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Journal Article

1-g Suit Port Concept Evaluator 2008 Test Results

The Lunar Electric Rover (LER), which was formerly called the Small Pressurized Rover (SPR), is currently being carried as an integral part of the lunar surface architectures that are under consideration in the Constellation Program. One element of the LER is the suit port, which is the means by which crew members perform Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: a 1-g suit port concept evaluator for functional integrated testing with the LER 1-g concept vehicle and a functional and pressurizable Engineering Unit (EU). This paper focuses on the 1-g suit port concept evaluator test results from the Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) October 2008 testing at Black Point Lava Flow (BPLF), Arizona. The 1-g suit port concept evaluator was integrated with the 1-g LER cabin and chassis concepts.
Technical Paper

11 Rules of Design for Manufacturing when Producing Pre-Impregnated Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Components - an Application at SAAB Aerostructures

Carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) is one of the most commonly used materials in the aerospace industry today. CFRP in pre-impregnated form is an anisotropic material whose properties can be controlled to a high level by the designer. Sometimes, these properties make the material hard to predict with regards to how the geometry affects manufacturing aspects. This paper describes eleven design rules originating from different guidelines that describe geometrical design choices and deals with manufacturability problems that are connected to them, why they are connected and how they can be minimized or avoided. Examples of design choices dealt with in the rules include double curvature shapes, assembly of uncured CFRP components and access for non-destructive testing (NDT). To verify the technical content and ensure practicability, the rules were developed by, inter alia, studying literature and performing case studies at SAAB Aerostructures.
Technical Paper

135 Days in Isolation and Confinement: The Hubes Simulation

The EUROMIR-95 flight was selected as model for the HUBES experiment: a similar duration (135 days), a similar crew (3 men), similar schedule organisation (8 hours work, 8 hours sleep, 8 hours off-duties), similar workload for the crew and the mission control (performance of scientific experiments), similar setup for communication and data processing, and similar layout of the MIR station, as the simulation was performed in the MIR simulator located at the Institute for BioMedical Problems (IBMP) in Moscow. The Scientific Programme of HUBES had been elaborated by integration of 31 experiments from more than 80 research proposals from Principal Investigators from Europe, USA and Russia, in domains of Physiology, Psychology, Operations and Technology.
Technical Paper

270-Vdc/Hybrid 115-Vac Electric Power Generating System Technology Demonstrator Evolution to a Dual-Channel, More Electric Aircraft Technology Development Testbed

Sundstrand has been investigating 270-Vdc/hybrid 115-Vac electrical power generating systems (EPGS) technology in preparation for meeting the electrical power generating system (EPGS) requirements for future aircraft (1). Systems such as the one being investigated are likely to be suitable for the More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) concepts presently under industry and military study. The present Sundstrand single-channel testbed is being further expanded to better understand the electrical system performance characteristics and power quality requirements of an MEA in which traditional mechanical subsystems are replaced by those of a “more-electric” nature. This paper presents the most recent Sundstrand 270-Vdc system transient performance data, and describes the modifications being made to the 270-Vdc/hybrid 115-Vac testbed.
Journal Article

400Hz High Speed Static Transfer Switch

The objective of this project was to replace electromechanical power line contactors with a Static Transfer Switch (STS) to improve the transfer of electrical power between aircraft generators and decrease required maintenance. The switch requirements include high reliability, lightweight, and high speed (less than 15mS) power transfer. An STS can shorten the bus transfer time to less than the “ride-through” of aircraft electronic loads and therefore have the ability to control and transfer electrical power while maintaining critical mission requirements. The content of this paper and presentation will discuss the initial problem, the research and development approach, design, and initial testing of the STS.

649 Handbook

This handbook is intended to assist the user to understand the ANSI/EIA-649B standard principles and functions for Configuration Management (CM) and how to plan and implement effective CM. It provides CM implementation guidance for all users (CM professionals and practitioners within the commercial and industry communities, DoD, military service commands, and government activities (e.g., National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)) with a variety of techniques and examples. Information about interfacing with other management systems and processes are included to ensure the principles and functions are applied in each phase of the life cycle for all product categories.
Technical Paper

