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Technical Paper

1940 ROAD DETONATION TESTS - (Compiled from Report1 of The Cooperative Fuel Research Committee)

THE 1940 CFR Road Tests have developed new information that can be used for the development of fuels and engines. Application of the principles worked out in these tests is expected to result in a more efficient utilization of fuel antiknock properties and more effective engine design and adjustment to meet the requisites of current motor fuels. These tests indicate that the ASTM octane number alone, or even a road octane number as determined by methods heretofore widely used, does not give sufficient information for present needs relative to fuel behavior in service. Neither do test methods previously used provide sufficient information concerning the fuel requirements and knocking characteristics of engines. The new methods of approach which have been developed furnish needed information relative to the fuel and engine relationship that heretofore has been obscure, and indicate paths for future developments.
Technical Paper

1964 Pure Oil Performance Trials

A review of the Pure Oil Performance Trials conducted at Daytona International Speedway are presented. Background information pertaining to conducting of tests, design of the equipment, and instrumentation required for the various events are discussed. The performance trials have evolved into three basic tests -- Economy, Acceleration, and Braking. The objective of the Performance Trials is to provide data that motorists can utilize in evaluating new cars and selecting new models.
Technical Paper

1st Order Boom Noise Relationship to Driveline Imbalance

Two vehicle level test methods were developed that illustrate the relationship between 1st order noise in a cabin, and driveline imbalance contributors. At the launch of a new 2005 4WD sport utility vehicle program, a significant boom noise complaint was observed on many vehicles between 55-70 mph. The full time, electronic actively controlled, torque biasing transfercase was intensely reviewed as a potential source of excessive torque induced imbalance. Testing of the transfercase was performed on imbalance measurement stands, dynamometers, and in the vehicle. The result was the identification of two issues. First was that two internal to the transfercase parts were found to have excessive runout. Second was that there was a lack of vehicle correlation to transfercase imbalance. An extensive effort involving over 50 vehicles of the same model was pursued to find the source of the problem.
Technical Paper

3-D Video Sensor for Dynamic Out-of-Position Sensing, Occupant Classification and Additional Sensor Functions

A 3-D video sensor designed for in-vehicle operation is presented in this paper. This sensor enables improved occupant protection according to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 208 and beyond. Interior sensors integrated in current occupant protection systems are especially designed for Occupant Classification (OC). However, these interior sensors do not measure the distance between the head and the air bag module. As a result, the air bags deploy independently from the occupants' Out-Of-Position (OOP) status in crash situations. On the contrary, the sensor presented in this paper overcomes this shortcoming by providing dynamic Out-Of-Position Sensing (OOPS) capabilities in addition to occupant classification. The requirements of dynamic OOPS are discussed and an appropriate test device and test procedure are described. Furthermore, the paper presents the sensor principle, the hardware architecture and algorithms for image data processing.
Technical Paper

4300°F Thermocouples for Re-entry Vehicle Applications – Part I

This paper discusses work performed in research, design, and development of sensors for measurement of local dynamic surface temperatures on re-entry vehicles. Included are discussions of the basic requirements and related system design factors, the transducer concepts and sensor assembly configurations considered, and the materials investigations and engineering tests conducted. Design requirements are presented for the twin-lead thermocouple probe temperature sensor chosen as the most feasible concept for early implementation. The most promising thermocouple materials and fabrication processes are defined and the additional precision testing and development requirements for final design are outlined. Information not previously reported in available literature includes preliminary data from tests up to4300°F showing (1) excellent oxidation resistance of Iridium, and (2) oxidation protection of thermocouple elements in “gas tight” sheaths of thoria and zirconia.

60 V and 600 V Single-Core Cables

This Standard specifies the test methods, dimensions, and requirements for single-core 60 V cables intended for use in road vehicle applications where the nominal system voltage ≤ 60 V DC (25 V AC). It also specifies additional test methods and/or requirements for 600 V cables intended for use in road vehicle applications where the nominal system voltage is > 60 V DC (25 V AC) to ≤ 600 V DC (600 V AC). Where practical, this standard uses ISO 6722 for test methods, dimensions, and requirements. This standard covers ISO conductor sizes which usually differ from SAE conductor sizes. It also covers the individual cores in multi-core cables. See ISO 6722 for “Temperature Class Ratings”.
Technical Paper

A 2.3L Engine Deposit and Wear Test-An ASTM Task Force Progress Report

An ASTM Task Force was formed in December, 1976 to develop a Laboratory Engine Dynamometer Deposit and Wear Test. A 2.3 liter, four cylinder engine and an unleaded reference gasoline were selected. Reference oils for which field data were available were obtained from industry. The Task Force defined test support hardware for both engine and test stand. The effect of operating variables on engine deposits was studied. A test procedure, based on correlation with field service, is nearing completion. It is expected that this procedure will be capable of defining lubricant performance in terms of motor oil classifications.
Technical Paper

