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Technical Paper

10 Years of STOL - The Twin Otter's First Decade

1975-02-01
750596
The Twin Otter was designed as a utility bushplane for operation in the Canadian north. While it has fulfilled that role, it has also been widely adopted for use in urban commuter services which do not demand its STOL and rough field capabilities. Now, after 10 years, these commuter services are widening in scope to the point where these virtues, hitherto unused, are becoming significant. The Twin Otter, by its continued presence over this decade, has helped mould the STOL services promised for the next.
Technical Paper

21st Century Aircraft Potable Water Systems

1999-10-19
1999-01-5556
Aircraft potable (drinking) water systems haven’t changed significantly in the last half-century. These systems consist of cylindrical water tanks pressurized by bleed air from the jet engines, with insulated stainless steel distribution lines. What has changed recently is the increase in the possibility of aircraft picking up contaminated drinking water at foreign and domestic stops. Customer awareness of these problems has also changed - to the point where having reliable drinking water is now a competitive issue among airlines. Old style potable water systems that are used on modern aircraft are high maintenance and exacerbate the growth of microbes because the water is static much of the time. The integrity of some pressurized water tanks are also a concern after years of use. Cost-effective mechanical and biological solutions exist that can significantly reduce the amount of chemicals added and provide good potable water.
Technical Paper

3D Computational Methodology for Bleed Air Ice Protection System Parametric Analysis

2015-06-15
2015-01-2109
A 3D computer model named AIPAC (Aircraft Ice Protection Analysis Code) suitable for thermal ice protection system parametric studies has been developed. It was derived from HASPAC, which is a 2D anti-icing model developed at Wichita State University in 2010. AIPAC is based on the finite volumes method and, similarly to HASPAC, combines a commercial Navier-Stokes flow solver with a Messinger model based thermodynamic analysis that applies internal and external flow heat transfer coefficients, pressure distribution, wall shear stress and water catch to compute wing leading edge skin temperatures, thin water flow distribution, and the location, extent and rate of icing. In addition, AIPAC was built using a transient formulation for the airfoil wall and with the capability of extruding a 3D surface grid into a volumetric grid so that a layer of ice can be added to the computational domain.
Technical Paper

4000 F Oxidation Resistant Thermal Protection Materials

1966-02-01
660659
Coated refractory metals, coated and alloyed graphites, hafnium-tantalum alloys, refractory borides, and stabilized zirconias are considered for the 3600–4000 F high-velocity air environment. Only refractory borides and stabilized zirconias are indicated as offering long duration and reuse capabilities for such high-temperature utilization. Iridium, as coatings on substrates of either graphites or refractory metals, appears attractive for shorter times (less than 1 hr). Environmental evaluation and the need for a theoretical framework to enable the prediction of performance data for such materials are indicated to be major problems facing users and suppliers.
Standard

8000 psi Hydraulic Systems: Experience and Test Results

1994-09-01
HISTORICAL
AIR4002
Shortly after World War II, as aircraft became more sophisticated and power-assist, flight-control functions became a requirement, hydraulic system operating pressures rose from the 1000 psi level to the 3000 psi level found on most aircraft today. Since then, 4000 psi systems have been developed for the U.S. Air Force XB-70 and B-1 bombers and a number of European aircraft including the tornado multirole combat aircraft and the Concorde supersonic transport. The V-22 Osprey incorporates a 5000 psi hydraulic system. The power levels of military aircraft hydraulic systems have continued to rise. This is primarily due to higher aerodynamic loading, combined with the increased hydraulic functions and operations of each new aircraft. At the same time, aircraft structures and wings have been getting smaller and thinner as mission requirements expand. Thus, internal physical space available for plumbing and components continues to decrease.
Standard

8000 psi Hydraulic Systems: Experience and Test Results

2012-11-15
CURRENT
AIR4002A
Shortly after World War II, as aircraft became more sophisticated and power-assist, flight-control functions became a requirement, hydraulic system operating pressures rose from the 1000 psi level to the 3000 psi level found on most aircraft today. Since then, 4000 psi systems have been developed for the U.S. Air Force XB-70 and B-1 bombers and a number of European aircraft including the tornado multirole combat aircraft and the Concorde supersonic transport. The V-22 Osprey incorporates a 5000 psi hydraulic system. The power levels of military aircraft hydraulic systems have continued to rise. This is primarily due to higher aerodynamic loading, combined with the increased hydraulic functions and operations of each new aircraft. At the same time, aircraft structures and wings have been getting smaller and thinner as mission requirements expand. Thus, internal physical space available for plumbing and components continues to decrease.
Technical Paper

