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Technical Paper

"Nickel electroformed" tools development through stereolithography (SLA) for sheet metal forming~An evaluation study

2000-06-12
2000-05-0272
Currently, advancements in Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies have led to considerable amount of research activities and has been playing a major role in the area of tooling development for which Rapid Tooling (RT) term was coined. While rapid prototyping techniques are employed to make prototype tools, the basic idea of the rapid tooling is to produce prototype and zero series parts by using prototype tools so the parts truly represent the future production. This paper will present an evaluation of a RP and RT technique in developing tools (punch and dies) for sheet metal forming, which had been manufactured and tested. Both punch and die have been manufactured by combining Stereolithography (SL), RP technique, with nickel electroforming process. The stereolithography technique that had been utilized in developing models for the tools had been built with modeling pattern called Accurate Clear Epoxy Solid (ACES).
Technical Paper

"Quick" tools development through stereolithography (SLA) for sheet metal forming~An evaluation study

2000-06-12
2000-05-0270
Currently, advancements in Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies have led to considerable amount of research activities and has been playing a major role in the area of tooling development for which Rapid Tooling (RT) term was coined. Rapid prototyping techniques are employed to make prototype tools. While, the basic idea of the rapid tooling is to produce prototype and zero series parts by using prototype tools so the parts truly represent the future production. This paper will present an evaluation of a RP & RT technique in developing tools (punch and dies) for sheet metal forming, which had been manufactured and tested. Both punch and die have been manufactured directly from Stereolithography (SL). The stereolithography technique that had been utilized in developing models for the tools had been built with modeling pattern called QuickCast infiltrated with Aluminum-Filled Epoxy, designated as Quick Tool.
Technical Paper

1-D Dynamic Modeling and Sensitivity Analysis in Product Design

2008-10-07
2008-36-0134
Sensitivity analysis is a usual method to evaluate how “sensitive” is a product performance to changes in its design variables. This type of analysis identifies the critical variables related to product performance and other aspects that may have less demanding manufacturing controls. This paper presents a case study in the automotive market, applying the 1-D dynamic modeling as an auxiliary tool to the sensitivity analysis. The objective of this procedure is to reduce physical prototypes tests. This evaluation, if taken during preliminary design of the system, could give competitive advantages, with a reduction in product development cycle time and cost.
Technical Paper

1-D Modeling and Room Temperature Experimental Measurements of the Exhaust System Backpressure: Limits and Advantages in the Prediction of Backpressure

2008-04-14
2008-01-0676
It is well known that backpressure is one of the important parameters to be minimised during the exhaust system development. Unfortunately, during the first phases of an engineering process of a new engine, engine prototypes are not available yet. Due to this the exhaust system backpressure is generally evaluated using simulation software, and/or measuring the backpressure by a flow rig test at room temperature. Goal of this paper is to compare exhaust backpressure results obtained respectively: i) at the room temperature flow rig; ii) at the engine dyno bench; iii) by simulation with one of the most common 1D fluidodynamics simulation tool (Gt-Power). A correlation of the three different techniques is presented.
Technical Paper

120VAC Power Inverters

1983-02-01
830131
Inverters are solid state devices which change DC to 120VAC electricity. They are sufficiently rugged and reliable to make them practical for use on utility vehicles for operating thumpers, tools, lights and induction motor loads. The SCR type rather than the transistor type inverter is generally required for inductive and reactive loads. Static inverters operate from battery input. They provide power without running an engine, but are limited by battery capacity so work best in intermittent load applications. Dynamic inverters operate from alternator input and will handle continuous loads to 7200 watts with truck engine running.
Technical Paper

18000 Series Power Shift Transmission Development

1974-02-01
740673
This paper describes the concept, design, and options of a new power shift transmission family for industrial equipment in the 50-100 hp range. The converter, clutch, and gearing arrangements provide the basis for various transmission configurations with both a drop and straight through output. The designs allow multiple usage of components within a transmission and between different sizes of transmissions. The various gearing, bearing, and clutch designs are based on proved experience factors, and as such will provide a new reliable family of transmissions.
Technical Paper

1964 Pure Oil Performance Trials

1964-01-01
640476
A review of the Pure Oil Performance Trials conducted at Daytona International Speedway are presented. Background information pertaining to conducting of tests, design of the equipment, and instrumentation required for the various events are discussed. The performance trials have evolved into three basic tests -- Economy, Acceleration, and Braking. The objective of the Performance Trials is to provide data that motorists can utilize in evaluating new cars and selecting new models.
Technical Paper