A BCI-Test Simulation Model for In-Vehicle Equipment

In this paper, consideration is made to create a simulation model of the BCI test method, which is one of the EMC evaluation methods for in-vehicle electronic devices, and an intrinsic model of a BCI probe is provided. Using this model, it is demonstrated that when the impedance of the BCI probe is sufficiently high, the BCI probe serves as a transformer with a winding ratio of 1:1, and the admittance of a line or a load connected to each wire becomes proportional to the magnitude of current flowing in each wire. This model can also be applied when the leakage inductance inside the BCI probe is taken into consideration. The validity of this model is verified by experiment using a jig which can clamp multiple wires. In addition, by using this model, it is demonstrated that the S-parameters for dozens of wires clamped in the BCI probe can be generated using the S-parameter measurement results from when one wire is in the BCI probe.
Technical Paper

A Basic Study on Reduction of Cylinder Block Vibrations for Small Diesel Cars

The production unit number of small diesel engine cars tends to decline except recreational vehicles in Japanese market in recent years, while the production unit number in Europe market keeps on increasing owing to the merits of the durability and the fuel consumption. The small diesel engines will have to be improved in the near future by solving major problems such as noise and vibration pollution, environmental pollution, improvement in performance of diesel engines, in order to expand the production of the engines. This paper refers to a basic study on the experimental and analytical methods for the reduction of resonant vibration in each vibration mode on some cylinder blocks of small high-speed diesel engines in rated engine speed range. Hammering test method, which is easy and useful for measuring frequency response functions, is carried out in the experiments.
Technical Paper

A Bench Scale Engine Test for Shear Stability of Multigrade Engine Oils

A procedure is described which employs an air-cooled, 4-cycle, single-cylinder engine of the type often found on lawn and garden equipment, driven by an electric motor at 3100 rpm. The equipment is simple, inexpensive, and requires a modest volume of sample. Results compare favorably with the shear stability tests of a series of 13 oils prepared and field-tested in a 78 vehicle fleet by Subsection B-1 of ASTM Division VII of Committee D 2. The degree of correlation is comparable to that observed in several tests conducted in full size laboratory engine stands, and superior to that recently reported for a variety of non-engine bench tests (pump rigs, sonic oscillator, dispersion mill). Viscosity losses are also reported for a variety of commercial 10W-40 grade service station engine oils, when tested by this procedure.
Technical Paper

A Bench Technique for Evaluating High Temperature Oxidation and Corrosion Tendencies of Automotive Crankcase Lubricants

A technique for evaluating high temperature oxidation and corrosion tendencies of automotive crankcase lubricants is described. The technique utilizes a versatile bench apparatus which, with a minimum of modification, can be used for either evaluating thermal oxidation stability of gear lubricants or oxidation-corrosion tendencies of automotive crankcase lubricants. The apparatus is relatively compact and requires a minimal lubricant sample. Design of the apparatus permits close control of all operating parameters and provides satisfactory test data repeatability. Retainable copper-lead test bearings are used as the indicator in predicting a pass or fail of fully formulated crankcase lubricants as in the case of the CRC L-38-559 (Federal Test Method 3405) technique. Engine and bench test data are compared to illustrate the capabilities of this new bench technique.
Technical Paper

A Bench Test Procedure for Evaluating the Cylinder Liner Pitting Protection Performance of Engine Coolant Additives for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Applications

Evaluations of the liner pitting protection performance provided by engine coolant corrosion inhibitors and supplemental coolant additives have presented many problems. Current practice involves the use of full scale engine tests to show that engine coolant inhibitors provide sufficient liner pitting protection. These are too time-consuming and expensive to use as the basis for industry-wide specifications. Ultrasonic vibratory test rigs have been used for screening purposes in individual labs, but these have suffered from poor reproducibility and insufficient additive differentiation. A new test procedure has been developed that reduces these problems. The new procedure compares candidate formulations against a good and bad reference fluid to reduce the concern for problems with calibration and equipment variability. Cast iron test coupons with well-defined microstructure and processing requirements significantly reduce test variability.
Technical Paper

A Bench Test Study of Port Fuel Injection Fouling

ASTM method D 6421, “Standard Test Method for Evaluating Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel for Electric Port Fuel Injectors Fouling by Bench Procedure”, was developed by South West Research Institute (SWRI) and the procedure standardized by the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) in 1999. The method has the potential to be a cost-effective tool for evaluating additive and fuel effects on port fuel injector performance. However, the Bosch injectors specified in the test procedure are no longer commercially available and in practice, obtaining repeatable and reproducible results using Bosch injectors can be difficult. This paper reports on bench test apparatus and test procedure modifications directed at obtaining better repeatability and responsiveness to fuels and additive chemistry. These modifications allow for better control of test-to-test injector tip temperature and keep the temperature closer to the injector soak temperature.
Technical Paper

