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Technical Paper

110 Ton Payload on Two Axles with Hydro-Mechanical Drive

Late developments in tires and in lightweight, high horsepower engines and transmissions have enabled the earthmoving and mining industry equipment manufacturers to design and produce several types of preproduction 100-ton capacity trucks. A straight-forward approach to the design of a 110-ton end dump truck on two axles with a hydro-mechanical drive was followed by KW-Dart Truck Co. to produce a low cost per ton-mile vehicle.
Technical Paper

1991 Model Year Chrysler Mini-Van All Wheel Drive Vehicle

This paper presents the Chrysler 1991 Model Mini-Van All-Wheel-Drive (AWD) System. The AWD system is an enhanced traction system requiring no driver input or additional driving skills. It is transparent to the driver in that there is no perceived operating and/or handling difference relative to a front wheel driven vehicle. The system is aimed at safety and security in driving under all conditions. The paper further describes the design and development of the AWD vehicle system.
Technical Paper

1st Order Boom Noise Relationship to Driveline Imbalance

Two vehicle level test methods were developed that illustrate the relationship between 1st order noise in a cabin, and driveline imbalance contributors. At the launch of a new 2005 4WD sport utility vehicle program, a significant boom noise complaint was observed on many vehicles between 55-70 mph. The full time, electronic actively controlled, torque biasing transfercase was intensely reviewed as a potential source of excessive torque induced imbalance. Testing of the transfercase was performed on imbalance measurement stands, dynamometers, and in the vehicle. The result was the identification of two issues. First was that two internal to the transfercase parts were found to have excessive runout. Second was that there was a lack of vehicle correlation to transfercase imbalance. An extensive effort involving over 50 vehicles of the same model was pursued to find the source of the problem.
Technical Paper

2000 HP Tractor-Trailer for the 21st Century

This paper presents the conceptual design of a high-power, high-speed tractor-trailer for severe duty applications. Design of the tractor-trailer introduces several new concepts, including the general vehicle architecture, a new electrical transmission system and a new electric tandem axle. The vehicle architecture consists of a low drag cab concept with a fully integrated turbo-generator power source, an exhaust gas electric decontamination system and auxiliaries. The electric transmission introduces a new combination of electrical machines and power electronics designed to perform under maximum load with minimum dimension, weight and price. The electric tandem axle is a new concept of an all-wheel steering independent suspension with virtual electromagnetic differential.
Technical Paper

21 Cubic Yard 580 PAY® Loader

To effectively utilize larger trucks (85 ton and up), open-pit mines and quarries need a larger front-end loader with high reliability and performance. This paper describes the design approach and tests carried out to design 21 cubic yard 580 PAY® loader to meet these requirements. Long fatigue life of structures was obtained by use of full penetration welds. New concept for power control was designed to effectively distribute power between hydraulics and drive train. Spring applied - pressure released brakes were designed into the axle. Tests were carried out in our laboratory and proving grounds to determine performance and reliability.
Technical Paper

4-Sensor 2-Channel Anti-Lock System for FWD Cars

The possibility of 2 Channel anti-lock system, which controls each of two independent hydraulic circuits of diagonal split braking system of FWD car seperately, were studied. Theoretical investigation suggested two out of four possible control logics to be promising and they were proved to be practically satisfactory through vehicle test. This system is almost as effective as expensive 3-channel or 4-channel system, when the braking force distribution between front and rear axles is correct as required by EEC Braking regulation. Under extreme condition that rear wheels lock earlier than fronts, the compromise between stopping distance and stability is necessary.
Technical Paper

42LE Electronic Four-Speed Automatic Transaxle

A new electronically controlled transaxle has been put into production for Chrysler's family of LH cars. Among the attributes of this new transaxle are its ability to handle engines of high torque and high power coupled with high-speed shifts. Engine torque management is used in specific operating regimes. A feature of the transaxle is electronic modulation of the converter clutch. A number of logic features have been combined with hardware to provide good performance and shift quality over a wide operating range. An output transfer chain and a hypoid gear set are used to provide torque to the front wheels in a longitudinal power train orientation. Obtaining acceptable endurance life of the hypoid gears within an aluminum housing presented a significant challenge. New approaches were required to provide a chain-sprocket system with acceptable noise characteristics.
Technical Paper

4WD- AWD Market Trends in Vehicles and Technology Differences and Similarities, from 1997 to 2004 primarily in the US Market, and also some Global Comparisons

This paper will show the growth of the Global 4x4 market ( Figure 1), and define terms for 4x4, 4WD and AWD. This will allow a way to organize the data and show the growth trends of the AWD segment. This growth can be seen in Figure 2. From this point of view, the vehicle, and technology differences will be shown, both with physical pictures, and schematic architecture diagrams. The focus will be the US 4WD and AWD market from 1997 to 2004, when a significant change occurred from 4WD to AWD architectures. Figure 1 This paper will document the changes that have occurred to bring about the distinct shift towards AWD car based vehicles from truck based 4WD vehicles. It will be clear why the terms were defined as they were when the architectural differences are shown schematically. Figures 25, 26, 27 and 28.
Technical Paper

5500 Ton Press - Forming Rear Axle Spindles

A five-year development program by the American Metal Products Co. to process stamped axle housings has culminated in the application of cold extrusion to spindles. The new process involved the installation of a 5500 ton press capable of driving a punch through a 20 lb billet, as well as modification and rearrangement of existing equipment. The system has not only resulted in considerable production savings but has also contributed to an overall expansion program. The company, although fully preoccupied with the basic spindle for production of axle housings, has already investigated other applications of the new equipment toward product diversification.
Technical Paper

A Braking Force Distribution Strategy in Integrated Braking System Based on Wear Control and Hitch Force Control

