(Particle) Emissions of Small 2-& 4-Stroke Scooters with (Hydrous) Ethanol Blends
The objectives of the present work are to investigate the regulated and unregulated (particle) emissions of a classical and modern 2-stroke and a typical 4-stroke scooter with different ethanol blend fuels. There is also comparison of two different ethanol fuels: pure ethanol (E) *) and hydrous ethanol (EH) which contains 3.9% water and is denatured with 1.5% gasoline. Special attention is paid in this research to the hydrous ethanol, since the production costs of hydrous ethanol are much less than those for (dry) ethanol. The vehicles are with carburettor and without catalyst, which represents the most frequent technology in Eastern Asia and offers the information of engine-out emissions. Exhaust emissions measurements have been performed with fuels containing ethanol (E), or hydrous ethanol (EH) in the portion of 5, 10, 15 and 20% by volume. During the test systematical analysis of particle mass (PM) and nano-particles counts (NP) were carried out.
(R) Truck And Bus Grade Parking Performance Requirements
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes minimum performance requirements for trucks, buses, truck-tractors, full trailers, and semitrailers with gross vehicle weight ratings greater than 4540 kg (10 000 lb) with regard to: a. Vehicle classification b. Vehicle load c. Percent grade d. Application force
100,000 Miles of Fueling 5.9L Cummins Engines with 100% Biodiesel
Two Cummins B5.9L engines were fueled with 100% biodiesel in excess of 48 months by the Agricultural Engineering Department at the University of Missouri-Columbia. The engines used to power Dodge pickups. The engine lubricating oil was sampled at 1000 mile intervals for analysis. Statistical analysis of the engine lubricating oil indicated that the wear metal levels in the lubricating oil were normal. A reduction in power was noted when the engines were tested using a chassis dynamometer. The 1991 pickup has been driven 110,451 km and the 1992 pickup has been driven approximately 177,022 km. The pickups averaged 6.9 km/L. Engine fuel efficiency and material compatibility issues are addressed in the paper.
100,000-Mile Evaluation of Transit Buses Operated on Biodiesel Blends (B20)
Nine identical 40-ft. transit buses were operated on B20 and diesel for a period of two years - five of the buses operated exclusively on B20 (20% biodiesel blend) and the other four on petroleum diesel. The buses were model year 2000 Orion V equipped with Cummins ISM engines, and all operated on the same bus route. Each bus accumulated about 100,000 miles over the course of the study. B20 buses were compared to the petroleum diesel buses in terms of fuel economy, vehicle maintenance cost, road calls, and emissions. There was no difference between the on-road average fuel economy of the two groups (4.41 mpg) based on the in-use data, however laboratory testing revealed a nearly 2% reduction in fuel economy for the B20 vehicles. Engine and fuel system related maintenance costs were nearly identical for the two groups until the final month of the study.
1000-Hour Durability Evaluation of a Prototype 2007 Diesel Engine with Aftertreatment Using B20 Biodiesel Fuel
A prototype 2007 ISL Cummins diesel engine equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particle filter (DPF), variable geometry turbocharger (VGT), and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was tested at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) under a high-load accelerated durability cycle for 1000 hours with B20 soy-based biodiesel blends and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel to determine the impact of B20 on engine durability, performance, emissions, and fuel consumption. At the completion of the 1000-hour test, a thorough engine teardown evaluation of the overhead, power transfer, cylinder, cooling, lube, air handling, gaskets, aftertreatment, and fuel system parts was performed. The engine operated successfully with no biodiesel-related failures. Results indicate that engine performance was essentially the same when tested at 125 and 1000 hours of accumulated durability operation.
110 Ton Payload on Two Axles with Hydro-Mechanical Drive
Late developments in tires and in lightweight, high horsepower engines and transmissions have enabled the earthmoving and mining industry equipment manufacturers to design and produce several types of preproduction 100-ton capacity trucks. A straight-forward approach to the design of a 110-ton end dump truck on two axles with a hydro-mechanical drive was followed by KW-Dart Truck Co. to produce a low cost per ton-mile vehicle.
120VAC Power Inverters
Inverters are solid state devices which change DC to 120VAC electricity. They are sufficiently rugged and reliable to make them practical for use on utility vehicles for operating thumpers, tools, lights and induction motor loads. The SCR type rather than the transistor type inverter is generally required for inductive and reactive loads. Static inverters operate from battery input. They provide power without running an engine, but are limited by battery capacity so work best in intermittent load applications. Dynamic inverters operate from alternator input and will handle continuous loads to 7200 watts with truck engine running.
15 Pole Connector Between Towing Vehicles and Trailers with 12 Volt Nominal Supply
This SAE standard establishes the minimum construction and performance requirements for a 15 Pole Connector Between Towing Vehicles and Trailers, for trucks, trailers, and dollies in conjunction with SAE J2742. The connector accommodates both power and ISO 11992-1 signal circuits along with dual ground wires to accommodate grounding requirements within the constraints of the SAE J2691 terminal capacity.
18 Gasoline CAI and Diesel HCCI: the Way towards Zero Emission with Major Engine and Fuel Technology Challenges
Engines and fuels for transport as well as off-road applications are facing a double challenge: bring local pollution to the level requested by the most stringent city air quality standard reduce CO2 emission in order to minimize the global warming risk. These goals stimulate new developments both of conventional and alternative engines and fuels technologies. New combustion processes known as Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI™) for gasoline engine and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) for Diesel engine are the subject of extensive research world wide and particularly at IFP for various applications such as passenger cars, heavy-duty trucks and buses as well as small engines. Because of the thermo-chemistry of the charge, the thermal NOx formation and the soot production are in principle much lower than in flames typical of conventional engines.
