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Technical Paper

A Braking Force Distribution Strategy in Integrated Braking System Based on Wear Control and Hitch Force Control

2018-04-03
2018-01-0827
A braking force distribution strategy in integrated braking system composed of the main braking system and the auxiliary braking system based on braking pad wear control and hitch force control under non-emergency braking condition is proposed based on the Electronically Controlled Braking System (EBS) to reduce the difference in braking pad wear between different axles and to decrease hitch force between tractors and trailers. The proposed strategy distributes the braking force based on the desired braking intensity, the degree of the braking pad wear and the limits of certain braking regulations to solve the coupling problems between braking safety, economical efficiency of braking and the comfort of drivers. Computer co-simulations of the proposed strategy are performed.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Testing and Evaluation Approach for Autonomous Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0124
Performance testing and evaluation always plays an important role in the developmental process of a vehicle, which also applies to autonomous vehicles. The complex nature of an autonomous vehicle from architecture to functionality demands even more quality-and-quantity controlled testing and evaluation than ever before. Most of the existing testing methodologies are task-or-scenario based and can only support single or partial functional testing. These approaches may be helpful at the initial stage of autonomous vehicle development. However, as the integrated autonomous system gets mature, these approaches fall short of supporting comprehensive performance evaluation. This paper proposes a novel hierarchical and systematic testing and evaluation approach to bridge the above-mentioned gap.
Technical Paper

A Driving Simulator Study of Young Driver’s Behavior under Angry Emotion

2019-04-02
2019-01-0398
The driving behaviors of young drivers under the influence of anger are analyzed by driving simulator in this paper. A total of 12 subjects are enrolled during the experiment. Standardized videos are utilized to induce the driver's anger emotion. And the driver's electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is collected synchronously and compared before and after emotional trigger, which prove the validity of emotional trigger. Based on the result, the driver's driving performance under the straight road and the curve under normal state and angry state are compared and analyzed. The results of independent sample t-test show that there are significant differences in the running time of straight sections and the standard deviation of steering wheel angle in curves between normal and angry states. In conclusion, the longitudinal and lateral operation of drivers is unstable in angry state and the driver will be more destructive to the regular driving behavior.
Technical Paper

A Fuzzy On-Line Self-Tuning Control Algorithm for Vehicle Adaptive Cruise Control System with the Simulation of Driver Behavior

2009-04-20
2009-01-1481
Research of Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) is an important issue of intelligent vehicle (IV). As we all known, a real and experienced driver can control vehicle's speed very well under every traffic environment of ACC working. So a direct and feasible way for establishing ACC controller is to build a human-like longitudinal control algorithm with the simulation of driver behavior of speed control. In this paper, a novel fuzzy self-tuning control algorithm of ACC is established and this controller's parameters can be tuned on-line based on the evaluation indexes that can describe how the driver consider the quality of dynamical characteristic of vehicle longitudinal dynamics. With the advantage of the controller's parameter on-line self-tuning, the computational workload from matching design of ACC controller is also efficiently reduced.
Journal Article

A Lane-Changing Decision-Making Method for Intelligent Vehicle Based on Acceleration Field

2018-04-03
2018-01-0599
Taking full advantage of available traffic environment information, making control decisions, and then planning trajectory systematically under structured roads conditions is a critical part of intelligent vehicle. In this article, a lane-changing decision-making method for intelligent vehicle is proposed based on acceleration field. Firstly, an acceleration field related to relative velocity and relative distance was built based on the analysis of braking process, and acceleration was taken as an indicator of safety evaluation. Then, a lane-changing decision method was set up with acceleration field while considering driver’s habits, traffic efficiency and safety. Furthermore, velocity regulation was also introduced in the lane-changing decision method to make it more flexible.
Technical Paper

