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Technical Paper

Cooperative Study of Heavy Duty Diesel Emission Measurement Methods

1978-02-01
780112
A cooperative test program was conducted by the CRC-APRAC CAPI-1-64 Composition of Diesel Exhaust Program Group to evaluate the technical aspects of a proposed EPA recommended Heavy Duty Diesel Emission Measurement and Test Procedure. The proposed changes affected the sampling configurations and the types of instruments used. Six participants studied the effects of a number of variables on the proposed changes and evaluated some alternative systems that included both CHEMI and NDIR instruments. The tests were conducted at one site using a multi-cylinder engine operating on the 13-Mode Cycle. Equivalency of systems was demonstrated and the best performance was obtained with a special NDIR system.
Technical Paper

Effects of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter on Emissions from a Diesel Engine: Chemical Characterization Data and Particulate Emissions Measured with Thermal Optical and Gravimetric Methods

2003-03-03
2003-01-0049
A wide range of emissions were characterized from a heavy-duty diesel engine operated on conventional low sulfur (∼375 ppm) fuel, equipped with manually controlled EGR and a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). The effect of the CPF and engine load was studied, along with a comparison of results between the gravimetric and thermal optical methods (TOM) for determining diesel particulate levels. Data were obtained from four of the EPA old 13 mode test cycle steady-state operating conditions, i.e., Modes 11, 10, 9, and 8 using a 1995 Cummins M11-330E engine with a Corning EX-80 cordierite particulate filter, coated with a platinum catalyst (5 g/ft3).
Technical Paper

Experimental Study Comparing Particle Size and Mass Concentration Data for a Cracked and Un-Cracked Diesel Particulate Filter

2009-04-20
2009-01-0629
Steady state loading characterization experiments were conducted at three different engine load conditions and rated speed on the cracked catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). The experiments were performed using a 10.8 L 2002 Cummins ISM-330 heavy duty diesel engine. The CPF underwent a ring off failure, commonly seen in particulate filters, due to high radial and axial temperature gradients. The filters were cracked during baking in an oven which was done to regenerate PM collected after every loading characterization experiment. Two different configurations i.e. with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) upstream of the CPF were studied. The data were compared with that on an un-cracked CPF at similar engine conditions and configurations. Pressure drop, transient filtration efficiency by particle size and PM mass and gaseous emissions measurements were made during each experiment.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Catalytic Converter and Emulsified Fuel Effects on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Particulate Matter Emissions

2002-03-04
2002-01-1278
The effects of an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC), an emulsified fuel, and their combined effects on particle number and volume concentrations compared to those obtained when using a basefuel were studied. Particle size and particulate emission measurements were conducted at three operating conditions; idle (850 rpm, 35 Nm), Mode 11 (1900 rpm, 277 Nm) and Mode 9 (1900 rpm, 831 Nm) of the EPA 13 mode cycle. The individual effects of the emulsified fuel and the OCC as well as their combined effects on particle number and volume concentrations were studied at two different particle size ranges; the nuclei (less than or equal to 50 nm) and accumulation (greater than 50 nm) modes. An OCC loaded with 10 g/ft3 platinum metal (OCC1) and a 20% emulsified fuel were used for this study and a notable influence on the particle size with respect to number and volume distributions was observed.
Technical Paper

The Effect of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst and a Catalyzed Particulate Filter on Particle Size Distribution from a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0877
The effect of a Johnson Matthey catalyzed continuously regenerating technology™ (CCRT®) filter on the particle size distribution in the raw exhaust from a 2002 Cummins ISM-2002 heavy duty diesel engine (HDDE) is reported at four loads. A CCRT® (henceforth called DOC-CPF) has a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) upstream (UP) of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). The particle size data were taken at three locations of UP DOC, downstream (DN) DOC and DN CPF in the raw exhaust in order to study the individual effect of the DOC and the CPF of the DOC-CPF on the particle size distribution. The four loads of 20, 40, 60 and 75% loads at rated speed were chosen for this study. Emissions measurements were made in the raw exhaust chosen to study the effect of nitrogen dioxide and temperature on particulate matter (PM) oxidation in the CPF at different engine conditions, exhaust and carbonaceous particulate matter (CPM) flow rates.
Technical Paper

Variability in Particle Emission Measurements in the Heavy Duty Transient Test

1991-02-01
910738
A study of the sources of variability in particulate measurements using the Heavy-Duty Transient Test (40 CFR Subpart N) has been conducted. It consisted of several phases: a critical examination of the test procedures, visits to representative facilities to compare and contrast facility designs and test procedures, and development of a simplified model of the systems and procedures used for the Heavy-Duty Transient Test. Some of the sources of variability include; thermophoretic deposition of particulate matter onto walls of the sampling system followed by subsequent reentrainment in an unpredictable manner, the influence of dilution and cooling upon the soluble organic fraction, inconsistency among laboratories in the engine and dynamometer control strategies, and errors in measurements of flows into and out of the secondary dilution tunnel.
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