1978 U. S. Automotive Service Market: How Large is Large?

1981-02-01
810054
The size of the 1978 automotive service market is the total dollars spent on car and truck repair and maintenance in 1978. The 1978 personal-use automotive service market is the retail dollars spent in 1978 on repair and maintenance for cars and trucks used primarily for personal transportation. Service market estimates in this report do not include body repair parts and body repairs. Bureau of Economic Analysis data indicate a personal-use service market, excluding do-it-yourself (DIY) service, of $36 billion. A similar estimate made by General Motors Research Laboratories, based on a large national survey of actual consumer expenditures, is $ 37 billion. The personal-use automotive service market, excluding DIY, is roughly 3/4's the size of the total automotive service market, based on data from the Motor and Equipment Manufacturers Association and Frost & Sullivan, Inc.
Technical Paper

1D Simulation of Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection Engine for Transient Strategy Optimization

2005-04-11
2005-01-0693
This paper presents 1D engine simulation used for engine control strategy optimization for a twin-scroll turbocharged gasoline direct injection 2.0 L engine with twin camphaser. The results show good agreement of the engine model behavior with testbed acquisitions for a large amount of steady state set points and under transient operating conditions. The presented method demonstrates that a 1D engine code represents a useful and efficient tool during all steps of the engine control development process from design to real-time for such an advanced engine technology.
Technical Paper

2-Color Thermometry Experiments and High-Speed Imaging of Multi-Mode Diesel Engine Combustion

2005-10-24
2005-01-3842
Although in-cylinder optical diagnostics have provided significant understanding of conventional diesel combustion, most alternative combustion strategies have not yet been explored to the same extent. In an effort to build the knowledge base for alternative low-temperature combustion strategies, this paper presents a comparison of three alternative low-temperature combustion strategies to two high-temperature conventional diesel combustion conditions. The baseline conditions, representative of conventional high-temperature diesel combustion, have either a short or a long ignition delay. The other three conditions are representative of some alternative combustion strategies, employing significant charge-gas dilution along with either early or late fuel injection, or a combination of both (double-injection).
Technical Paper

2-D Imaging of Fuel Vapor Concentration in a Diesel Spray via Exciplex-Based Fluorescence Technique

1993-10-01
932652
To measure the fuel vapor concentration in an unsteady evaporating spray injected into nitrogen atmosphere, the exciplex-forming method, which produces spectrally separated fluorescence from the liquid and vapor phase, was applied in this study. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the qualitative and quantitative applicability of the technique in a high temperature and high pressure atmosphere during the fuel injection period. One is to examine the thermal decomposition of TMPD dopant at a high temperature and a high pressure nitrogen atmosphere during a short period of time. The other is to calibrate the relationship between fluorescence intensity and vapor concentration of TMPD at different vapor temperatures. And then, the qualitative measurement of fuel vapor concentration distributions in diesel sprays was made by applying the technique.
Technical Paper

2-D Imaging of Soot Formation Process in a Transient Spray Flame by Laser-induced Fluorescence and Incandescence Techniques

2002-10-21
2002-01-2669
In order to investigate the soot formation process in a diesel spray flame, simultaneous imaging of soot precursor and soot particles in a transient spray flame achieved in a rapid compression machine was conducted by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and by laser-induced incandescence (LII) techniques. The 3rd harmonic (355nm) and the fundamental (1064nm) laser pulses from an Nd:YAG laser, between which a delay of 44ns was imposed by 13.3m of optical path difference, were used to excite LIF from soot precursor and LII from soot particles in the spray flame. The LIF and the LII were separately imaged by two image-intensified CCD cameras with identical detection wavelength of 400nm and bandwidth of 80nm. The LIF from soot precursor was mainly located in the central region of the spray flame between 40 and 55mm (270 to 370 times nozzle orifice diameter d0) from the nozzle orifice. The LII from soot particles was observed to surround the soot precursor LIF region and to extend downstream.
Technical Paper

2-D Soot Visualization in Unsteady Spray Flame by means of Laser Sheet Scattering Technique

1991-02-01
910223
The two-dimensional distribution of a soot cloud in an unsteady spray flame in a rapid compression machine(RCM) was visualized using the laser sheet scattering technique. A 40 mm x 50 mm cross section on the flame axis was illuminated by a thin laser sheet from a single pulsed Nd:YAG laser(wavelength 532 nm). Scattered light from soot particles was taken by a CCD camera via a high speed gated image intensifier. The temporal variation of the scattered light images were presented with the injection pressure as a parameter. The results showed that scattered light was intense near the periphery of the flame tip and that the scattered light becomes weaker significantly and disappears fast after the end of injection as injection pressure is increased. This technique was also applied to the visualization of the two-dimensional distribution of liquid droplets in the non-evaporating spray to correlate it with the soot concentration distribution.
Technical Paper