A Maneuver-Based Threat Assessment Strategy for Collision Avoidance

2018-04-03
2018-01-0598
Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are being developed for more and more complicated application scenarios, which often require more predictive strategies with better understanding of driving environment. Taking traffic vehicles’ maneuvers into account can greatly expand the beforehand time span for danger awareness. This paper presents a maneuver-based strategy to vehicle collision threat assessment. First, a maneuver-based trajectory prediction model (MTPM) is built, in which near-future trajectories of ego vehicle and traffic vehicles are estimated with the combination of vehicle’s maneuvers and kinematic models that correspond to every maneuver. The most probable maneuvers of ego vehicle and each traffic vehicles are modeled and inferred via Hidden Markov Models with mixture of Gaussians outputs (GMHMM). Based on the inferred maneuvers, trajectory sets consisting of vehicles’ position and motion states are predicted by kinematic models.
Technical Paper

A Model-Based Mass Estimation and Optimal Braking Force Distribution Algorithm of Tractor and Semi-Trailer Combination

2013-04-08
2013-01-0418
Taking a good longitudinal braking performance on flat and level road of tractor and semi-trailer combination as a target, in order to achieve an ideal braking force distribution among axles, while the vehicle deceleration is just depend on the driver's intention, not affected by the variation of semi-trailer mass, the paper proposes a model based vehicle mass identification and braking force distribution strategy. The strategy identifies the driver's braking intention via braking pedal, estimates semi-trailer's mass during the building process of braking pressure in brake chamber, distributes braking force among axles by using the estimated mass. And a double closed-loop regulation of the vehicle deceleration and utilization adhesion coefficient of each axle is presented, in order to eliminate the bad effect of mass estimation error, and enhance the robustness of the whole algorithm. A simulation is conducted by utilizing MATLAB/Simulink and TruckSim.
Technical Paper

A Multi-mode Control Strategy for EV Based on Typical Situation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0438
A multitude of recent studies are suggestive of the EV as a paramount representative of the NEV, its development direction is transformed from “individuals adapt to vehicles” to “vehicles serve for occupants”. The multi-mode drive control technology is relatively mature in traditional auto control sphere, however, a host of EV continues to use a single control strategy, which lacks of flexibility and diversity, little if nothing interprets the vehicle performances. Furthermore, due to the complex road environment and peculiarity of vehicle occupants that different requirement has been made for vehicle performance. To solve above problems, this paper uses the key technology of mathematical statistics process in MATLAB, such as the mean, linear fitting and discrete algorithms to clean up, screening and classification the original data in general rules, and based on short trips in the segments of kinematics analysis method to establish a representative of quintessential driving cycle.
Technical Paper

A Nonlinear Slip Ratio Observer Based on ISS Method for Electric Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0557
Knowledge of the tire slip ratio can greatly improve vehicle longitudinal stability and its dynamic performance. Most conventional slip ratio observers were mainly designed based on input of non-driven wheel speed and estimated vehicle speed. However, they are not applicable for electric vehicles (EVs) with four in-wheel motors. Also conventional methods on speed estimation via integration of accelerometer signals can often lead to large offset by long-time integral calculation. Further, model uncertainties, including steady state error and unmodeled dynamics, are considered as additive disturbances, and may affect the stability of the system with estimated state error. This paper proposes a novel slip ratio observer based on input-to-state stability (ISS) method for electric vehicles with four-wheel independent driving motors.
Journal Article

A Novel Method of Radar Modeling for Vehicle Intelligence

2016-09-14
2016-01-1892
The conventional radar modeling methods for automotive applications were either function-based or physics-based. The former approach was mainly abstracted as a solution of the intersection between geometric representations of radar beam and targets, while the latter one took radar detection mechanism into consideration by means of “ray tracing”. Although they each has its unique advantages, they were often unrealistic or time-consuming to meet actual simulation requirements. This paper presents a combined geometric and physical modeling method on millimeter-wave radar systems for Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) modulation format under a 3D simulation environment. With the geometric approach, a link between the virtual radar and 3D environment is established. With the physical approach, on the other hand, the ideal target detection and measurement are contaminated with noise and clutters aimed to produce the signals as close to the real ones as possible.
Technical Paper

