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A Method for Testing GPS in Obstructed Environments Where GPS/INS Reference Systems Can Be Ineffective

2011-11-17
When vehicles share certain information wirelessly via Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC), they enable a new layer of electronic vehicle safety that, when needed, can generate warnings to drivers and even initiate automatic preventive actions. Vehicle location and velocity provided by Global Navigation Systems (GNSS), including GPS, are key in allowing vehicle path estimation. GNSS is effective in accurately determining a vehicle's location coordinates in most driving environments, but its performance suffers from obstructions in dense urban environments. To combat this, augmentations to GNSS are being contemplated and tested. This testing has been typically done using a reference GNSS system complimented by expensive military-grade inertial sensors, which can still fail to provide adequate reference performance in certain environments.
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A Study of PGM-Free Oxidation Catalyst YMnO3 for Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment

2012-06-18
Manganese oxides show high catalytic activity for CO and HC oxidation without including platinum group metals (PGM). However, there are issues with both thermal stability and resistance to sulfur poisoning. We have studied perovskite-type YMnO3 (YMO) with the aim of simultaneously achieving both activity and durability. This paper describes the oxidation activity of PGM-free Ag/i-YMO, which is silver supported on improved-YMO (i-YMO). The Ag/i-YMO was obtained by the following two methods. First, Mn4+ ratio and specific surface area of YMO were increased by optimizing composition and preparation method. Second, the optimum amount of silver was supported on i-YMO. In model gas tests and engine bench tests, the Ag/i-YMO catalyst showed the same level of activity as that of the conventional Pt/?-Al2O3 (Pt = 3.0 g/L). In addition, there was no degradation with respect to either heat treatment (700°C, 90 h, air) or sulfur treatment (600°C to 200°C, total 60 h, 30 ppm SO2).
Video

Advanced Combustion & System Engineering - Affordable Fuel Economy?

2012-05-10
Future fuel economy targets represent a significant challenge to the automotive industry. While a range of technologies are in research and development to address this challenge, they all bring additional cost and complexity to future products. The most cost effective solutions are likely to be combinations of technologies that in isolation might have limited advantages but in a systems approach can offer complementary benefits. This presentation describes work carried out at Ricardo to explore Intelligent Electrification and the use of Stratified Charge Lean Combustion in a spark ignition engine. This includes a next generation Spray Guided Direct Injection SI engine combustion system operating robustly with highly stratified dilute mixtures and capable of close to 40% thermal efficiency with very low engine-out NOx emissions.
Video

Advances in Exhaust Temperature Sensing and their Applicability for Diesel Emission Diagnostics

2012-01-24
Sensing exhaust gas temperature is a key component in diesel after treatment systems for both control and diagnostics. Accuracy varies significantly depending upon the sensing technology and implementation in the system. Prior published work has demonstrated that resistance based temperature sensors are not able to achieve the system accuracy required for advanced diagnostics over the life of the emission system. This presentation will show that it is feasible to achieve better than �10�C end of life system accuracy by means of active thermocouple technology. Results from tests at Michigan Technological University will be used to illustrate diagnostic uncertainty related to the application of temperature sensors and a specific DOC/DPF example will be used to show the benefits of accurate temperature based diagnostics. Presenter D. P. Culbertson, Watlow Gordon
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Advances of Virtual Testing and Hybrid Simulation in Automotive Performance and Durability Evaluation

2012-02-15
Virtual testing is a method that simulates lab testing using multi-body dynamic analysis software. The main advantages of this approach include that the design can be evaluated before a prototype is available and virtual testing results can be easily validated by subsequent physical testing. The disadvantage is that accurate specimen models are sometimes hard to obtain since nonlinear components such as tires, bushings, dampers, and engine mounts are hard to model. Therefore, virtual testing accuracy varies significantly. The typical virtual rigs include tire and spindle coupled test rigs for full vehicle tests and multi axis shaker tables for component tests. Hybrid simulation combines physical and virtual components, inputs and constraints to create a composite simulation system. Hybrid simulation enables the hard to model components to be tested in the lab.
Video

An Experimental Analysis on Diesel/n-Butanol Blends Operating in Partial Premixed Combustion in a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2012-06-18
This paper reports results of an experimental investigation performed on a commercial diesel engine supplied with fuel blends having low cetane number to attain a simultaneous reduction in NOx and smoke emissions. Blends of 20% and 40% of n-butanol in conventional diesel fuel have been tested, comparing engine performance and emissions to diesel ones. Taking advantage of the fuel blend higher resistance to auto ignition, it was possible to extend the range in which a premixed combustion is achieved. This allowed to match the goal of a significant reduction in emissions without important penalties in fuel consumption. The experimental activity was carried on a turbocharged, water cooled, 4 cylinder common rail DI diesel engine. The engine equipment included an exhaust gas recirculation system controlled by an external driver, a piezo-quartz pressure transducer to detect the in-cylinder pressure signal and a current probe to acquire the energizing current to the injector.
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Analysis of Various Operating Strategies for a Parallel-Hybrid Diesel Powertrain with a Belt Alternator Starter

