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Technical Paper

A Design Study to Determine the Impact of Various Parameters on Door Acoustics

2003-05-05
2003-01-1430
Once the design of a door sheetmetal and accessories is confirmed, the acoustics of the door system depends on the sound package assembly. This essentially consists of a watershield which acts as a barrier and a porous material which acts as an absorber. The acoustical performance of the watershield and the reverberant sound build-up in the door cavity control the performance. This paper discusses the findings of a design study that was developed based on design of experiments (DOE) concepts to determine which parameters of the door sound package assembly are important to the door acoustics. The study was based on conducting a minimum number of tests on a five factor - two level design that covered over 16 different design configurations. In addition, other measurements were made that aided in developing a SEA model which is also compared with the findings of the results of the design study.
Technical Paper

A Grammatical Evolution Approach to System Identification of Laser Lap Welding

2006-04-03
2006-01-1614
Laser lap welding quality is a non-linear response based on a host of categorical and numeric material and process variables. This paper describes a Grammatical Evolution approach to the structure identification of the laser lap welding process and compares its performance with linear regression and a neuro-fuzzy inference system.
Technical Paper

A New Method for Obtaining FRF of a Structure in Area Where Impact Hammer Cannot Reach

2007-05-15
2007-01-2385
The Frequency Response Function (FRF) is a fundamental component to identifying the dynamic characteristics of a system. FRF's have a significant impact on modal analysis and root cause analysis of NVH issues. In most cases the FRF can be easily measured, but there are instances when the measurement is unobtainable due to spatial constraints. This paper outlines a simple experimental method for obtaining a high quality input-output FRF of a structure in areas where an impact hammer can not reach during impact testing. Traditionally, the FRF in such an area is obtained by using a load cell extender with a hammer impact excitation. A common problem with this device is a double hit, that yields unacceptable results.
Technical Paper

A New Way of Electrical/Electronic Systems Endurance Testing of Vehicles in a Real World Environment Prior to Production Launch

2001-03-05
2001-01-1101
With the increasing emphasis on Systems Engineering, there is a need to ensure that Electrical/Electronic (E/E) Systems Endurance Testing of vehicles, in a real world environment, prior to Production Launch, is performed in a manner and at a technological level that is commensurate with the high level of electronics and computers in contemporary vehicles. Additionally, validating the design and performance of individual standalone electronic systems and modules “on the bench” does not guarantee that all the permutations and combinations of real-world hardware, software, and driving conditions are taken into account. Traditional Proving Ground (PG) vehicle testing focuses mainly on powertrain durability testing, with only a simple checklist being used by the PG drivers as a reminder to cycle some of the electrical components such as the power window switches, turn signals, etc.
Technical Paper

Application of Multi-Parameter and Boundary Mannequin Techniques in Automotive Assembly Process

2003-06-17
2003-01-2198
This paper deals with the multi-parameter and boundary mannequin techniques in creating human models in automotive applications. The concepts and applications of single-parameter, multiple parameter and boundary mannequin method are discussed respectively to clarify certain confusion. Emphasis is put on how to create boundary mannequins for a specific application, which may have been puzzling many engineers in practical applications. The authors would like to share their experience in using the digital human modeling software and make discussions on some common issues. A number of case studies from typical automotive manufacturing assembly operations are also presented to demonstrate the usage of the multi-parameter and boundary mannequin techniques.
Technical Paper

Computer Aided Simulations in Machining Applications

2005-04-11
2005-01-0518
Computer applications have been widely used to assist product design. The successes and sophistication of computer aided engineering (CAE) techniques are respectfully recognized in this field. CAE applications in the manufacturing area however are still developing, although the manufacturing community is increasingly starting to pay attentions to computer simulations in its daily workings. This paper will briefly introduce some of these applications and promote awareness of computer simulations in manufacturing area. It contains four main sections: finite element analysis (FEA) in machining fixture design, FEA applications in component assembly, machining process simulations and machining vibrations in the milling operation. Each section comes with a practical case study, potential benefits are identified and conclusions are presented by using an integrated design and analysis approach.
Technical Paper

Computer-Aided Vehicle Design and Packaging Using Standard Naming Design Methodology

2003-03-03
2003-01-1302
Vehicle design and packaging is a repetitive and tedious process that involves frequent engineering and design changes. To improve design efficiency, a standard naming vehicle design methodology is proposed in this paper. For the geometric or the functional object used in the vehicle context, a standard name is assigned and also used as a unique object feature through its life cycle. With the proposed standard naming design methodology, the engineering knowledge can be efficiently embedded into the CAD design, and hence, vehicle design can be executed in a more automated fashion. Work case of the standard naming design methodology is illustrated by a vehicle design and packaging application using CATIA V5.
Technical Paper

Development of Portable Self Contained Phase Shifting Digital Shearography for Composite Material Testing

