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Technical Paper

Investigation on an Injury Criterion Related to Traumatic Brain Injury Primarily Induced by Head Rotation

The high frequency of fatal head injuries is one of the important issues in traffic safety, and Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBIs) without skull fracture account for approximately half of them in both occupant and pedestrian crashes. In order to evaluate vehicle safety performance for TBIs in these crashes using anthropomorphic test dummies (ATDs), a comprehensive injury criterion calculated from the rotational rigid motion of the head is required. While many studies have been conducted to investigate such an injury criterion with a focus on diffuse brain injuries in occupant crashes, there have been only a limited number of studies focusing on pedestrian impacts. The objective of this study is to develop a comprehensive injury criterion based on the rotational rigid body motion of the head suitable for both occupant and pedestrian crashes.
Technical Paper

Kinematics Validation of Age-Specific Restrained 50th Percentile Occupant FE Model in Frontal Impact

Recently, the global increase of elderly vehicle users has become an issue to be considered in the effort of enhancing safety performance of vehicle restraint system. It is thought that an evaluation tool for the system representing properties of age-specific human body will play a major role for that. In previous research, the authors had developed age-specific component finite element (FE) models for the lower limb, lumbar spine, and thorax representing the adult and elderly occupants. However, the models have not been validated in terms of full body kinematics. It is essential for such models to be validated in terms of full body kinematics in order to ensure validity of the results of the assessment of the safety performance of restraint systems. In the present research, the adult and elderly occupant full body FE models were developed by incorporating the lower limb, lumbar spine and thorax of the adult and elderly FE models established in previous research.