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Technical Paper

A Controlled EGR Cooling System for Heavy Duty Diesel Applications Using the Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation

In order to comply with 2002 EPA emissions regulations, cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) will be used by heavy duty (HD) diesel engine manufacturers as the primary means to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). A feedforward controlled EGR cooling system with a secondary electric water pump and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback has been designed to cool the recirculated exhaust gas in order to better realize the benefits of EGR without overcooling the exhaust gas since overcooling leads to the fouling of the EGR cooler with acidic residues. A system without a variable controlled coolant flow rate is not able to achieve these goals because the exhaust temperature and the EGR schedule vary significantly, especially under transient and warm-up operating conditions. Simulation results presented in this paper have been determined using the Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation (VECSS) software, which has been developed and validated using actual engine data.
Technical Paper

A Modeling Study of the Exhaust Flow Rate and Temperature Effects on the Particulate Matter Thermal Oxidation Occurring during the Active Regeneration of a Diesel Particulate Filter

Numerical models of aftertreatment devices are increasingly becoming indispensable tools in the development of aftertreatment systems that enable modern diesel engines to comply with exhaust emissions regulations while minimizing the cost and development time involved. Such a numerical model was developed at Michigan Technological University (MTU) [1] and demonstrated to be able to simulate the experimental data [2] in predicting the characteristic pressure drop and PM mass retained during passive oxidation [3] and active regeneration [4] of a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CPF) on a Cummins ISL engine. One of the critical aspects of a calibrated numerical model is its usability - in other words, how useful is the model in predicting the pressure drop and the PM mass retained in another particulate filter on a different engine without the need for extensive recalibration.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Study of a Computer Controlled Cooling System for a Diesel Powered Truck

A set of control functions have been investigated for a computer controlled diesel cooling system, using the vehicle engine cooling system code. Various engine operating conditions such as the engine load, engine speed, and ambient temperature are considered as the controlling variables in the control loops. The truck simulated in the study was an International Harvester COF-9670 cab over chassis heavy-duty vehicle equipped with a standard cab heater, a Cummins NTC-350 diesel engine with a McCord radiator and standard cooling system components and after-cooler. The vehicle also had a Kysor fan-clutch and shutter system. Comparison simulation tests between the conventional cooling system and the computer controlled cooling system using the Vehicle-Engine-Cooling Computer System model under different ambient and route conditions show that the computer controlled cooling system would offer the following benefits: 1.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Vapor- and Particle-Phase Sulfur Species in the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine EGR Cooler

To meet future NO, heavy-duty diesel emissions standards, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technology is likely to be used. To improve fuel economy and further lower emissions, the recirculated exhaust gas needs to be cooled, with the possibility that cooling of the exhaust gas may form sulfuric acid condensate in the EGR cooler. This corrosive condensate can cause EGR cooler failure and consequentially result in severe damage to the engine. Both a literature review and a preliminary experimental study were conducted. In this study, a manually controlled EGR system was installed on a 1995 Cummins Ml l-330E engine which was operated at EPA mode 9* (1800 rpm and 75% load). The Goksoyr-Ross method (1)** was used to measure the particle-phase sulfate and vapor-phase H2SO4 and SO2 at the inlet and outlet locations of the EGR cooler, obtaining H2SO4 and SO2 concentrations. About 0.5% of fuel sulfur in the EGR cooler was in the particle-phase.
Technical Paper

Nonuniformity and NO2/NOx Ratio Effects on the SCR Performance under Transient Engine Conditions

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems are in use on heavy duty diesel engines for NOx control. An SCR NOx reduction efficiency of higher than 95% is required to meet the proposed increasingly stringent NOx emission standards and the 2014-2018 fuel consumption regulations. The complex engine exhaust conditions including the nonuniformity of temperature, flow, and maldistribution of NH3 present at the catalyst inlet need to be considered for improved performance of the SCR system. These factors cause the SCR to underperform negatively impacting the NOx reduction efficiency as well as the NH3 slip. In this study, the effects of the nonuniformity of temperature, flow velocity and maldistribution of NH3 on the SCR performance were investigated using 1-dimensional (1D) model simulations for a Cu-zeolite SCR. The model was previously calibrated and validated to reactor and steady-state and transient engine experimental data.
Technical Paper

Procedure Development and Experimental Study of Passive Particulate Matter Oxidation in a Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Filter

The passive oxidation of particulate matter (PM) in a diesel catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) was investigated in a series of experiments performed on two engines. A total of ten tests were completed on a 2002 Cummins 246 kW (330 hp) ISM and a 2007 Cummins 272 kW (365 hp) ISL. Five tests were performed on each engine to determine if using engine technologies certified to different emissions regulations has an impact on the passive oxidation characteristics of the PM. A new experimental procedure for passive oxidation testing was developed and implemented for the experiments. In order to investigate the parameters of interest, the engines were initially operated at a steady state loading condition where the PM concentrations, flow rates, and temperatures were such that the accumulation of PM within the CPF was obtained in a controlled manner. This engine operating condition was maintained until a CPF PM loading of 2.2 ±0.2 g/L was obtained.
Technical Paper

Variability in Particle Emission Measurements in the Heavy Duty Transient Test

A study of the sources of variability in particulate measurements using the Heavy-Duty Transient Test (40 CFR Subpart N) has been conducted. It consisted of several phases: a critical examination of the test procedures, visits to representative facilities to compare and contrast facility designs and test procedures, and development of a simplified model of the systems and procedures used for the Heavy-Duty Transient Test. Some of the sources of variability include; thermophoretic deposition of particulate matter onto walls of the sampling system followed by subsequent reentrainment in an unpredictable manner, the influence of dilution and cooling upon the soluble organic fraction, inconsistency among laboratories in the engine and dynamometer control strategies, and errors in measurements of flows into and out of the secondary dilution tunnel.