2012-05-30
The sustainable use of energy and the reduction of pollutant emissions are main concerns of the automotive industry. In this context, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) offer significant improvements in the efficiency of the propulsion system and allow advanced strategies to reduce pollutant and noise emissions. The paper presents the results of a simulation study that addresses the minimization of fuel consumption, NOx emissions and combustion noise of a medium size passenger car. Such a vehicle has a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. The simulation reproduces real-driver behavior through a dynamic modeling approach and actuates an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM). Typical characteristics of parallel hybrid technologies, such as Stop&Start, regenerative braking and electric power assistance, are implemented via an operating strategy that is based on the reduction of total losses.
Video

Automated Diagnostics System Performance Assessment

2012-01-30
Powertrain Systems development is facing unprecedented challenges driven by the convergence of many factors: increasing government regulations for tailpipe emissions, diagnostics and fuel economy, increased competition, shorter development cycles, and tighter program budgets. Using telematics and information technology to automate the evaluation of a system�s robustness enables engineers to focus their time on problem areas during their normal development process and launch with quality. This presentation will use real world examples to detail how this methodology was jointly applied by Control-Tec and Ford Motor Company to identify and improve the system performance of Ford�s Air-Fuel Imbalance Monitor before production. Presenter Bill Leisenring, Control-Tec LLC
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Battery Charge Balance and Correction Issues in Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Individual Phases of Certification Dynamometer Driving Cycles as Used in EPA Fuel Economy Label Calculations

2012-05-23
This study undertakes an investigation of the effect of battery charge balance in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) on EPA fuel economy label values. EPA's updated method was fully implemented in 2011 and uses equations which weight the contributions of fuel consumption results from multiple dynamometer tests to synthesize city and highway estimates that reflect average U.S. driving patterns. For the US06 and UDDS cycles, the test results used in the computation come from individual phases within the overall certification driving cycles. This methodology causes additional complexities for hybrid vehicles, because although they are required to be charge-balanced over the course of a full drive cycle, they may have net charge or discharge within the individual phases. As a result, the fuel consumption value used in the label value calculation can be skewed.
Video

Beyond MPG: Characterizing and Conveying the Efficiency of Advanced Plug-In Vehicles 

2011-11-08
Research in plug in vehicles (PHEV and BEV) has of course been ongoing for decades, however now that these vehicles are finally being produced for a mass market an intense focus over the last few years has been given to proper evaluation techniques and standard information to effectively convey efficiency information to potential consumers. The first challenge is the development of suitable test procedures. Thanks to many contributions from SAE members, these test procedures have been developed for PHEVs (SAE J1711 now available) and are under development for BEVs (SAE J1634 available later this year). A bigger challenge, however, is taking the outputs of these test results and dealing with the issue of off-board electrical energy consumption in the context of decades-long consumer understanding of MPG as the chief figure of merit for vehicle efficiency.
Video

Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

2012-06-18
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Video

Certification of Engine Health Management Systems: Guidelines for Selecting Software Assurance Levels

2012-03-16
The use of Engine Health Management (EHM) systems has been growing steadily in both the civilian and the military aerospace sectors. Barring a few notable exceptions (such as certain temperature and thrust margin monitoring) regulatory authorities around the world have not required these systems to be certified in any way. This is changing rapidly. New airframes and engines are increasingly being designed with the assumption that EHM will be an integral part of the way customers will operate these assets. This leads to a need for better guidelines on how such systems should be certified. The SAE E-32 committee on Propulsion System Health Monitoring is leading an industry-wide effort to develop a set of guidelines for certifying EHM systems.
Video

Copper-Rotor Induction- Motors: One Alternative to Rare Earths in Traction Motors

2012-05-16
The copper-rotor induction-motor made its debut in automotive electric traction in 1990 in GM's Impact EV. Since then, this motor architecture has covered millions of miles on other vehicle platforms which will soon include Toyota's RAV4-EV. With the industry's attention focused on cost-effective alternatives to permanent-magnet traction motors, the induction motor has returned to the spotlight. This talk will overview where the copper-rotor induction-motor is today, how the technology has evolved since the days of the GM Impact, the state-of-play in its mass-manufacturing processes and today's major supply-chain players. Presenter Malcolm Burwell, International Copper Association Inc.
Video

Cycle-to-Cycle Variations Based Unsteady Effects on Spray Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines by Using LES

