizes low shock absorber damping under normal driving conditions to provide soft boulevard ride, automatically switching to firm damping when required for improved handling. The system's microprocessor control module “learns” where the straight ahead steering wheel position is, allowing the system to respond to absolute steering wheel angle. A closed loop control strategy is used to improve system reliability and to notify the driver in the event of a system malfunction. Fast acting rotary solenoids control the damping rate of the shock absorbers.
Technical Paper

1D Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Simulation of a High Performance Lamborghini V12 S.I. Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0692
This paper describes the development and application of the 1D thermo-fluid dynamic research code GASDYN to the simulation of a Lamborghini 12 cylinder, V 60°, 6.2 L automotive S.I. engine. The model has been adopted to carry out an integrated simulation (thermodynamic, fluid dynamic and chemical) of the engine coupled to its intake and exhaust manifolds, in order to predict not only the wave motion in the ducts and its influence on the cylinder gas exchange process, but also the in-cylinder combustion process and the pollutant emission concentration along the exhaust system. The gas composition in the exhaust pipe system is dictated by the cylinder discharge process, after the calculation of the combustion via a thermodynamic multi-zone model, based on a “fractal geometry” approach.
Technical Paper

3-Dimensional Simulation of Vehicle Response to Tire Blow-outs

1998-02-23
980221
Sudden tire deflation, or blow-out, is sometimes cited as the cause of a crash. Safety researchers have previously attempted to study the loss of vehicle control resulting from a blow-out with some success using computer simulation. However, the simplified models used in these studies did little to expose the true transient nature of the handling problem created by a blown tire. New developments in vehicle simulation technology have made possible the detailed analysis of transient vehicle behavior during and after a blow-out. This paper presents the results of an experimental blow-out study with a comparison to computer simulations. In the experiments, a vehicle was driven under steady state conditions and a blow-out was induced at the right rear tire. Various driver steering and braking inputs were attempted, and the vehicle response was recorded. These events were then simulated using EDVSM. A comparison between experimental and simulated results is presented.
Journal Article

360° Surround View System with Parking Guidance

2014-04-01
2014-01-0157
In this paper, we present a real-time 360 degree surround system with parking aid feature, which is a very convenient parking and blind spot aid system. In the proposed system, there are four fisheye cameras mounted around a vehicle to cover the whole surrounding area. After correcting the distortion of four fisheye images and registering all images on a planar surface, a flexible stitching method was developed to smooth the seam of adjacent images away to generate a high-quality result. In the post-process step, a unique brightness balance algorithm was proposed to compensate the exposure difference as the images are not captured with the same exposure condition. In addition, a unique parking guidance feature is applied on the surround view scene by utilizing steering wheel angle information as well as vehicle speed information.
Technical Paper

4-Sensor 2-Channel Anti-Lock System for FWD Cars

1986-02-01
860511
The possibility of 2 Channel anti-lock system, which controls each of two independent hydraulic circuits of diagonal split braking system of FWD car seperately, were studied. Theoretical investigation suggested two out of four possible control logics to be promising and they were proved to be practically satisfactory through vehicle test. This system is almost as effective as expensive 3-channel or 4-channel system, when the braking force distribution between front and rear axles is correct as required by EEC Braking regulation. Under extreme condition that rear wheels lock earlier than fronts, the compromise between stopping distance and stability is necessary.
Technical Paper

4WS Technology and the Prospects for Improvement of Vehicle Dynamics

1990-10-01
901167
FOUR-WHEEL STEERING (4WS) is beginning to find widespread use as a new approach to improving vehicle dynamics, especially in the medium and high speed ranges. Steering the rear wheels in the same phase as the front wheels enhances vehicle stability. Four-wheel steering systems have an even greater potential to improve stability and steering response through suitable control over the transient characteristics of the rear wheel steer angle. This paper traces the course of Nissan research and development work on four-wheel steering and the evolution of Nissan's HICAS (4WS) technology. It also describes research activities under way on vehicle dynamics using a newly developed Simulator Vehicle, equipped with a front and rear angle transient control system which makes it possible to vary the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle instantaneously and at will while driving.
Journal Article