A braking force distribution strategy in integrated braking system composed of the main braking system and the auxiliary braking system based on braking pad wear control and hitch force control under non-emergency braking condition is proposed based on the Electronically Controlled Braking System (EBS) to reduce the difference in braking pad wear between different axles and to decrease hitch force between tractors and trailers. The proposed strategy distributes the braking force based on the desired braking intensity, the degree of the braking pad wear and the limits of certain braking regulations to solve the coupling problems between braking safety, economical efficiency of braking and the comfort of drivers. Computer co-simulations of the proposed strategy are performed.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of the Production Applications of Hybrid Electric Powertrains

In this paper, a comparative study of the production applications of hybrid electric powertrains is presented. Vehicles studied include the Toyota Prius, Honda Insight, Toyota Estima, Toyota Crown, Honda Civic Hybrid, and Nissan Tino. The upcoming Ford Escape Hybrid and General Motors Parallel Hybrid Truck (PHT) will also be included, although advance information is limited. The goal of this paper is to look at what hybrid drivetrain architectures have actually been selected for production and what are the underlying details of these drivetrains. Since hybridizing a powertrain involves significant changes, the powertrain architectures are presented in diagram form, with analysis as to the similarities and advantages represented in these architectures. The specific hybrid functions used to save fuel are discussed. Peak power-to-weight ratio and degree of hybridization are plotted for the vehicles. System voltage versus electric power level are also plotted and analyzed.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Study on the Challenges of Dual Mass Flywheel in Real-World Operating Conditions of the Indian Market

The present work is focussed on the real-world challenges of a dual mass flywheel (DMF) equipped vehicle in the Indian market. DMFs are widely used to isolate the drivetrain from the high torsional vibrations induced by the engine. While DMFs can significantly improve noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) characteristics of a vehicle, there are multiple challenges experienced in real-world operating conditions when compared with the single mass flywheel (SMF). The present work explains the challenges of using a DMF in a high power-density diesel powertrain for a multi-purpose vehicle (MPV) application in the Indian market. Measurements on the flat-road operating conditions revealed that the DMF vehicle is very sensitive for launch behaviour and requires a higher clutch modulation. Vibration measurements at the driver’s seat confirm that the SMF vehicle could be launched more comfortably at the engine idle speed of 850 RPM.
Technical Paper

A Construction Truck Front Tandem Suspension with One Driving Axle

This paper describes the design requirements and our solutions for a heavy-duty tandem steering axle suspension, and the related special 8x6 construction truck chassis. By restricting the tandem axle load equalization to the maximum legal load range only, it was possible to design a suspension using individual axle mountings. This mounting achieved substantial benefits in weight, performance, cost, and development time over an equalizing beam type suspension as applied to a vehicle front end. In addition, the design incorporates a variable front axle load distribution feature, which increases empty vehicle and off-highway mobility by allowing a temporary biasing of weight to the front driving axle. Consequently, the concept is particularly well suited to a front tandem with only one axle driving. Also described are experimental automatic control variations, unsuccessful and otherwise, that led to the final development.
Technical Paper

A Critical Look at Tapered Roller Bearing Wear in Hypoid Axles

If bearing wear is not controlled, complete axle deterioration may result from loss of preload which affects the rigidity of the gear mounting. The effect of excessive gear wear debris on hypoid axle tapered roller bearing wear and influence of various lubricants on the wear rate have been evaluated in both car and laboratory dynamometer tests. Modifying the gear geometry to eliminate high pressure areas of gear contact and selection of the optimum gear oil, as a result of these tests, have been successful in reducing bearing wear.
Technical Paper

A Deep Learning based Virtual Sensor for Vehicle Sideslip Angle Estimation: Experimental Results

Modern vehicles have several active systems on board such as the Electronic Stability Control. Many of these systems require knowledge of vehicle states such as sideslip angle and yaw rate for feedback control. Sideslip angle cannot be measured with the standard sensors present in a vehicle, but it can be measured by very expensive and large optical sensors. As a result, state observers have been used to estimate sideslip angle of vehicles. The current state of the art does not present an algorithm which can robustly estimate the sideslip angle for vehicles with all-wheel drive. A deep learning network based sideslip angle observer is presented in this article for robust estimation of vehicle sideslip angle. The observer takes in the inputs from all the on board sensors present in a vehicle and it gives out an estimate of the sideslip angle. The observer is tested extensively using data which are obtained from proving grounds in high tire-road friction coefficient conditions.
Training / Education

A Familiarization of Drivetrain Components

An efficient, robust, and quiet running drivetrain is as essential to customer satisfaction as styling and interior creature comforts. In this seminar, you will be exposed to various methods that can be used to accomplish this goal. Designed to help you visualize both individual components and the entire drivetrain system - without reference to complicated equations - this seminar focuses on the terms, functions, nomenclature, operating characteristics and effect on vehicle performance for each of the drivetrain components.
Technical Paper

A Fresh Perspective on Hypoid Gearset Duty-Cycle Severity

A new method is demonstrated for rating the “severity” of a hypoid gear set duty-cycle (revolutions at torque) using the intercept of T-N curve to support gearset selection and sizing decision across vehicle programs. Historically, it has been customary to compute a cumulative damage (using Miner's Rule) for a rotating component duty-cycle given a TN curve slope and intercept for the component and failure mode of interest. The slope and intercept of a T-N curve is often proprietary to the axle manufacturer and are not published. Therefore, for upfront sizing and selection purposes representative T-N properties are used to assess relative component duty cycle severity via cumulative damage (non-dimensional quantity). A similar duty-cycle “severity” rating can also be achieved by computing the intercept of the T-N curve instead of cumulative damage, which is the focus of this method.