2012-06-06
Cycle-to-cycle variations of combustion processes strongly affect the emissions, specific fuel consumption as well as work output. Especially Direct Injection Spark-Ignition (DISI) engines are very sensitive to cyclic fluctuations within the combustion chamber. Multi-cycle Large Eddy Simulation (LES) based analysis has been used for investigating unsteady effects of spray combustion processes and misfires. A realistic four-stroke DISI internal combustion engine configuration was taken under consideration. The effects of variable spray boundary conditions on spray combustion are discussed first. A qualitative analysis of the intensity of cycle-to-cycle variations of in-cylinder pressure is presented for various combinations of injection parameters and ignition points. Finally, the effect of ignition probability and analysis of misfires are pointed out. The described above processes were discussed in terms of mean and standard deviation of temperature, velocity and pressure.
Video

DPF's Regeneration Procedures and Emissions with RME Blend Fuels

2012-06-18
The fatty acid methyl esters (FAME's) - in Europe mostly RME (Rapeseed methyl ester) - are used in several countries as alternative biogene Diesel fuels in various blending ratios with fossil fuels (Bxx). Questions often arise about the influences of these biocomponents on the modern exhaust aftertreatment systems and especially on the regeneration of Diesel particle filters (DPF). In the present work different regeneration procedures of DPF systems were investigated with biofuels B0, B20 & B100. The tested regeneration procedures were: passive regenerations: DOC + CSF; CSF alone, active regenerations: standstill burner; fuel injections & DOC. During each regeneration on-line measurements of regulated and unregulated emission components (nanoparticles & FTIR) were conducted. It can be stated that the increased portion of RME in fuel provokes longer time periods to charge the filter with soot.
Video

Data Driven Testing for HIL Systems

2011-12-05
The amount of software, computation and logic embedded into the vehicle systems is increasing. Testing of complex real time embedded systems using Hardware in Loop (HIL) simulations across different vehicle platforms has been a challenge. Data driven testing enables a qualitative approach to test these complex vehicle systems. It consists of a test framework wherein the test logic and data are independent of the HIL test environment. The data comprises variables used for both input values and output verification values. This data is maintained in a database or in the form of tables. Each row defines an independent test scenario. The entire test data is divided into three categories, High, Medium and Low. This feature gives the advantage of leveraging the same set of test data from Unit Level Testing phases to the Integration Test phase in the V-Cycle of software development. A data driven test approach helps the reuse of tests across vehicle platforms.
Video

Design and Flight Test of a Primary Flight Display Combined Vision System

2012-03-19
A series of flight tests were conducted to design and evaluate a Combined Vision System (CVS) that integrates a forward looking infrared video image with synthetic vision on a primary flight display. System features included colorizing the video image to mesh with the synthetic terrain background, decluttering the approach symbology to facilitate the detection of the approach lights and runway markings, creating a semi-transparent IR sky to ensure continuous situational awareness of the surrounding terrain, and annunciating the decision height to facilitate the transition to the actual runway environment. Over 100 approaches were flown during three flight test sessions. For the first flight test session pilots reviewed early CVS proofs of concept on Honeywell's Citation Sovereign.
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Developing a System based on a COTS ARINC 653 Operating System

2012-03-12
In this presentation we will present a COTS solution for an ARINC 653 IMA based system. It will cover IMA concepts from an OS point of view and show how a platform can be built for application development. It will also cover DO-297, and how that can isolate applications for certification and test purposes and allow for easy configuration of multiple applications between different development teams. Presenter Alex Wilson, Wind River
Video

Development and Demonstration of a Low Emissions Four-Stroke Outboard Marine Engine Utilizing Catalyst Technology

2012-06-18
A conceptual project aimed at understanding the fundamental design considerations concerning the implementation of catalyst systems on outboard marine engines was carried out by Mercury Marine, with the support of the California Air Resources Board. In order to keep a reasonable project scope, only electronic fuel injected four-stroke outboards were considered. While they represent a significant portion of the total number of outboard engines sold in the United States, carbureted four-strokes and direct injected two-strokes pose their own sets of design constraints and were considered to be outside the scope of this study. Recently, three-way catalyst based exhaust emissions aftertreatment systems have been introduced into series production on sterndrive and inboard marine spark ignition engines in North America. The integration of catalyst systems on outboards is much more challenging than on these other marine propulsion alternatives.
Video

Development of DPF/SCR System for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2012-06-15
The development of PM and NOx reduction system with the combination of DOC included DPF and SCR catalyst in addition to the AOC sub-assembly for NH3 slip protection is described. DPF regeneration strategy and manual regeneration functionality are introduced with using ITH, HCI device on the EUI based EGR, VGT 12.3L diesel engine at the CVS full dilution tunnel test bench. With this system, PM and NOx emission regulation for JPNL was satisfied and DPF regeneration process under steady state condition and transient condition (JE05 mode) were successfully fulfilled. Manual regeneration process was also confirmed and HCI control strategy was validated against the heat loss during transient regeneration mode. Presenter Seung-il Moon
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