A Bio-Engineering Approach to Crash Padding

The injury-reducing functions of crash padding are discussed as they relate to head impact. The bony structure of the cranial vault (above eyebrows) is strong under localized impact compared with the face. Padding used to protect the cranial vault from impact has the primary function of absorbing energy to reduce the possibility of brain damage. On the other hand, padding for facial protection has the primary function of providing uniform load distribution on the face. The pad understructure then supplies the needed energy absorbing capacity. Test procedures to measure both energy absorption and load distribution are described, and evaluation criteria are shown. Other factors that affect padding, such as temperature and cover stock material, are discussed.
Journal Article

A CFD Study of Fuel Evaporation and Related Thermo-fluid Dynamics in the Inlet Manifold, Port and Cylinder of the CFR Octane Engine

Knock in Spark Ignited (SI) engines has received significant research attention historically since this phenomenon effectively restricts the compression ratio and hence the thermal efficiency of the engine. The latent heat of vaporization (LHV) of a fuel affects its knock resistance in production engines as well as affecting its Research Octane Number (RON) rating. The reason for this is that evaporative cooling of the fuel lowers in-cylinder gas temperatures resulting in reduced tendency for end-gas auto-ignition. Controlling of the fuel-air mixture temperature to 422 K at the inlet port as per the Motor Octane Number (MON) test method ensures full evaporation of the liquid fuel, and hence LHV is assumed to have little effect during this procedure. LHV therefore has a strong influence on a fuel's Octane Sensitivity (OS) - the difference between its RON and MON values.
Technical Paper


The most important tool used in testing methods for evaluating the performance of seat-systems in rear-end impacts is a biofidelic crash test dummy. It has been reported that there are differences in response between two kinds of such dummies, BioRID P3 and Hybrid III, in rear-end impacts at Δ V=9.2 km/h. The objective of this study is to compare the responses of these two types of dummies, at moderate speeds with HYGE sled tests (Δ V=15 km/h, 25 km/h). At Δ V=25 km/h or less, the BioRID and HYIII dummies showed clear differences in their response to a rear-end collision, and the BioRID showed higher biofidelity than the HyIII in this condition.
Technical Paper

A Carburetor Icing Field Test: Procedures and Results

The test procedures and some of the results obtained in a carburetor icing field test at Vancouver, British Columbia, during the Winter of 1962-1963 are described. One hundred twenty-nine cars were involved in the test which lasted approximately four months. A total of about 15,000 test runs was made. Fifty percent of the cars stalled at much higher rates under weather conditions conducive to carburetor icing than under other conditions. Thus, carburetor icing was found to be a significant field problem even with effective antiicing additives present in the gasoline. There was much variation among car makes in their tendencies to stall, indicating the possibilities of design improvements in reducing the problem. There was an indication that recent model cars stalled at lower rates than earlier models, showing that some improvement has been made.
Technical Paper

A Case Study on Durability Analysis of Automotive Lower Control Arm Using Self Transducer Approach

A competitive market and shrinking product development cycle have forced automotive companies to move from conventional testing methods to virtual simulation techniques. Virtual durability simulation of any component requires determination of loads acting on the structure when tested on the proving ground. In conventional method wheel force transducers are used to extract loads at wheel center. Extracted wheel center forces are used to derive component loads through multi-body simulation. Another conventional approach is to use force transducers mounted directly on the component joineries where load needs to be extracted. Both the methods are costly and time-consuming. Sometimes it is not feasible to place a load cell in the system to measure hard point loads because of its complexities. In that case, it would be advantageous to use structure itself as a load transducer by strain gauging the component and use those strain values to extract hard point loads in virtual simulation.
Technical Paper

A Combined Experimental and Analytical Procedure for Improving Automotive System Dynamics

Powerful capabilities for use in the analysis of complex automotive systems have recently been developed. These capabilities bring the newly developed electronic testing equipment together with the powerful computational techniques to perform a total system dynamic design analysis. The analysis tool developed is called the building block approach, whereby complex system behavior is defined by analyzing and combining the dynamic behavior of simpler components and subassemblies. The dynamic behavior of each component is obtained from a separate analytical investigation or from a specific type of experimental test procedure. Component data are then combined mathematically to predict dynamic behavior of the full system under the prescribed loading conditions. With the system simulation completed, design changes in any or all components can be evaluated. The effect of changes in any component on the operating behavior, vibration, noise, and stress can be ascertained.
Journal Article

A Comparative Study Between China and IHRA for the Vehicle-Pedestrian Impact

A total of 200 detailed pedestrian accident cases of several areas in China were collected and analysed during last three years, the important information mainly include accident conditions, pedestrian information, human injury, vehicle injury sources, impact velocity, wrap around distance, and so on. The front shape of 37 passenger cars with high occupancy in domestic market involved in the accident cases were investigated and categorized into three groups: Sedan, SUV (Sport Utility Vehicle) and 1-Box (One Box Vehicle), so that the effect of vehicle front shapes on the pedestrian impact dynamics response and body injuries were studied. Then, the mathematical models for simulation of vehicle-pedestrian impact were developed using multi-body dynamics codes MADYMO to study response of pedestrian in vehicle-pedestrian impact.