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Technical Paper

Animal-Vehicle Encounter Naturalistic Driving Data Collection and Photogrammetric Analysis

Animal-vehicle collision (AVC) is a significant safety issue on American roads. Each year approximately 1.5 million AVCs occur in the U.S., the majority of them involving deer. The increasing use of cameras and radar on vehicles provides opportunities for prevention or mitigation of AVCs, particularly those involving deer or other large animals. Developers of such AVC avoidance/mitigation systems require information on the behavior of encountered animals, setting characteristics, and driver response in order to design effective countermeasures. As part of a larger study, naturalistic driving data were collected in high AVC incidence areas using 48 participant-owned vehicles equipped with data acquisition systems (DAS). Continuous driving data including forward video, location information, and vehicle kinematics were recorded. The respective 11TB dataset contains 35k trips covering 360K driving miles.
Technical Paper

Color and Height Characteristics of Surrogate Grass for the Evaluation of Vehicle Road Departure Mitigation Systems

In recent years Road Departure Mitigation Systems (RDMS) is introduced to the market for avoiding roadway departure collisions. To support the performance testing of the RDMS, the most commonly seen road edge, grass, is studied in this paper for the development of standard surrogate grass. This paper proposes a method for defining the resembling grass color and height features due to significant variations of grass appearances in different seasons, temperatures and environments. Randomly selected Google Street View images with grass road edges are gathered and analyzed. Image processing techniques are deployed to obtain the grass color distributions. The height of the grass is determined by referencing the gathered images with measured grass heights. The representative colors and heights of grass are derived as the specifications of surrogate grass for the standard evaluation of RDMS.
Technical Paper

Development of a Lighting System for Pedestrian Pre-Collision System Testing under Dark Conditions

According to pedestrian crash data from 2010-2011 the U.S. General Estimates System (GES) and the Fatality Analysis Report System (FARS), more than 39% of pedestrian crash cases occurred at night and poor lighting conditions. The percentage of pedestrian fatalities in night conditions is over 77%. Therefore, evaluating the performance of pedestrian pre-collision systems (PCS) at night is an essential part of the pedestrian PCS performance evaluation. The Transportation Active Safety Institute (TASI) of Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) is conducting research for the establishment of PCS test scenarios and procedures in collaboration with Toyota's Collaborative Safety Research Center. The objective of this paper is to describe the design and implementation of a reconfigurable road lighting system to support the pedestrian PCS performance evaluation for night road lighting conditions.
Technical Paper

Infrared Reflectance Requirements of the Surrogate Grass from Various Viewing Angles

To minimize the risk of run-off-road collision, new technology in Advanced Driver Assistive System (ADAS), called Road Departure Mitigation Systems (RDMS), is being introduced recently. Most of the RDMS rely on clear lane markings to detect road departure events using the camera for decision-making and control actions. However, many roadsides do not have lane markings or clear lane markings, especially in some rural and residential areas. The absence of lane markings forces RDMS to observe roadside objects and road edge and use them as a reference to determine whether a roadway departure incident is happening or not. To support and guide for developing and evaluating RDMS, a testing environment with representative road edges needs to be established. Since the grass road edge is the most common in the US, the grass road edge should be included in a testing environment.
Technical Paper

Roadside Boundaries and Objects for the Development of Vehicle Road Keeping Assistance System

Road departure is a leading cause of fatal crashes in the US and half of all the crashes are related to road departure [1]. Road departure warning (RDW) and road keeping assistance (RKA) are the new active safety areas to be explored. Most of the currently available road-departure detection technologies rely on the detection of lane markings, which are either missing or unclear in many roads. Therefore, in additional to the these lane markings, next-generation road departure detection should rely on the detection of other road edge and boundary objects. Common road edge and boundary indicators include lane marking, grass, curb, metal guardrail, concrete divider, traffic barrels and cones. This paper investigates the distribution of major types of road edges and road boundaries in the United States in order to enhance and evaluate the capabilities and effectiveness of RDW and RKA.
Technical Paper

The Color Specification of Surrogate Roadside Objects for the Performance Evaluation of Roadway Departure Mitigation Systems

Roadway departure mitigation systems for helping to avoid and/or mitigate roadway departure collisions have been introduced by several vehicle manufactures in recent years. To support the development and performance evaluation of the roadway departure mitigation systems, a set of commonly seen roadside surrogate objects need to be developed. These objects include grass, curbs, metal guardrail, concrete divider, and traffic barrel/cones. This paper describes how to determine the representative color of these roadside surrogates. 24,762 locations with Google street view images were selected for the color determination of roadside objects. To mitigate the effect of the brightness to the color determination, the images not in good weather, not in bright daylight and under shade were manually eliminated. Then, the RGB values of the roadside objects in the remaining images were extracted.