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Technical Paper

04 Emission Reduction by Cylinder Wall Injection in 2-Stroke S.I. Engines

A direct injection system in which fuel was injected through the cylinder wall was developed and detailed investigation was made for the purpose of reducing short-circuit of fuel in 2-stroke engines. As a result of dynamo tests using 430cc single cylinder engine, it was found that the injector was best attached at a location as close to TDC as possible on the rear transfer port side, and that the entire amount of fuel should be injected towards the piston top surface. Emissions were worsened if fuel was injected towards the exhaust port or spark plug. Although the higher injection pressure resulted in large emissions reduction effects, it did not have a significant effect on fuel consumption. When a butterfly exhaust valve, known to be effective against irregular combustion in the light load range, was applied, it was found to lead to further reductions in HC emission and fuel consumption while also improving combustion stability.
Technical Paper

1-D Numerical Model of a Spark Ignition Engine Fueled with Methanol for Off-Grid Charging Stations

The road transportation sector is undergoing significant changes, and new green scenarios for sustainable mobility are being proposed. In this context, a diversification of the vehicles’ propulsion, based on electric powertrains and/or alternative fuels and technological improvements of the electric vehicles charging stations, are necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The adoption of internal combustion engines operating with alternative fuels, like methanol, may represent a viable solution for overcoming the limitations of actual grid connected charging infrastructure, giving the possibility to realize off-grid charging stations. This work aims, therefore, at investigating this last aspect, by evaluating the performance of an internal combustion engine fueled with methanol for stationary applications, in order to fulfill the potential demand of an on off-grid charging station.
Technical Paper

3-D Modeling of Conventional and HCCI Combustion Diesel Engines

An investigation of the possibility to extend the 3-dimensional modeling capabilities from conventional diesel to the HCCI combustion mode simulation was carried out. Experimental data was taken from a single cylinder engine operating with early injections for the HCCI and a split-injection (early pilot+main) for the high speed Diesel engine operation. To properly phase the HCCI mode in the experiments, high amounts of cooled EGR and a decreased compression ratio were used. In numerical simulation performed using KIVA3-V code, modified to incorporate the Detailed Chemistry Approach the same conditions were reproduced. Special attention is paid on the analysis of the events leading up to the auto-ignition, which was reasonably well predicted.
Technical Paper

3D Numerical Simulation of Fuel injection and Combustion Phenomena in DI Diesel Engines

Recently the analysis of air-fuel mixing and combustion has become important under the stringent emissions regulations of diesel engines. In the case of gasoline engines, the KIVA computer program has been developed and used for the analysis of combustion. In this paper, the calculations of combustion phenomena in DI diesel engines are performed by modifying the KIVA program so as to be applicable to multi-hole nozzles and arbitrary patterns of injection rate. The thermophysical and ther-mochemical properties of gasoline are altered to those diesel fuel. In order to investigate the ability of this modified program, the calculations are compared with the experiments on single cylinder engines concerning the pressure, flame temperature and mass change of chemical species in cylinders. Furthermore, the calculation for the heavy duty DI diesel engine is performed with this diesel combustion program.
Journal Article

3D-CFD RANS Methodology to Predict Engine-Out Emissions with Gasoline-Like Fuel and Methanol for a DISI Engine

Renewable fuels, such as bio- and e-fuels, are of great interest for the defossilization of the transport sector. Among these fuels, methanol represents a promising candidate for emission reduction and efficiency increase due to its very high knock resistance and its production pathway as e-fuel. In general, reliable simulation tools are mandatory for evaluating a specific fuel potential and optimizing combustion systems. In this work, a previously presented methodology (Esposito et al., Energies, 2020) has been refined and applied to a different engine and different fuels. Experimental data measured with a single cylinder engine (SCE) are used to validate RANS 3D-CFD simulations of gaseous engine-out emissions. The RANS 3D-CFD model has been used for operation with a toluene reference fuel (TRF) gasoline surrogate and methanol. Varying operating conditions with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and air dilution are considered for the two fuels.
Technical Paper

A 3D-CFD Methodology for Combustion Modeling in Active Prechamber SI Engines Operating with Natural Gas

Active prechamber combustion systems for SI engines represent a feasible and effective solution in reducing fuel consumption and pollutant emissions for both marine and ground heavy-duty engines. However, reliable and low-cost numerical approaches need to be developed to support and speed-up their industrial design considering their geometry complexity and the involved multiple flow length scales. This work presents a CFD methodology based on the RANS approach for the simulation of active prechamber spark-ignition engines. To reduce the computational time, the gas exchange process is computed only in the prechamber region to correctly describe the flow and mixture distributions, while the whole cylinder geometry is considered only for the power-cycle (compression, combustion and expansion). Outside the prechamber the in-cylinder flow field at IVC is estimated from the measured swirl ratio.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Performance and Emission Characteristics of CNG and Gasoline on a Single Cylinder S. I. Engine

In this study some experiments were carried out to evaluate fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx)) and hydrocarbons (HC) with compressed natural gas (CNG) and gasoline in a single cylinder engine. Compressed natural gas showed 3 to 5 percent higher thermal efficiency and 15 percent lower specific fuel consumption as compared to gasoline. Also CO emissions were lower by 30-80 percent in rich zone and NOx by about 12 percent at an equivalence of 1.0. At wide open throttle CNG operation resulted in 10 to 12 percent lower power output. However, thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was better with CNG as compared to gasoline. Dual spark plug operation increased power output by 3 to 5 percent.
Technical Paper