6DOF Metrology-integrated Robot Control

This paper describes ongoing research into Metrology-integrated robot control. The research is a part of an ongoing EU funded aircraft industry project – ADFAST*. The ADFAST project tries to implement the use of industrial robots in low-volume production, high-demand-on-accuracy operations and for dynamic force compensation. To detect and compensate deflection in industrial robots during a process, the robot uses a metrology system. The metrology system supervises the tool center point of the robot as it executes its processes. Leica has recently released a new metrology system; the LTD800, which measures distances with laser interferometry and can simultaneously measure orientation of targets, through photogrammetry, using an additional camera on top of the measuring unit. This paper will describe theory and results from tests performed on integrating the LTD800 with the robot.
Technical Paper

90 Ah Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) Nickel Hydrogen Battery Qualification Test Results

In 1995, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) began a program to investigate whether a 90 Ah dependent pressure vessel (DPV) NiH2 battery pack could be a lower volume replacement for a 90 Ah NiH2 IPV spacecraft battery. Nickel Hydrogen (NiH2) dependent pressure vessel (DPV) battery cells are presumed to offer all the features of the NiH2 IPV battery cell with considerably less volume. To achieve this reduction in volume, the DPV cell utilizes a canteen shaped pressure vessel with reduced thickness wall, flat sides and curved ends. The cells can be packaged similar to prismatic nickel cadmium battery cells. Moreover, like NiCd cells, a fully charged DPV cell must rely upon an adjacent battery cell or structure for support and to maintain pressure vessel integrity. Seventeen 90 Ah NiH2 DPV cells were delivered to NR in 1998 for qualification tests. An eleven-cell half battery pack was manufactured and tested to validate the advantages of the DPV design.
Technical Paper

A Bioregenerative Life Support System Based on Near Term Technology Developments

Bioregenerative life support systems have the potential to reduce the need for resupply from Earth for extraterrestrial habitats. The proposed advanced life support system, developed by an international and interdisciplinary team, is an innovation combination of current and near term research and technologies. The system combines physico-chemical methods with algae, aquaculture and higher plants to purify wastes and provide consumables. A closed loop percentage of 90-95% percent is expected with additional supplies for dietary supplement and maintenance. The information gained from the development of the proposed artificial biosphere can also help to solve sustainability problems currently prevalent on Earth.
Technical Paper

A British Reusable Booster Concept

With reusability accepted as a means of reducing operating costs, the size of the initial investment (research and development) is likely to determine the choice for the next generation boosters. High volume utilisation lifting bodies propelled by LH/LOX rockets in a vertical take-off mode are shown to be superior to several other concepts. This is largely due to the low manufactured weight without undue complexity or use of exotic materials, leading to low R&D and low unit cost. Even lower costs can be shown for a modular concept (MUSTARD) in which basically identical lifting bodies units are utilised as both boosters and spacecraft. The concept is shown to be feasible, and progress on some aspects of the associated structural analysis is described.
Technical Paper

A Closed Cycle, High-Altitude Rotary Engine for Unmanned Ozone Sampler

This paper documents the design and validation of a closed cycle propulsion system suitable for use on the Perseus A high altitude research aircraft. The atmospheric science community is expected to be the primary user of this aircraft with initial missions devoted to the study of ozone depletion and global warming. To date large amounts of funding are not available to the atmospheric science community, so to be useful, the aircraft must satisfy stringent cost and performance criteria. Among these, the aircraft has to be capable of carrying 50 kg of payload to altitudes of at least 25km, have a initial cost in the $1-2M range, be capable of launch from remote sites, and be available no later than 1994. These operational criteria set narrow boundaries for propulsion system cost, complexity, availability, reliability, and logistical support requirements.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of the Effects of Social Stress on the Decision-Making Process of Male and Female Airline Pilots

Pilot judgement and decision-making ability are critical components of the safety of the air transportation system. Although pilot judgement and decision-making has been identified as significant recurring causal factors in air transportation accidents, and the trend toward non-gender specific occupations has resulted in an increase in the level of female participation in the predominantly male pilot population, only a minimal amount of research has been conducted to explore the significance of gender in aeronautical decision-making. A survey instrument was distributed to a representative sample of male and female airline pilots to obtain data to measure the influence of social stress in fostering biased decision-making in the air carrier environment. The research concluded that certain significant differences do exist with regard to gender in determining susceptibility to the influence of social stress in aeronautical decision-making.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Pressure Suit Systems Architectures for the Space Exploration Enterprise