2-D Visualization of Liquid Fuel injection in an Internal Combustion Engine

1987-11-01
872074
A sheet of laser light from a frequency-doubled Nd-YAG laser (λ = 532 nm) approximately 150 μm thick is shone through the cylinder of a single cylinder internal combustion engine. The light scattered by the fuel spray is collected through a quartz window in the cylinder and is imaged on a 100 × 100 diode array camera. The signal from the diode array is then sent to a microcomputer for background subtraction and image enhancement. The laser pulse is synchronized with the crank shaft of the engine so that a picture of the spray distribution within the engine at different times during injection and the penetration and development of the spray may be observed. The extent of the spray at different positions within the chamber is determined by varying the position and angle of the laser sheet with respect to the piston and the injector.
Technical Paper

2-D Visualization of a Hollow-Cone Spray in a Cup-in-Head, Ported, I.C. Engine

1989-02-01
890315
Two dimensional visualization of a pulsating, hollow-cone spray was performed in a motored, ported, high swirl, cup-in-head I.C. engine, using exciplex-forming dopants in the fuel, which produced spectrally separated fluorescence from the liquid and vapor phases. Illumination was by a laser sheet approximately 200 µm thick from a frequency tripled Nd:YAG laser, and image acquisition was by a 100 × 100 pixel diode array camera interfaced to a personal computer. Liquid and vapor phase fuel distributions are reported for engine speeds of 800 rpm and 1600 rpm, over a crankangle range spanning the injection event and subsequent evaporation and mixing. The beginning of injection was at 33° BTDC at 800 rpm and 47° BTDC at 1600 rpm. At 800 rpm, the spray angle is narrower than the 60° poppet angle, as expected from previous observations in a near-quiescent spray chamber.
Technical Paper

2-D Visualization of liquid and Vapor Fuel in an I.C. Engine

1988-02-01
880521
A sheet of laser light from a frequency tripled Nd-YAG laser approximately 200μm thick is shone through the combustion chamber of a single cylinder, direct injection internal combustion engine. The injected decane contains exciplex—forming dopants which produce spectrally separated fluorescence from the liquid and vapor phases. The fluorescence signal is collected through a quartz window in the cylinder head and is imaged onto a diode array camera. The camera is interfaced to a microcomputer for data acquisition and processing. The laser and camera are synchronized with the crankshaft of the engine so that 2—D images of the liquid and vapor phase fuel distributions can be obtained at different times during the engine cycle. Results are presented at 600, 1200 and 1800 rpm, and from the beginning to just after the end of injection. The liquid fuel traverses the cylinder in a straight line in the form of a narrow cone, but does not reach the far wall in the plane of the laser sheet.
Technical Paper

2002 Joint EPA/SAE-ESSC Workshop Environmental Systems Decision Making

2003-03-03
2003-01-0549
This is a report of a workshop held in mid-August of 2002 at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, to explore what it takes to make a decision regarding environmental systems in the US. The participants in the workshop represented federal government, industry, non-governmental organizations and academia. During the two and a half day workshop, discussions were held on the policy drivers, the strategies and tactics (through a SWOT analysis), the decisions the automotive industry is facing today and the tools available to support decision making.
Technical Paper

2006 Chevrolet Corvette Z06 Aluminum Spaceframe Manufacturing Technology

2005-04-11
2005-01-0470
In October 1999, General Motors contracted Dana Corporation to manufacture an all-aluminum spaceframe for the 2006 Chevrolet Corvette Z06. Corvette introduced its first ever all-aluminum frame (see Figure 1) to the world at the 2005 North American International Auto Show (NAIAS) in Detroit, Michigan. The creation of this spaceframe resulted in a significant mass reduction and was a key enabler for the program to achieve the vehicle level performance results required for a Z06 in an ever-growing market. Dana Corporation leveraged ALCOA's (Aluminum Company of America) proven design capabilities while incorporating new MIG welding, laser welding, Self-Pierce Riveting (SPR), and full spaceframe machining to join General Motors (GM) Metal Fabrication Division's (MFD) hydroformed rails to produce the Corvette Z06's yearly requirement of 7000 units. This paper describes the technologies utilized throughout the assembly line and their effect on the end product.
Technical Paper

200–300 HP Gas Turbine Engine Family for the U. S. Army

1964-01-01
640101
This paper describes a series of 200–300 hp gas turbine engines being developed by the AiResearch-Phoenix Division of the Garrett Corp. for the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Laboratories. These engines, which include both simple cycle and regenerative types, are intended for ground power applications, primarily for direct driving high speed equipment such as high frequency alternators. Descriptions are given of the basic approach taken to meet the Army’s requirements, the resulting engine configurations, the development progress to date, and future program plans and timing.
Book

2013 and 2014 Passenger Car Yearbook

2013-11-25
This set consists of two books, 2013 Passenger Car Yearbook, and 2014 Passenger Car Yearbook. Both include articles that were written by the award-winning editors of Automotive Engineering International. Both books detail the key engineering developments in the passenger vehicle industry of that year. Each new car model is profiled in its own chapter with one or more articles.
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