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Technical Paper

A Design Study to Determine the Impact of Various Parameters on Door Acoustics

2003-05-05
2003-01-1430
Once the design of a door sheetmetal and accessories is confirmed, the acoustics of the door system depends on the sound package assembly. This essentially consists of a watershield which acts as a barrier and a porous material which acts as an absorber. The acoustical performance of the watershield and the reverberant sound build-up in the door cavity control the performance. This paper discusses the findings of a design study that was developed based on design of experiments (DOE) concepts to determine which parameters of the door sound package assembly are important to the door acoustics. The study was based on conducting a minimum number of tests on a five factor - two level design that covered over 16 different design configurations. In addition, other measurements were made that aided in developing a SEA model which is also compared with the findings of the results of the design study.
Technical Paper

A Simple Approach to Selecting Automotive Body-in-White Primary-Structural Materials

2002-07-09
2002-01-2050
A simple strategy for building lightweight automobile body-in-whites (BIWs) is developed and discussed herein. Because cost is a critical factor, expensive advanced materials, such as carbon fiber composites and magnesium, must only be used where they will be most effective. Constitutive laws for mass savings under various loading conditions indicate that these materials afford greater opportunity for mass saving when used in bending, buckling or torsion than in tensile, shear or compression. Consequently, it is recommended that these advanced materials be used in BIW components subject to bending and torsion such as rails, sills, “A-B-C” pillars, etc. Furthermore, BIW components primarily subject to tension, compression, or shear, such as floor pans, roofs, shock towers, etc., should be made from lower cost steel. Recommendations for future research that are consistent with this strategy are included.
Technical Paper

Beam Element Leaf Spring Suspension Model Development and Assessment Using Road Load Data

2006-04-03
2006-01-0994
Knowledge of the loads experienced by a leaf spring suspension is required for the optimal design of the suspension components and frame. The most common method of representing leaf springs is the SAE 3 link model, which does not give good results in the lateral direction. In this paper, a beam element leaf spring model is developed. This model is validated using data obtained from laboratory tests done on leaf spring assemblies. The model is then subjected to actual road load data measured on the Proving Ground. Lastly, results from the beam element model are presented and compared with results obtained from proving ground tests. Overall, the beam element model gives good results in all directions except in situations where it is subjected to high fore/aft acceleration and high reverse braking events.
Technical Paper

Development of a Nonlinear Shock Absorber Model for Low-Frequency NVH Applications

2003-03-03
2003-01-0860
This paper dis cusses the development of a nonlinear shock absorber model for low-frequency CAE-NVH applications of body-on-frame vehicles. In CAE simulations, the shock absorber is represented by a linear damper model and is found to be inadequate in capturing the dynamics of shock absorbers. In particular, this model neither captures nonlinear behavior of shock absorbers nor distinguishes between compression and rebound motions of the suspension. Such an inadequacy limits the utility of CAE simulations in understanding the influence of shock absorbers on shake performance of body-on-frame vehicles in the low frequency range where shock absorbers play a significant role. Given this background, it becomes imperative to develop a shock absorber model that is not only sophisticated to describe shock absorber dynamics adequately but also simple enough to implement in full-vehicle simulations. This investigation addresses just that.
Technical Paper

Effect of Polyurethane Structural Foam on Vehicle Stiffness

1999-05-17
1999-01-1785
Stability and structural integrity are extremely important in the design of a vehicle. Structural foams, when used to fill body cavities and joints, can greatly improve the stiffness of the vehicle, and provide additional acoustical and structural benefits. This study involves modal testing and finite element analysis on a sports utility vehicle to understand the effect of structural foam on modal behavior. The modal analysis studies are performed on this vehicle to investigate the dynamic characteristics, joint stiffness and overall body behavior. A design of experiments (DOE) study was performed to understand how the foam's density and placement in the body influences vehicle stiffness. Prior to the design of experiments, a design sensitivity analysis (DSA) was done to identify the sensitive joints in the body structure and to minimize the number of design variables in the DOE study.
Technical Paper

Experimental Modal Methodologies for Quantification of Body/Chassis Response to Brake Torque Variation

2007-05-15
2007-01-2343
Brake torque variation is a source of objectionable NVH body/chassis response. Such input commonly results from brake disk thickness variation. The NVH dynamic characteristics of a vehicle can be assessed and quantified through experimental modal testing for determination of mode resonance frequency, damping property, and shape. Standard full vehicle modal testing typically utilizes a random input excitation into the vehicle frame or underbody structure. An alternative methodology was sought to quantify and predict body/chassis sensitivity to brake torque variation. This paper presents a review of experimental modal test methodologies investigated for the reproduction of vehicle response to brake torque variation in a static laboratory environment. Brake caliper adapter random and sine sweep excitation input as well as body sine sweep excitation in tandem with an intentionally locked brake will be detailed.
Technical Paper