A Novel Vision-Based Framework for Real-Time Lane Detection and Tracking

2019-04-02
2019-01-0690
Lane detection is one of the most important part in ADAS because various modules (i.e., LKAS, LDWS, etc.) need robust and precise lane position for ego vehicle and traffic participants localization to plan an optimal routine or make proper driving decisions. While most of the lane detection approaches heavily depend on tedious pre-processing and great amount of assumptions to get reasonable result, the robustness and efficiency are deteriorated. To address this problem, a novel framework is proposed in this paper to realize robust and real-time lane detection. This framework consists of two branches, where canny edge detection and Progressive Probabilistic Hough Transform (PPHT) are introduced in the first branch for efficient detection.
Technical Paper

A Path Planning and Model Predictive Control for Automatic Parking System

2020-04-14
2020-01-0121
With the increasing number of urban cars, parking has become the primary problem that people face in daily life. Therefore, many scholars have studied the automatic parking system. In the existing research, most of the path planning methods use the combined path of arc and straight line. In this method, the path curvature is not continuous, which indirectly leads to the low accuracy of path tracking. The parking path designed using the fifth-order polynomial is continuous, but its curvature is too large to meet the steering constraints in some cases. In this paper, a continuous-curvature parking path is proposed. The parking path tracker based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm is designed under the constraints of the control accuracy and vehicle steering. Firstly, in order to make the curvature of the parking path continuous, this paper superimposes the fifth-order polynomial with the sigmoid function, and the curve obtained has the continuous and relatively small curvature.
Technical Paper

A Prediction Method of Tire Combined Slip Characteristics from Pure Slip Test Data

2020-04-14
2020-01-0896
A high-precision steady state tire model is critical in the tire and vehicle matching research. For the moment, the popular Magic Formula model is an empirical model, which requires the pure and combined test data to identify the model parameters. Although MTS Flat-trac is an efficient tire test rig, the long test period and high test cost of a complete tire model tests for handling are yet to be solved. Therefore, it is necessary to explore a high accuracy method for predicting tire complex mechanical properties with as few test data as possible. In this study, a method for predicting tire combined slip characteristics from pure cornering and pure longitudinal test data has been investigated, and verified by comparing with the test data. Firstly, the prediction theory of UniTire model is introduced, and the formula for predicting combined slip characteristics based on constant friction coefficient is derived.
Technical Paper

A Sliding Mode Observer for Vehicle Slip Angle and Tire Force Estimation

2014-04-01
2014-01-0865
In this paper, a sliding mode observer for estimating vehicle slip angle and tire forces is developed. Firstly, the sliding mode observer design approach is presented. A system damping is included in the sliding mode observer to speed the observer convergence and to decrease the observer chattering. Secondly, the sliding mode observer for vehicle states is developed based on a 7 DOF embedded vehicle model with a nonlinear tire model ‘UniTire’. In addition, since the tire lateral stiffness is sensitive to the vertical load, the load transfers are considered in the embedded model with a set of algebraic equations. Finally, a simulation evaluation of the proposed sliding mode observer is conducted on a validated 14 DOF vehicle model. The simulation results show the model outputs closely match the estimations by the proposed sliding mode observer.
Technical Paper

A Study of LPG Lean Burn for a Small SI Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2844
This paper presents a study of LPG lean burn in a motorcycle SI engine. The lean burn limits are compared by several ways. The relations of lean burn limit with the parameters, such as engine speed, compression ratio and advanced spark ignition etc. are tested. The experimental results show that larger throttle opening, lower engine speed, earlier spark ignition timing, larger electrode gap and higher compression ratio will extend the lean burn limit of LPG. The emission of a LPG engine, especially on NOx emission, can be significantly reduced by means of the lean burn technology.
Technical Paper