6-Axis Measuring Wheels for Trucks or Heavy Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-0816
The measurement of the contact forces between road and tires is of fundamental importance while designing road vehicles. In this paper, the design and the employment of measuring wheels for trucks and heavy vehicles is presented. The measuring wheels have been optimized in order to obtain high stiffness and the approximately the same mass of the wheels normally employed. The proposed multicomponent measuring wheels are high- accuracy instruments for measuring the dynamic loads during handling and durability testing. The measuring wheels can replace the wheels of the truck under normal operation. Such family of wheels plays a major role in modern road vehicles development. The measuring wheel concept design is based on a patented three-spoke structure connected to the wheel rim. The spokes are instrumented by means of strain gauges and the measuring wheel is able to measure the three forces and the three moments acting at the interface between the tire and the road.
Technical Paper

6C Compact Skid Steer Loader With Worm Gear Wheel Drives

1978-02-01
780739
This paper discusses the features and systems of a new compact skid steer loader. Special features of the new loader are a single member lift arm and worm gear wheel drives. The general systems of the machine will be discussed along with the special PTO option.
Technical Paper

80 Systemic Approach in the Analysis of the electric system in modern 2-wheel vehicles

2002-10-29
2002-32-1849
The trend of the 2 wheel vehicle obliges to define accurate methodology for analysing each aspect of the vehicle design. The paper will present the definition process of simple, easy to reproduce, cheap tests for the Electric System, and for the components of it, describing the obtainable results. It will be presented which tests are significant, and which variable must acquired, and the method for organizing the data according to the desired study target aim. As example of the System Approach is proposed the analysis of the Electric Generator Power Unit, it will be presented and described the reason why it could be convenient to install a Lundell Generator.
Technical Paper

8×8 Platform for Studing Terrain Mobility and Traction Performance of Unmanned Articulated Ground Vehicles with Steered Wheels

2013-09-24
2013-01-2356
Two characteristics of terrain mobility are essential in designing an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV): (i) the ability of a vehicle to move through terrain of a given trafficability and (ii) the obstacle performance, i.e., the ability to avoid, interact with and overcome obstacles encountered on a preset route of a vehicle. More attention has been given to the vehicle geometry including selection of the angles of approach and departure, radii of longitudinal and lateral terrain mobility, and the steering system configuration. An essential effect is exhibited by the tire properties in their interaction with the support surface; this, in turn, affects traction properties of the wheel and, thus, vehicle terrain mobility. However, the influence of power distribution between the driving wheels together with vehicle steering system on the two above-listed characteristics of terrain mobility has not been considered in depth.
Technical Paper

9000T Series John Deere Track Tractors

2000-09-11
2000-01-2634
The 9000T track-type agricultural tractors mark John Deere's entry into the high-horsepower, track tractor market. The 360-HP 9300T and the 425-HP 9400T tractors were designed with input from customers to meet customers' needs. Through customer input, on-farm research, and common sense, these tractors have been designed to work light in the spring, heavy in the fall, handle steep hillsides, turn under load and pull like a locomotive. Incorporating many of the already-market-dominating features of the 9000 wheel tractors plus innovative track vehicle features such as the wide stance, long wheel base, controllability, power, and versatility, these machines are truly amazing.
Technical Paper

910, D3, 931 Concept to Production

1974-02-01
740429
This paper describes the design and development of the new 60 hp class 910 wheel loader, D3 crawler tractor, and 931 track loader. Special emphasis was placed on designing all vehicles concurrently to achieve lowest possible cost by utilizing a high degree of commonality.
Technical Paper

A CAR MANUFACTURER'S EXPERIENCES WITH BALLOON TIRES1

1925-01-01
250020
In the summer of 1922 the Buick Company began experimenting with balloon tires. The first tires tested, being four-ply and 32 x 6.20 in. in size, produced a galloping action that was sufficient to prejudice the company's engineers against them, and the tests were discontinued. In addition to the galloping effect, other difficulties encountered included those usually present in steering, the development of wheel shimmying to a serious degree, the lack of proper clearance for external brakes because of the small 20-in. wheels, the excessively rapid wear of the tire tread, and the greater susceptibility to puncture. Leaks because of the pinching of the inner tubes also occurred. When, later, a set of 5.25-in. tires was tried on a smaller car, the galloping was noticeably less; but punctures were more numerous than was the case with high-pressure tires.
Technical Paper