Information Flow Analysis for Air Bag Sensor Development

2000-03-06
2000-01-1388
A statistical theory is used to quantify the amount of information transmitted from a transducer (i.e., accelerometer) to the air bag controller during a vehicle crash. The amount of information relevant to the assessment of the crash severity is evaluated. This quantification procedure helps determine the effectiveness of different testing conditions for the calibration of sensor algorithms. The amount of information in an acceleration signal is interpreted as a measure of the ability to separate signals based on parameters that are used to assess the severity of an impact. Applications to a linear spring-mass model and to actual crash signals from a development vehicle are presented. In particular, the comparison of rigid barrier (RB) and offset deformable barrier (ODB) testing modes is analyzed. Also, the performance of front-mounted and passenger compartment accelerometers are compared.
Technical Paper

Light Truck Frame Joint Stiffness Study

2003-03-03
2003-01-0241
Truck frame structural performance of body on frame vehicles is greatly affected by crossmember and joint design. While the structural characteristics of these joints vary widely, there is no known tool currently in use that quickly predicts joint stiffness early in the design cycle. This paper will describe a process used to evaluate the structural stiffness of frame joints based on research of existing procedures and implementation of newly developed methods. Results of five different joint tests selected from current production body-on-frame vehicles will be reported. Correlation between finite element analysis and test results will be shown. Three samples of each joint were tested and the sample variation will be shown. After physical and analytical testing was completed, a Design of Experiments approach was implemented to evaluate the sensitivity of joints with respect to gauge and shape modification.
Technical Paper

Lightweight Magnesium Intensive Body Structure

2006-04-03
2006-01-0523
This paper describes a lightweight magnesium intensive automobile body structure concept developed at DaimlerChrysler to support a high fuel-efficiency vehicle project. This body structure resulted in more than 40% weight reduction over a conventional steel structure while achieving significantly improved structural performance as evaluated through CAE simulations. A business case analysis was conducted and showed promising results. One concept vehicle was built for the purpose of demonstrating concept feasibility. The paper also identifies areas for further development to enable such a vehicle to become a production reality at a later time.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Head Impact Waveform to Minimize HIC

2007-04-16
2007-01-0759
To mitigate head impact injuries of vehicle occupants in impact accidents, the FMVSS 201 requires padding of vehicle interior so that under the free-moving-head-form impact, the head injury criterion (HIC) is below the limit. More recently, pedestrian head impact on the vehicle bonnet has been a subject being studied and regulated as requirements to the automobile manufacturers. Over the years, the square wave has been considered as the best waveform for head impacts, although it is impractical to achieve. This paper revisits the head impact topic and challenges the optimality of aiming at the square waveform. It studies several different simple waveforms, with the objective to achieve minimal HIC or minimal crush space required in head-form impacts. With that it is found that many other waveforms can be more efficient and more practical than the square wave, especially for the pedestrian impact.
Technical Paper

Sensitivities of Suspension Bushings on Vehicle Impact Harshness Performances

2005-04-11
2005-01-0827
In this paper, we study the sensitivity of a vehicle impact harshness (IH) performance to the suspension bushing rates. A mid-sized uni-body SUV is selected for this study, with the acceleration responses at the driver seat track and the steering wheel as objective functions. A sensitivity study is conducted using an ADAMS full vehicle model including a tire model and flexible body structure representation over an IH event. The study resulted in the identification of key bushings that affect the IH performance and its sensitivity to the bushing rates. Based on the results, we came-up with an “optimal” bushing set that minimizes impact harshness, which was subjectively verified to result in significant improvement in IH.
Technical Paper

Side Window Buffeting Characteristics of an SUV

2004-03-08
2004-01-0230
Buffeting is a wind noise of high intensity and low frequency in a moving vehicle when a window or sunroof is open and this noise makes people in the passenger compartment very uncomfortable. In this paper, side window buffeting was simulated for a typical SUV using the commercial CFD software Fluent 6.0. Buffeting frequency and intensity were predicted in the simulations and compared with the corresponding experimental wind tunnel measurement. Furthermore, the effects of several parameters on buffeting frequency and intensity were also studied. These parameters include vehicle speed, yaw angle, sensor location and volume of the passenger compartment. Various configurations of side window opening were considered. The effects of mesh size and air compressibility on buffeting were also evaluated. The simulation results for some baseline configurations match the corresponding experimental data fairly well.
Technical Paper

Simulation Process to Investigate Suspension Sensitivity to Brake Judder

2007-04-16
2007-01-0590
Brake judder, which is a low frequency excitation of the suspension and thus, the body structure during low-G braking, is mainly felt at the steering wheel and throughout the vehicle structure. Brake judder is a problem that costs manufacturers millions of dollars in warranty cost and undesirable trade offs. The magnitude of judder response depends not only on the brake torque variation, but also on the suspension design character-istics. This paper discusses the judder simulation process using ADAMS software to investigate the suspension design sensitivity to the first order brake judder performance. The paper recommends “tuning knobs” to suspension designers and vehicle development engineers to resolve issues in the design and development stages. Various suspension design varia-bles including geometry and compliances as well as brake related characteristics were investigated.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Hot Stamping Process With Advanced Material Modeling