1970s Development of 21st Century Mobile Dispersed Power
A mobile and dispersed power system is necessary for an advanced technological-industrial society. Today's petroleum-based system discharges waste products and heat and is growing exponentially. Energy resource commitment has already intersected “ultimate” low-cost petroleum supplies in the United States and will do so for the world before 2000; this portends major changes and cost increases. The twenty-first century system for mobile-dispersed power will reflect the energy source selected to replace petroleum-for example, coal, solar insolation, or uranium. It will incorporate a fuel intermediate such as methanol, ammonia, or hydrogen, and a suitably matched “engine.” The complete change will require more than 25 years because of the magnitude, fragmentation, structural gaps, complexity, and variety of the mobile-dispersed power system.
1978 U. S. Automotive Service Market: How Large is Large?
The size of the 1978 automotive service market is the total dollars spent on car and truck repair and maintenance in 1978. The 1978 personal-use automotive service market is the retail dollars spent in 1978 on repair and maintenance for cars and trucks used primarily for personal transportation. Service market estimates in this report do not include body repair parts and body repairs. Bureau of Economic Analysis data indicate a personal-use service market, excluding do-it-yourself (DIY) service, of $36 billion. A similar estimate made by General Motors Research Laboratories, based on a large national survey of actual consumer expenditures, is $ 37 billion. The personal-use automotive service market, excluding DIY, is roughly 3/4's the size of the total automotive service market, based on data from the Motor and Equipment Manufacturers Association and Frost & Sullivan, Inc.
1978 to 1980 Ford On-Road Fuel Economy
Since 1978 Ford Motor Company has been surveying the fuel economy of employes who lease new light duty vehicles from the Company. Winter and summer survey data for the three years are analyzed and compared. Car results show a significant and steady increase in average on-road fuel economy over the three year period. The percent differential between EPA measured and actual on-road fuel economy has lessened substantially since 1978. Furthermore, the percent difference between EPA and on-road is essentially constant over the range of EPA values for each of the three years. Limited fuel economy results for 1980 trucks are also discussed.
1980 CRC Fuel Rating Program - The Effects of Heavy Aromatics and Ethanol on Gasoline Road Octane Ratings
A gasoline Road Octane study was conducted by the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) to evaluate the effects of heavy aromatics (C9 and heavier) and ethanol content on Road Octane performance independent of Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON). Maximum-throttle and part-throttle Road ON’s were found to be well predicted by equations containing only RON and MON terms. Heavier aromatics were found to have a small adverse effect on both maximum-throttle and part-throttle Road ON independent of its direct effects on RON and MON. The all-car data did not show a significant ethanol-content effect, but eight of the thirty-seven cars did show significant effects for ethanol content.
1983 Ford Ranger Truck HSLA Steel Wheel
The demand for improved fuel economy in both cars and trucks has emphasized the need for lighter weight components. The application of high strength steel to wheels, both rim and disc, represents a significant opportunity for the automotive industry. This paper discusses the Ranger HSLA wheel program that achieved a 9.7 lbs. per vehicle weight savings relative to a plain carbon steel wheel of the same design. It describes the Ranger wheel specifications, the material selection, the metallurgical considerations of applying HSLA to wheels, and HSLA arc and flash butt welding. The Ranger wheel design and the development of the manufacturing process is discussed, including design modifications to accommodate the lighter gage. The results demonstrate that wheels can be successfully manufactured from low sulfur 60XK HSLA steel in a conventional high volume process (stamped disc and rolled rim) to meet all wheel performance requirements and achieve a significant weight reduction.
1983 Ranger Pickup
The Ford Ranger will be a domestically built, small pickup truck engineered to many design objectives typical of a fullsize pickup, yet with four cylinder engine fuel efficiency. Ranger is a full-function on-and-off road pickup truck with a uniquely smooth ride and a capacity to carry up to a 725.7 kg. (1600 lb.) payload. The truck features a three passenger body-on-frame cab and a double wall pickup box with provision for 1.2m × 2.4m (4 ft. × 8 ft.) sheets of construction material. Featured in this comprehensive paper are the engineering highlights and innovations contributing to the accomplishment of these Small Truck objectives.
1996 GM 7.4 Liter Engine Upgrade
General Motors Powertrain Division has developed the next generation big block V8 engine for introduction in the 1996 model year. In addition to meeting tighter emission and on-board diagnostic legislation, this engine evolved to meet both customer requirements and competitive challenges. Starting with the proven dependability of the time tested big block V8, goals were set to substantially increase the power, torque, fuel economy and overall pleaseability of GM's large load capacity gasoline engine. The need for this new engine to meet packaging requirements in many vehicle platforms, both truck and OEM, as well as a requirement for minimal additional heat rejection over the engine being replaced, placed additional constraints on the design.
1997 Propane Vehicle Challenge Design Strategy -University of Waterloo
The conversion design strategy, and emissions and performance results for a dedicated propane, vapour injected, 1995 Dodge Dakota truck are reported. Data is obtained from the University of Waterloo entry in the 1997 Propane Vehicle Challenge. A key feature of the design strategy is its focus on testing and emissions while preserving low engine speed power for drivability. Major changes to the Dakota truck included the following: installation of a custom shaped fuel tank, inclusion of a fuel temperature control module, addition of a vaporizer and a fuel delivery metering unit, installation of a custom vapour distribution manifold, addition of an equivalence ratio electronic controller, inclusion of a wide range oxygen sensor, addition of an exhaust gas recirculation cooler and installation of thermal insulation on the exhaust system. A competition provided natural gas catalyst was used.