A CFD Investigation of Aerodynamic Effects of Wheel Center Geometry on Brake Cooling

2017-03-28
2017-01-1537
Improving brake cooling has commanded substantial research in the automotive sector, as safety remains paramount in vehicles of which brakes are a crucial component. To prevent problems like brake fade and brake judder, heat dissipation should be maximized from the brakes to limit increasing temperatures. This research is a CFD investigation into the impact of existing wheel center designs on brake cooling through increased cross flow through the wheel. The new study brings together the complete wheel and disc geometries in a single CFD study and directly measures the effect on brake cooling, by implementing more accurately modeled boundary conditions like moving ground to replicate real conditions correctly. It also quantifies the improvement in the cooling rate of the brake disc with a change in wheel design, unlike previous studies. The axial flow discharge was found to be increased to 0.47 m3/min for the suggested design in comparison to 0.04 m3/min for traditional design.
Technical Paper

A Case study on Effect of subsequent operations on shotpeened Crown Wheel Pinion (Hypoid Gear set) & Compressive Residual Stress analysis

2021-09-22
2021-26-0252
Abstract: The prime function of crown wheel pinion is to receive the power from Transmission & distribute to two-wheel Ends. Doing so these members will experience the tremendous Bending Fatigue. Shot peen is the one of the latest technologiesused to improve the bending Fatigue of the CWP. In this particular case- 6 CWP are taken for the Study to understand the effect of the operations after shot peen process. 3 Samples are named as Batch A, another 3 samples are named as Batch B. Both the batch CWP are shot peened. Then as a regular production Practice the Batch A CWP are process through Hard TurningAbrasive Lapping Hot Lubriting (Mn Phosphate)Fully Finish Ready for Assembly. Then Both the Batch A & batch B samples are taken for Residual Stress analysis using X-Ray Diffraction Technique. The measurement location is 50 microns below the surface.
Journal Article

A Central Differential Gear Ratio Optimization of a 6×6 Articulated Dump Truck

2015-09-29
2015-01-2787
This paper starts with an analysis of design configurations of the drivelines with different power-dividing units (PDUs) of main dump truck manufacturing companies. As it follows from the analysis, improvements of articulated truck energy efficiency and reduction of fuel consumption by optimizing the power distribution to the drive wheels are still open issues. The problem is that a variety of operating and terrain conditions of dump trucks requires different wheel power distributions that cannot be provided by one set of PDUs employed in a truck. The central PDU in the transfer case was identified as the most important PDU among the five PDUs, which plays a crucial role in the power distribution between the front axle and the rear tandem of a 6×6 articulated dump truck. The paper formulates a constraint optimization problem to minimize the tire slippage power losses by optimizing the power distribution between the drive wheels.
Technical Paper

A Chronology of Forged Aluminum Wheel Development at Alcoa

1983-02-01
830018
In the late 1940’s Alcoa began marketing forged aluminum disc wheels for Class VII and VIII highway tractors, and in 1972 stylized passenger car wheels. This paper covers the evolution of some early pre-production designs to the present.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis of Radial and Bias R-1 Drive Wheel Tractor Tires

1975-02-01
751185
Since the pneumatic farm tire was developed, the basic carcass construction has been bias or diagonal plies. As tractor manufacturers continue to produce models with higher and higher horsepower, it has become evident that the conventional design changes--lug shape, lug angle, aspect ratio, etc.--are no longer sufficient to achieve significant improvements in tractor drive wheel tire performance. After investigating various alternatives, B.F.Goodrich determined that a radial construction offered distinct performance advantages over a bias construction without requiring any redesigning of the tractor. These include: increased traction, reduced fuel consumption, longer wear and improved ride. This paper will present comparative performance results of radial and bias drive wheel tractor tires, and discuss the basic radial tire mechanics which make the performance improvements possible.
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