A CFD Approach for Predicting 3D Ice Accretion on Aircraft

2011-06-13
2011-38-0044
In this work, a newly developed iced-aircraft modeling tool is applied to wings, engine inlets, and helicopter rotors. The tool is based on a multiscale-physics, unstructured finite-volume CFD approach and is applicable to general purpose aircraft icing applications. The present approach combines an Eulerian-based droplet-trajectory solver that is loosely coupled, in a time-accurate manner, to a surface-film and ice-evolution model. The goal of the model is to improve the fidelity of ice accretion modeling on dynamic geometries and for three-dimensional ice shapes typical of helicopter rotors. The numerical formulation is discussed and presented alongside 2D and 3D static validation cases, and dynamic helicopter rotors. The present results display good validation for predicting ice shape on a variety of geometries, and a strong initial capability of modeling ice forming on helicopters in forward flight.
Technical Paper

A Catalytic Combustion System Coupled with Adsorbents for Air Clean Up in Sealed Spacecraft Environment

2003-07-07
2003-01-2624
Catalytic combustion coupled with activated carbon and molecular sieve adsorbents is applicable to all areas of air and gas clean up ranging from high to low levels of pollutants and trace contaminants control in a spacecraft environment is of no exception. In this study we propose a combined activated charcoal and catalytic combustion system based on a 70 watt power input achieving 350°C, operating on a 6 hour per 24 hour day catalytic cycle with an actual flow of 10.6 l min-1 in a residual free volume of 60 m3.
Technical Paper

A Cementitious Tooling/Molding Material-Room Temperature Castable, High Temperature Capable

1985-04-01
850904
DASH 47R is a cementitious composite initially formulated for use as an autoclave molding/tooling material. A unique matrix and aggregate system imparts unusually high strength and excellent vacuum integrity to DASH 47 at moderately high temperatures even though DASH 47 molds are cast at ambient temperature over commonly used pattern materials. This paper reviews the formulation and properties of DASH 47, and outlines its fabrication method and curing schedule for thin-shelled autoclave tools. In addition, examples of other molding applications for DASH 47 are shown in this paper.
Journal Article

A Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian Finite Element Model of Drilling Titanium and Aluminium Alloys

2016-09-27
2016-01-2126
Despite the increasing use of carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites, titanium and aluminium alloys still constitute a significant proportion of modern civil aircraft structures, which are primarily assembled via mechanical joining techniques. Drilling of fastening holes is therefore a critical operation, which has to meet stringent geometric tolerance and integrity criteria. The paper details the development of a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model for drilling aerospace grade aluminium (AA7010-T7451 and AA2024-T351) and titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloys. The FE simulation employed a Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian (CEL) technique. The cutting tool was modelled according to a Lagrangian formulation in which the mesh follows the material displacement while the workpiece was represented by a non-translating and material deformation independent Eulerian mesh.
Technical Paper

A Fastener Analysis Addressing Various Types of Misfit and Its Damage Life Calculations

2013-09-17
2013-01-2312
In a fastening system when there is a small misalignment of the holes, the holes are enlarged to align the axes and a next size fastener is used to fit the joint. But when the misalignment is large then the enlargement need to be proportionally large. In this case a bushing is press fit onto the hole to handle the fastening. If we press fit a bushing, it generates residual stresses in the panel. These residual stresses reduce the damage life of the components on which the bushings were press fit. In the aircraft engine nacelle components the damage life is very critical in various failure conditions such as fan blade out condition, wind milling and bird strike. It increases the flight time in these events. Here four different case studies were considered to study the damage life of the aircraft components made of Aluminum or composite material.
Journal Article

A Global Improvement in Drilling and Countersinking of Multi-Material Stacks with Vibration Assisted Drilling

2015-09-15
2015-01-2501
Over the last few years, many aircraft production lines have seen their production rate increase. In some cases, to avoid bottlenecks in the assembly lines, the productivity of processes needs to be improved while keeping existing machine-tools. In this context, the case of drilling machine-tools tends to require particular attention, especially when multi-material parts are drilled. In such instances, the Vibration Assisted Drilling (VAD) process can be a way to improve productivity and reliability while keeping quality standards. This article presents a case of a drilling/countersinking process for stainless steel and titanium stack parts. Firstly, the article assesses the feasibility and benefits of using Vibration Assisted Drilling and Countersinking with the current cutting-tools. Secondly, it studies the consequences of introducing a new tool holder in the process, which combines the V.A.D. function, a new declutching function and the ability to control countersink depth.
Technical Paper

A Model for Grinding Burn

1997-06-03
972247
Extensive experimental data was collected for CBN surface grinding of M2 tool steel to determine the relative grinding performance of three different vitrified CBN abrasive grit sizes. The results define the relationships between the grinding forces, the material removal rate and the resulting specific energy, while providing an evaluation of the ground surface characteristics including surface finish, microstructure, hardness and residual stress. The interaction of grinding process inputs including wheel grit size, workpiece velocity and depth of cut are considered, and a series of single factor tests and a 23 factorial test are conducted. The grinding forces increase linearly with increasing material removal rate for the range of parameters tested.
Technical Paper