A Study on Nonlinear Stiffness Characteristic of Air Spring for a Bus

2002-11-18
2002-01-3092
Using the nonlinear finite element analysis, three nonlinear characteristics of the rubber gasbag of the air spring on the bus are thoroughly analyzed, including the nonlinear characteristic of the rubber gasbag with multi layers of composite materials, the nonlinear large displacement geometry characteristic of the rubber gasbag on working, and the nonlinear contact characteristic of the rubber gasbag when contacts the pedestal and the top cover plate. A model is build and the nonlinear characteristic of the air spring on the bus is analyzed using the ABAQUS software. At last, the article discusses parameters that influence on the characteristic of the air spring for the bus.
Technical Paper

ABS Control Algorithm Based on Direct Slip Rate for Hybrid Brake System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0830
The brake-by-wire system (BBW) is better match the new energy vehicle in the future direction of development. The electro-mechanical brake (EMB) is lack of the brake failure backup and need a high 42 V voltage for the power supply. This paper presents a new brake-by-wire hybrid brake system (HBS) with the electro-hydraulic brake (EHB) equipped on the front wheels and the EMB equipped on the rear wheels. The combination of these two brake-by-wire systems has advantages of both the EHB and EMB system. The EMB on the rear wheels totally removing the rear pipes and can be simply mounted. In addition, since the need of brake torque on the rear axle is relatively small, the power supply of EMB can be reduced to 12 V. Meanwhile, the EHB on the front wheels has the failure backup function through the hydraulic line. The HBS can quickly and accurately regulate four wheels brake force of vehicles which can well meet the requirement of antilock brake system (ABS).
Technical Paper

Accurate Pressure Control Strategy of Electronic Stability Program Based on the Building Characteristics of High-Speed Switching Valve

2019-04-02
2019-01-1107
The Electronic Stability Program (ESP), as a key actuator of traditional automobile braking system, plays an important role in the development of intelligent vehicles by accurately controlling the pressure of wheels. However, the ESP is a highly nonlinear controlled object due to the changing of the working temperature, humidity, and hydraulic load. In this paper, an accurate pressure control strategy of single wheel during active braking of ESP is proposed, which doesn’t rely on the specific parameters of the hydraulic system and ESP. First, the structure and working principle of ESP have been introduced. Then, we discuss the possibility of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) control based on the mathematical model of the high-speed switching valve. Subsequently, the pressure building characteristics of the inlet and outlet valves are analyzed by the hardware in the Loop (HiL) experimental platform.
Technical Paper

Active Noise Control Method Considering Auditory Characteristics

2012-04-16
2012-01-0993
In contrast to functionality and reliability, which are more and more assumed to be a natural and necessary condition of any vehicle, the performance of Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) now belongs to those features which play an essential role for the customer's purchasing decision. Sound design and vehicle interior noise control are essential parts of NVH. One tool of the NVH solution toolbox is Active Noise Control (ANC). ANC technology aims to cancel unwanted noise by generating an “anti-noise” with equal amplitude and opposite phase. Owing to the fact that human hearing has selective sensitivity for different critical bands, a new control strategy of ANC, which selectively controls the noise of specific bandwidths according to the result of specific loudness and retains the part of noise created by the normal running of facilities, trying to attenuate the unwanted and unacceptable noise, has been proposed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamics of Open Wheel Racing Car in Pitching Position

2018-04-03
2018-01-0729
Formula One (F1) racing cars are often running at high-speed with the pitching angle changing frequently due to road conditions. These pitching angle changes result in changes to the car’s aerodynamic characteristics that will directly affect handling stability and other performance factors including safety. This paper takes a F1 racing car as the model; the influence of the change of pitching angle on aerodynamic drag force and lift force are investigated. CFD code-PowerFLOW based LBM is used to simulate the aerodynamic characteristics with different pitching angles. The distribution of aerodynamic coefficients, velocity and pressure in the flow field are obtained; and the differences between different pitching angles were analyzed. The results show that as the pitching angle increases, the drag force increases and the lift force decreases. The down-force of the car is mainly supplied by the front wing and the rear wing.
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