2005-04-11
2005-01-0590
The use of composite materials in the automotive industry has become increasingly widespread. With this increase in use, techniques for non-destructive testing (NDT) have become more and more important. Various optical NDT inspective methods such as holography, moiré techniques, and shearography have been used for material testing. Among these methods, shearography appears to be most practical. Shearography has a simple optical setup due to its “self-referencing” system, and it is relatively insensitive against rigid-body motions. Measurements of displacement derivatives, and thus strain directly, rather than the displacement itself is achieved through this method. Therefore shearography detects defects in objects by correlating anomalies of strain which are usually easier than correlating the anomalies of the displacement itself, as in holography. To date shearography has shown potential as a NDT tool for identifying defects in small structures.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modeling Evaluations of a Vacuum-Insulated Catalytic Converter

1999-10-25
1999-01-3678
Vehicle evaluations and model calculations were conducted on a vacuum-insulated catalytic converter (VICC). This converter uses vacuum and a eutectic PCM (phase-change material) to prolong the temperature cool-down time and hence, may keep the converter above catalyst light-off between starts. Tailpipe emissions from a 1992 Tier 0 5.2L van were evaluated after 3hr, 12hr, and 24hr soak periods. After a 12hr soak the HC emissions were reduced by about 55% over the baseline HC emissions; after a 24hr soak the device did not exhibit any benefit in light-off compared to a conventional converter. Cool-down characteristics of this VICC indicated that the catalyst mid-bed temperature was about 180°C after 24hrs. Model calculations of the temperature warm-up were conducted on a VICC converter. Different warm-up profiles within the converter were predicted depending on the initial temperature of the device.
Technical Paper

Front Impact Pulse Severity Assessment Methodology

2005-04-11
2005-01-1416
The pulse severities from various vehicle impact tests need to be assessed during the impact structure development and targeting stage to assure that the occupants can meet the injury criteria as required. The conventional method using TTZV (time to zero velocity), TDC (total dynamic crush), and G1/G2 (two stage averaged pulse) is often unable to give a quick and clear answer to the question being raised. A simple numerical tool is developed here to assess the pulse severity with a single parameter in which the severity is expressed as the amount of chest travel under a certain target restraint curve or chest A-D curve. The tool is applied to several front impact vehicle pulses to show the effectiveness. The new method developed here can be used to assess the pulse severity in an easy and objective way along with conventional parameters.
Technical Paper

Grammatical Evolution Based Tool for Predicting Multivariable Response Surface for Laser Lap Welding

2008-04-14
2008-01-1372
The problem of predicting the quality of weld is critical to manufacturing. A great deal of data is collected under multiple conditions to predict the quality. The data generated at Daimler Chrysler has been used to develop a model based on grammatical evolution. Grammatical Evolution Technique is based on Genetic Algorithms and generates rules from the data which fit the data. This paper describes the development of a software tool that enables the user to choose input variables such as the metal types of top and bottom layers and their thickness, intensity and speed of laser beam, to generate a three dimensional map showing weld quality. A 3D weld quality surface can be generated in response to any of the two input variables picked from the set of defining input parameters. This tool will enable the user to pick the right set of input conditions to get an optimal weld quality. The tool is developed in Matlab with Graphical User Interface for the ease of operation.
Technical Paper

Injection Molded, Extruded-In-Color Film Fascia

2003-03-03
2003-01-1126
A new multi-layer co-extruded in-color Ionomer film is developed to provide an alternative decoration process to replace paint on Dodge Neon Fascias. The Ionomer film provides a high-gloss “class-A” surface in both non-metallic and metallic colors that match the car body paint finish. Using the Ionomer film to decorate fascias reduces cost; eliminates VOCs; increases manufacturing flexibility and improves performance (weatherability and durability). The molding process consists of thermoforming a film blank and injection molding Polypropylene or TPO behind the film. The paper will include the background, the benefits, the technology development objectives, the film materials development, tooling optimization, film fascia processing (co-extrusion; thermoforming and injection molding) and validation testing of the film.
Technical Paper

Laminated Steel Forming Modeling Techniques and Experimental Verifications

2003-03-03
2003-01-0689
Laminated steel sheets sandwiched with a polymer core are increasingly used for automotive applications due to their vibration and sound damping properties. However, it has become a major challenge in finite element modeling of laminated steel structures and forming processes due to the extremely large differences in mechanical properties and in the gauges of the polymer core and the steel skins. In this study, circular cup deep drawing and V-bending experiments using laminated steels were conducted in order to develop a modeling technique for laminate forming processes. The effectiveness of several finite element modeling techniques was investigated using the commercial FEM code LS-Dyna. Furthermore, two production parts were selected to verify the modeling techniques in real world applications.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Transfer Case Imbalance

