A New CVS/ATB Hybrid III Model for Lower Extremity Studies: Development and Validation
A simulation model of the Hybrid III lower extremities with the 30 degree dorsiflexion ankle was developed using the CVS/ATB program. The femur and tibia were modeled as a sequence of rigid beams with a hinge and slider at the knee. Special, locked joints were placed in the femur and tibia at the same locations as the load cells in the actual dummy. Constraint forces and moments at these joints can be compared directly to load cell data. The complex geometry of the foot was divided into five segments representing the heel, toe, forefoot, midfoot, and ankle regions. Two foot models were constructed: one barefoot and one with a Lehigh safety shoe. Good agreement was obtained for most parameters when single-leg pendulum tests, and full-body sled tests, were simulated using the new model.