The space exploration enterprise that will lead to human exploration on Mars requires pressure suit system capabilities and characteristics that change significantly over time and between different missions and mission phases. These capabilities must be provided within tight budget constraints and severely limited launch mass and volume, and at a pace that supports NASA's over-all exploration timeline. As a result, it has not been obvious whether the use of a single pressure suit system (like Apollo) or combinations of multiple pressure suit designs (like Shuttle) will offer the best balance among life cycle cost, risk, and performance. Because the answer to this question is pivotal for the effective development of pressure suit system technologies that will met NASA's needs, ILC and Hamilton Sundstrand engineers have collaborated in an independent study to identify and evaluate the alternatives.
Technical Paper

A Complementary Framework to Predict Ice Adhesion Failure

Ice adhesion characterization relies heavily on experimental data, especially when dealing with fracture parameters. In this paper, a complementary framework encompassing experimental testing with the numerical treatment of the fracture variables is proposed to provide a physical description of adhesive fracture propagation at the interface of an iced structure. The tests are based on a quasi-static flexural testing setup composed of a displacement-driven actuator and an iced plate. The measured crack length and plate deflection provide the data to be analyzed by the Virtual Crack Closure Technique in order to approximate the critical energy release rate required to study adhesive fracture propagation. The critical energy release rate in mode II is under-predicted and its value is approximated using its counterpart in mode I.
Technical Paper

A Concept for a Manned Artificial Gravity Research Ship

In the first half of the next century, Mankind will expand its sphere of existence to the Moon and space, and they will stand on Mars and study the other planets. Then, humans will inevitably be required to live for long periods, two years or more, in micro-gravity and/or low gravity environments. However, it is well known that such micro or low gravity environments adversely affect human physiology and psychology. The longer the period the greater such effects are and these can result in serious health problems. To improve living conditions in space by generating artificial gravity will be important to solving these problems.
Technical Paper

A Concept of Lunar Base Regenerative Water Management System Construction

A concept of developing a regenerative water management system (RWMS) for first lunar base missions is reviewed. The principal feature of the concept proposed is the maximum possible unification of RWMS for long-duration orbiting station and a lunar base with due regard to possible modification of the hardware for lunar gravity conditions. The paper is based on the expertise in research, development, testing and flight operation of RWMS in Russia. An upgraded RWMS of the International Space Station may be used for first lunar missions.
Journal Article

A Continuing Investigation of Diurnal and Location Trends in an Ice Crystal Icing Engine Event Database

Due to ongoing efforts by the aviation industry, much has been learned over the last several years regarding jet engine power loss and compressor damage events caused by the ingestion of high concentrations of ice crystal particles into the core flow path. Boeing has created and maintained a database of such ice crystal icing (ICI) events to aid in analysis and further study of this phenomenon. This article provides a general update on statistics derived from the Boeing event database, and provides more details on specific event clusters of interest. A series of three flight campaigns have, over the past five years, collected in-situ data in deep convective clouds that will be used for the assessment of the new FAA CFR Part 33 ice crystal environmental envelope Appendix D, and the equivalent EASA CS-25 Appendix P.


This test method describes a procedure for determining the insoluble contamination level of the downstream side of filter elements. Results of this procedure are intended to be used only for evaluation of the effectiveness of various cleaning treatments, or cleanliness of element as received from manufacturers. The data obtained by this procedure do not necessarily indicate, qualitatively or quantitatively, the contamination which may be released by a filter element into a fluid during service use. Because of the wide variety of conditions which may exist in service applications, it is recommended that the user design and conduct his own particular service performance test. (See paragraph 10.1).
Technical Paper

A Decade of Life Sciences Experiment Unique Equipment Development for Spacelab and Space Station, 1990-1999

Ames Research Center’s Life Sciences Division has developed and flown an extensive array of spaceflight experiment unique equipment (EUE) during the last decade of the twentieth century. Over this ten year span, the EUE developed at ARC supported a vital gravitational biology flight research program executed on several different platforms, including the Space Shuttle, Spacelab, and Space Station Mir. This paper highlights some of the key EUE elements developed at ARC and flown during the period 1990-1999. Resulting lessons learned will be presented that can be applied to the development of similar equipment for the International Space Station.
Technical Paper

A Design Tool (Research and Development) Simulator Survey Report

A questionnaire study was conducted to determine the present state-of-the-art in the field of design tool (research and development) flight simulators. The major concern at this time appears to be the simulation of realistic external displays for visual reference by the pilot. Advance study is vitally necessary in the fields of VTOL/ STOL performance.stability and control, and instrumentation and/ or displays for terrain clearance and avoidance during high speed, low altitude flight. Also required are studies of g forces, zero g environment, and the use of drugs or hypnosis to control specific channels of communication in man during studies of his more significant sensors.