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Technical Paper

A Design Study to Determine the Impact of Various Parameters on Door Acoustics

Once the design of a door sheetmetal and accessories is confirmed, the acoustics of the door system depends on the sound package assembly. This essentially consists of a watershield which acts as a barrier and a porous material which acts as an absorber. The acoustical performance of the watershield and the reverberant sound build-up in the door cavity control the performance. This paper discusses the findings of a design study that was developed based on design of experiments (DOE) concepts to determine which parameters of the door sound package assembly are important to the door acoustics. The study was based on conducting a minimum number of tests on a five factor - two level design that covered over 16 different design configurations. In addition, other measurements were made that aided in developing a SEA model which is also compared with the findings of the results of the design study.
Technical Paper

Information Flow Analysis for Air Bag Sensor Development

A statistical theory is used to quantify the amount of information transmitted from a transducer (i.e., accelerometer) to the air bag controller during a vehicle crash. The amount of information relevant to the assessment of the crash severity is evaluated. This quantification procedure helps determine the effectiveness of different testing conditions for the calibration of sensor algorithms. The amount of information in an acceleration signal is interpreted as a measure of the ability to separate signals based on parameters that are used to assess the severity of an impact. Applications to a linear spring-mass model and to actual crash signals from a development vehicle are presented. In particular, the comparison of rigid barrier (RB) and offset deformable barrier (ODB) testing modes is analyzed. Also, the performance of front-mounted and passenger compartment accelerometers are compared.
Technical Paper

On Simulating Passenger Car Side Window Buffeting

Side window buffeting is simulated for a passenger car using unstructured mesh and a finite volume based CFD solver. We first provide a description of the analysis method. Two vehicle configurations are considered: front window open and rear window open. The accuracy of RNG k-ε and LES turbulence models is evaluated for this application by comparing predicted buffeting frequency spectrum with corresponding experimental measurements made in a wind tunnel. Further, the effects of several parameters on buffeting frequency and amplitude are studied. They include vehicle speed, yaw angle, inlet turbulent intensity, observer location inside the passenger compartment, presence of exhauster and side view mirror design. Simulation results prove to follow the trends observed in the experiments.
Technical Paper

Side Window Buffeting Characteristics of an SUV

Buffeting is a wind noise of high intensity and low frequency in a moving vehicle when a window or sunroof is open and this noise makes people in the passenger compartment very uncomfortable. In this paper, side window buffeting was simulated for a typical SUV using the commercial CFD software Fluent 6.0. Buffeting frequency and intensity were predicted in the simulations and compared with the corresponding experimental wind tunnel measurement. Furthermore, the effects of several parameters on buffeting frequency and intensity were also studied. These parameters include vehicle speed, yaw angle, sensor location and volume of the passenger compartment. Various configurations of side window opening were considered. The effects of mesh size and air compressibility on buffeting were also evaluated. The simulation results for some baseline configurations match the corresponding experimental data fairly well.
Technical Paper

Structure Borne Insertion Loss of Sound Package Components

Typical automotive sound package components are usually characterized by their absorption coefficients and their acoustic power-based insertion loss. This insertion loss (IL) is usually obtained by subtracting the transmission loss (TL) of a bare flat steel plate from the TL of the same plate covered with the trim material. While providing useful information regarding the performance of the component, air-borne insertion loss is based solely on acoustic excitations and thus provides very little information about the structure-borne performance of the component. This paper presents an attempt to introduce a standard procedure to define the power-based structure-borne insertion loss of sound package components. A flat steel plate is excited mechanically using a shaker. Different carpet constructions are applied on the plate and tested. Based on velocity measurements, a force transducer and intensity probe, the mechanical input and the acoustic radiated power are obtained.
Technical Paper

Test Methodology to Reduce Axle Whine in a 4WD Vehicle

With the ever increasing popularity of SUV automobiles, studies involving driveline specific problems have grown. One prevalent NVH problem is axle whine associated with the assembled motion transmission error (MTE) of an axle system and the corresponding vibration/acoustic transfer paths into the vehicle. This phenomenon can result in objectionable noise levels in the passenger compartment, ensuing in customer complaints. This work explores the methodology and test methods used to diagnose and solve a field axle whine problem, including the use of cab mount motion transmissibility path analysis, running modes and a detailed MTE best-of-the-best (BOB)/worst-of-the-worst (WOW) study. The in-vehicle axle whine baseline measurements including both vehicle dynamometer and on-road test conditions, along with the countermeasures of axle whine fixes are identified and presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

Understanding Laboratory Versus In-Vehicle Performance of Sprayable and Sheet Applied Damping Materials

Liquid spray applied damping materials have potential advantages over conventional sheet damping materials in automotive body panel vibration applications. In order to understand the acoustical impact, a laboratory based NVH study was conducted to compare the damping and stiffness performance characteristics of various sprayable damping materials versus the production damping treatment. Based on this comparison, a criteria was developed to select potentially viable sprayable damping materials for vehicle testing. In-vehicle tests were also performed and compared to the laboratory findings to understand how well the results correlate. This paper discusses a criteria for selecting sprayable damping materials based on bench-top tests for vehicle applications, and the potential benefits of sprayable materials.
Technical Paper

Validation of Vehicle NVH Performance using Experimental Modal Testing and In-Vehicle Dynamic Measurements

NVH targets for future vehicles are often defined by utilizing a competitive benchmarking vehicle in conjunction with an existing production and/or reference vehicle. Mode management of full vehicle modes is one of the most effective and significant NVH strategies to achieve such targets. NVH dynamic characteristics of a full vehicle can be assessed and quantified through experimental modal testing for determination of global body mode resonance frequency, damping property, and mode shape. Major body modes identified from full vehicle modal testing are primarily dominated by the vehicle's body-in-white structure. Therefore, an estimate of BIW modes from full vehicle modes becomes essential, when only full vehicle modes from experimental modal testing exist. Establishing BIW targets for future vehicles confines the fundamental NVH behavior of the full vehicle.