2005-05-16
2005-01-2297
Different methodologies to test transfer case imbalance were investigated in this study. One method utilized traditional standard single plane and two plane methods to measure the imbalance of the transfer case when running it on a dynamic balance machine at steady RPM, while a second method utilized accelerometers and a laser vibrometer to measure vertical vibration on the transfer case when running it on a dynamic balance machine in 4 Hi open mode during a run up from 1000 to 4000 RPM with a 40 RPM difference between the input and output shaft speeds. A comparison of all of the measurements for repeatability and accuracy was done with the goal of determining an appropriate and efficient method that generates the most consistent results. By using the traditional method, the test results were not repeatable. This may be due to the internal complexity of transfer cases. With the second method, good correlation between the measurements was obtained.
Technical Paper

Modal Overlap at Low Frequencies - A Stochastic Approach for Vehicle System Modal Management

2003-05-05
2003-01-1612
In the early stages of a vehicle program, it is a common practice to set target ranges for the global body, suspension and powertrain modes. This modal management process allows engineers to avoid potential noise and vibration problems stemming from strong overlap of major global modes. Before the first prototype hardware is built, finite element models of the body, suspension and powertrain are usually exercised to compare predicted versus targeted ranges of the major system modes in the form of a modal management chart. However, uncertainty associated with the design parameters, manufacturing process and other sources can lead to a major departure from the design intent when the first hardware prototype is built. In this study, a first order reliability method is used to predict variance of the eigen values due to parameter uncertainties. This allows the CAE engineers to add a “three sigma” bound on the eigen values reported in the modal management chart.
Technical Paper

Press-Line Simulation in Stamping Process

2004-03-08
2004-01-1047
The automotive industry is rapidly implementing computer simulation in every aspect of their processes mainly to decrease the time required to bring new models to market. Computer simulation can also be used to reduce the cost of vehicle development and manufacturing. A major portion of the manufacturing cost associated with automotive stamping lies in the process design, build and tryout of production dies and in automation of the transfer equipment. Press home-line tryout is largely a trial-and-error process relying heavily on the skills and experience of tool and die makers. To reduce this dependence on human skills and effort, press-line simulation can be effectively utilized to verify the design accuracy thereby reducing the changes needed to rework the production die/tool. The entire press-line with all its complete accessories can be modeled and checked for design errors similar to the try-out conducted in the production plant.
Technical Paper

Progress Toward a Magnesium-Intensive Engine: The USAMP Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components Project

2004-03-08
2004-01-0654
The US Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) and the US Department of Energy launched the Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components Project in 2001 to determine the feasibility and desirability of producing a magnesium-intensive engine; a V6 engine with a magnesium block, bedplate, oil pan, and front cover. In 2003 the Project reached mid-point and accomplished a successful Decision Gate Review for entry into the second half (Phase II) of the Project. Three tasks, comprising Phase I were completed: (1) evaluation of the most promising low-cost, creep-resistant magnesium alloys, (2) design of the engine components using the properties of the optimized alloys and creation of cost model to assess the cost/benefit of the magnesium-intensive engine, and (3) identification and prioritization of scientific research areas deemed by the project team to be critical for the use of magnesium in powertrain applications.
Technical Paper

Representation of Constrained/Unconstrained Layer Damping Treatments in FEA/SEA Vehicle System Models: A Simplified Approach

1999-05-17
1999-01-1680
In this study, a simplified approach to modeling the dynamics of damping treatments in FEA (Finite Element)/ SEA (Statistical Energy) models is presented. The basic idea is to represent multi-layered composite structures with an equivalent layer. The properties of the equivalent layer are obtained by using the RKU (Ross, Kerwin and Ungar) method. The procedure presented here does not require any special pre-processing of the finite element input file and it does not increase the number of active degrees of freedom in the model, thereby making it possible to include the effect of these treatments in large system/subsystem level models. The equivalent properties obtained from RKU analysis can also be used in the SEA system models. In this study, both unconstrained and constrained layer damping treatments applied to simple structures (e.g., flat panels) as well as production vehicle components are examined.
Technical Paper

Sensitivities of Suspension Bushings on Vehicle Impact Harshness Performances

2005-04-11
2005-01-0827
In this paper, we study the sensitivity of a vehicle impact harshness (IH) performance to the suspension bushing rates. A mid-sized uni-body SUV is selected for this study, with the acceleration responses at the driver seat track and the steering wheel as objective functions. A sensitivity study is conducted using an ADAMS full vehicle model including a tire model and flexible body structure representation over an IH event. The study resulted in the identification of key bushings that affect the IH performance and its sensitivity to the bushing rates. Based on the results, we came-up with an “optimal” bushing set that minimizes impact harshness, which was subjectively verified to result in significant improvement in IH.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Powertrain Cooling System Performance

2007-04-16
2007-01-0598
This paper identifies the difference in powertrain cooling system content levels using a nominal and a +3 Standard deviation maximum temperature design approach. Variation simulation analysis tools are used along with a 1-D cooling system performance model to predict resulting temperature distribution for different combinations of input variable populations. The analysis will show differential in powertrain cooling system content, mass, and impact to fuel economy for a nominal vs. +3 sigma design approach.
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