A New Design of Low Cost V-band Joint

2016-09-27
2016-01-2128
In this work we have proposed an interesting clamping solution of V-band which has an important industrial impact by reducing the cost and assembly process as well compare to the traditional V-band. The design what we are focusing for is applied for all size of turbochargers which helps to connect the hot components such as manifold and turbine housing. The cost for V-band is mainly from T-bolt. It is made from special stainless steel which represents 50% of the total cost. In this work it is proposed a new V-band joint by changing bolt clamping status from tension to compression. From tension to compression we change the bolt material from high cost steel to low cost steel. The new total cost is reduced by 40%. The prototype is made and performed in static tests including anti-rotating torque test and salt spray test. The new joint meets the design requirements at static condition. Further work will focus on the dynamic qualification and at high temperature as well.
Technical Paper

A New High Efficiency Segmented Thermoelectric Unicouple

1999-08-02
1999-01-2567
To achieve high thermal-to-electric energy conversion efficiency, it is desirable to operate thermoelectric generator devices over large temperature gradients and also to maximize the thermoelectric performance of the materials used to build the devices. However, no single thermoelectric material is suitable for use over a very wide range of temperatures (~300-1000K). It is therefore necessary to use different materials in each temperature range where they possess optimum performance. This can be achieved in two ways: 1) multistage thermoelectric generators where each stage operates over a fixed temperature difference and is electrically insulated but thermally in contact with the other stages 2) segmented generators where the p- and n-legs are formed of different segments joined in series. The concept of integrating new thermoelectric materials developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory into a segmented thermoelectric unicouple has been introduced in earlier publications.
Technical Paper

A New Look at High-Speed Machining

1976-02-01
760903
The results of an industrial engineering process improvement study is presented. The complex, high-cost, contour milling of nonferrous alloys was critically examined with the result that estimated production cost reductions of 50 percent were verified. Test data also suggests additional reduction of machining costs with the proper integration of present-day machine tool technology. Typical test results are presented with some indications of their future impact on product design.
Technical Paper

A New Orbital Disconnect Support for Cryogen Tanks

1994-06-01
941482
A novel orbital disconnect support (ODS) for cryogen tanks is described which makes use of the change of length of a “shape memory alloy (SMA)” element located at the warm end of a strap-type support. At room temperature the SMA-element is at its extended length with the support strap in disconnected condition. Upon heating the SMA-element to approximately 9O°C, it contracts such that it gets in contact with the support strap and provides the strap tensioning force. During testing of a breadboard ODS a ratio of up to 6,4 between the connected and disconnted heat flux via the ODS was demonstrated.
Technical Paper

A New Positioning Device Designed for Aircraft Automated Alignment System

2019-09-16
2019-01-1883
Accurate and fast positioning of large aircraft component is of great importance for Automated Alignment System. The Ball joint is a widely-used mechanical device connecting the aircraft component and positioners. However, there are some shortcomings for the device in man-machine engineering, such as the entry state of the ball-head still needs to be confirmed by the workers and then switched to the locking state manually. To solve above problems, a new positioning mechanism is present in this paper, which consists of a ball-head and a ball-socket. The new device is equipped with a monocular vision system, in which a calibrated industrial camera is used to collect the images of the ball-head. And then, the 3-D coordinate of the ball-head center is calculated by a designed algorithm, guiding the positioner to capture the ball-head. Once the ball-head gets into the ball-socket, the pneumatic system will drive the pistons to move to the specified location.
Technical Paper

A New Process for Production of Oxygen from Lunar Minerals

1995-07-01
951736
The carbothermal reduction of ilmenite and iron- bearing silicates are important in the manufacture of steel and perhaps for manufacture of oxygen on the moon. Oxygen recovery from ilmenite and iron silicates is of interest because of the abundance of such minerals on the lunar surface and the relative ease of their reductions. A novel carbothermal reduction process is developed for the reduction of these minerals. This presentation summarizes an experimental study of the carbothermal reduction of ilmenite and iron-bearing silicates at temperatures between 850°C and 1100°C. Extremely high reduction rates are observed and investigated for carbothermal reduction of ilmenite by using deposited carbon. These results are compared to previous kinetics studies with regards to the different activation energy values reported.
Technical Paper

A New Zinc-Nickel Electroplating Process: Alternative to Cadmium Plating

1983-02-01
830686
New environmental regulations all over the world encourage the use of alternatives to cadmium plating for corrosion-protection systems used on steels. Boeing patents are pending on a non-cyanide replacement zinc-nickel alloy electroplating process with superior properties, including low hydrogen embrittlement and good corrosion protection, for use on high-strength steels and other substrates. Another advantage of this process is low cost because conventional electroplating tank facilities can be used and waste treatment cost can be reduced. The feasibility of this zinc-nickel plating process has been successfully demonstrated in the laboratory and is scheduled for manufacturing scale-up during 1983.
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