2004-03-08
2004-01-0168
Advanced material modeling was conducted to describe the thermal-mechanical behavior of Boron Steel during hot stamping, a process in which blanks at 900 °C are formed and quenched between cold dies. Plastic deformation, thermal dilatation and phase transformation were incorporated in the constitutive model and a user-defined subroutine was developed to interface with LS-DYNA. Simulation was conducted on the hot stamping process of a door intrusion beam to gain insight into the physics of the process. Results showed significant influence of the thermal cycle on final product. It was also demonstrated that the program developed can be used as an early feasibility tool to determine baseline processing parameters and to detect potential defects in products without physical prototyping.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Topology and Performance Redesign by Large Admissible Perturbations for Automotive Structural Design

2001-03-05
2001-01-1058
A methodology for topology and performance redesign of complex structures by LargE Admissible Perturbations (LEAP) has been developed since 1983 in the Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, the University of Michigan. LEAP theory has successfully solved various redesign problems for performance and simultaneous topological and performance changes. The redesign problem is defined as a two-state problem that consists of two structural states, States S1 and S2. State S1 has undesirable characteristics or performance which does not satisfy designer specifications. The unknown State S2 has the desired structural response and/or performance. The relation between State S1 and State S2 is highly nonlinear with respect to its response or topology. So far, LEAP algorithms have solved various redesign problems for large structural changes (on the order of 100%–500%) of State S1 with only one finite element analysis.
Technical Paper

Structure Borne Insertion Loss of Sound Package Components

2003-05-05
2003-01-1549
Typical automotive sound package components are usually characterized by their absorption coefficients and their acoustic power-based insertion loss. This insertion loss (IL) is usually obtained by subtracting the transmission loss (TL) of a bare flat steel plate from the TL of the same plate covered with the trim material. While providing useful information regarding the performance of the component, air-borne insertion loss is based solely on acoustic excitations and thus provides very little information about the structure-borne performance of the component. This paper presents an attempt to introduce a standard procedure to define the power-based structure-borne insertion loss of sound package components. A flat steel plate is excited mechanically using a shaker. Different carpet constructions are applied on the plate and tested. Based on velocity measurements, a force transducer and intensity probe, the mechanical input and the acoustic radiated power are obtained.
Technical Paper

Study on Simplified Finite Element Simulation Approaches of Fastened Joints

2006-04-03
2006-01-1268
In this paper, mechanism of fastened joints is described; numerical analyses and testing calibrations are conducted for the possible simplified finite element simulation approaches of the joints; and the best simplified approach is recommended. The approaches cover variations of element types and different ways that the joints are connected. The element types include rigid elements, deformable bar elements, solid elements, shell elements and combinations of these element types. The different ways that the joints are connected include connections of one row of nodes, two row of nodes and alternate nodes in the first and second rows. These simplified simulation approaches are numerically evaluated on a joint of two plates connected by a single fastener. The fundamental loads, bending with shear, shear and tension are applied in the numerical analyses. A detailed model including contact and clamp load are analyzed simultaneously to provide “accurate results”.
Technical Paper

Suspension Tuning Parameters Affecting Impact Harshness Performance Evaluation

2006-04-03
2006-01-0991
In this paper, a comprehensive evaluation index for impact harshness (IH) is proposed. A mid-sized uni-body SUV is selected for this study, with the acceleration responses at the various vehicle body locations as objective functions. A sensitivity study is conducted using an ADAMS full vehicle model with flexible body structure representation over an IH event to analyze the influence of various suspension tuning parameters, including suspension springs, shock damping, steer gear ratio, unsprung mass, track-width, and bushing stiffness.
Technical Paper

Tailor-Welded Aluminum Blanks for Liftgate Inner

2007-04-16
2007-01-0421
Tailor welded steel blanks have long been applied in stamping of automotive parts such as door inner, b-pillar, rail, sill inner and liftgate inner, etc. However, there are few known tailor welded aluminum blanks in production. Traditional laser welding equipment simply does not have the capability to weld aluminum since aluminum has much higher reflectivity than steel. Welding quality is another issue since aluminum is highly susceptible to pin holes and undercut which leads to deterioration in formability. In addition, high amount of springback for aluminum panels can result in dimension control problem during assembly. A tailor-welded aluminum blank can help reducing dimension variability by reducing the need for assembly. In this paper, application of friction stir and plasma arc welded blanks on a liftgate inner will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Test Methodology to Reduce Axle Whine in a 4WD Vehicle

2005-05-16
2005-01-2403
With the ever increasing popularity of SUV automobiles, studies involving driveline specific problems have grown. One prevalent NVH problem is axle whine associated with the assembled motion transmission error (MTE) of an axle system and the corresponding vibration/acoustic transfer paths into the vehicle. This phenomenon can result in objectionable noise levels in the passenger compartment, ensuing in customer complaints. This work explores the methodology and test methods used to diagnose and solve a field axle whine problem, including the use of cab mount motion transmissibility path analysis, running modes and a detailed MTE best-of-the-best (BOB)/worst-of-the-worst (WOW) study. The in-vehicle axle whine baseline measurements including both vehicle dynamometer and on-road test conditions, along with the countermeasures of axle whine fixes are identified and presented in this paper.
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