A Critical Evaluation of the Geared Hypocycloid Mechanism for Internal Combustion Engine Application

The geared hypocycloid mechanism, a kinematic arrangement that provides a straight-line motion, can be used as the basis for an internal combustion engine. Such an engine would have a number of advantages: Perfect balance can be achieved with any number of cylinders. The straight-line motion eliminates the need for a wrist pin bearing, further allowing a very short piston to be used without danger of cocking. Piston side load is virtually eliminated, and “piston slap” will not occur even with a large piston/cylinder clearance. These features make it particularly attractive for small single cylinder engine applications where vibration is undesirable, and also for the uncooled “adiabatic engines”, in which piston cylinder lubrication and friction are major concerns.
Technical Paper


A comprehensive cycle analysis has been developed for four-stroke spark-ignited engines from which the indicated performance of a single cylinder engine was computed with a reasonable degree of accuracy. The step-wise cycle calculations were made using a digital computer. This analysis took into account mixture composition, dissociation, combustion chamber shape (including spark plug location), flame propagation, heat transfer, piston motion, engine speed, spark advance, manifold pressure and temperature, and exhaust pressure. A correlation between the calculated and experimental performance is reported for one engine at a particular operating point. The calculated pressure-time diagram was in good agreement with the experimental one in many respects. The calculated peak pressure was 10 per cent lower and the thermal efficiency 0.8 per cent higher than the measured values. Thus this calculational procedure represents a significant improvement over constant volume cycle approximations.
Technical Paper

A Developing Process of Newly Developed Electromagnetic Valve Actuator - Effect of Design and Operating Parameters

Electromagnetic valve (EMV) actuation system is a new technology for the improvement of fuel efficiency and the reduction of emissions in SI engines. It can provide more flexibility in valve event control compared to conventional variable valve actuation devices. However, a more powerful and efficient actuator design is needed for this technology to be applied in mass production engines. This paper presents the effects of design and operating parameters on the thermal, static and dynamic performances of the actuator. The finite element method (FEM) and computer simulation models are used in predicting the solenoid forces, dynamic characteristics and thermal characteristics of the actuator. Effect of design parameters and operating environment on the actuator performance were verified before making prototypes using the analytical models. To verify the accuracy of the simulation model, experimental study is also carried out on a prototype actuator.
Technical Paper

A High Speed Flow Visualization Study of Fuel Spray Pattern Effect on Mixture Formation in a Low Pressure Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

In developing a direct injection gasoline engine, the in-cylinder fuel air mixing is key to good performance and emissions. High speed visualization in an optically accessible single cylinder engine for direct injection gasoline engine applications is an effective tool to reveal the fuel spray pattern effect on mixture formation The fuel injectors in this study employ the unique multi-hole turbulence nozzles in a PFI-like (Port Fuel Injection) fuel system architecture specifically developed as a Low Pressure Direct Injection (LPDI) fuel injection system. In this study, three injector sprays with a narrow 40° spray angle, a 60°spray angle with 5°offset angle, and a wide 80° spray angle with 10° offset angle were evaluated. Image processing algorithms were developed to analyze the nature of in-cylinder fuel-air mixing and the extent of fuel spray impingement on the cylinder wall.
Journal Article

A Method for Turbocharging Single-Cylinder, Four-Stroke Engines

Abstract Turbocharging can provide a low cost means for increasing the power output and fuel economy of an internal combustion engine. Currently, turbocharging is common in multi-cylinder engines, but due to the inconsistent nature of intake air flow, it is not commonly used in single-cylinder engines. In this article, we propose a novel method for turbocharging single-cylinder, four-stroke engines. Our method adds an air capacitor-an additional volume in series with the intake manifold, between the turbocharger compressor and the engine intake-to buffer the output from the turbocharger compressor and deliver pressurized air during the intake stroke. We analyzed the theoretical feasibility of air capacitor-based turbocharging for a single-cylinder engine, focusing on fill time, optimal volume, density gain, and thermal effects due to adiabatic compression of the intake air.
Technical Paper

A Micrographic Study of Deposit Formation Processes in a Combustion Chamber

Growing concern about the impact of combustion chamber deposits (CCD) on engine performance and exhaust emissions has renewed interest in understanding the deposit formation process in a combustion chamber. To provide a true picture of the deposit formation process, an extensive micrographic study of the deposits in a single cylinder engine has been conducted. Four retrievable deposit sampling probes were used. The sampling period for the deposits varied from 15 minutes to 20 hours to show how the deposits evolved with time. The coolant temperature was changed from 50°C to 95°C to observe the effect of surface temperature on deposit morphology. Impacts of deposit control additives on the deposit distribution and deposit morphology were also investigated. Deposits formed in different parts of the combustion chamber differed significantly in their morphology. The differences occur mainly because of variations in surface temperature.
Journal Article

A Misfire Detection Index for Four-Stroke Single-Cylinder Motorcycle Engines—Part II: Gap Distance and Gap Slope

Abstract Two new misfire detection indexes for single-cylinder motorcycle engines—dubbed gap distance (GD) and gap slope (GS)—are proposed in this study. GD and GS quantify the change in engine angular acceleration using the tooth time measured by the crankshaft position sensor (CKPS). GD is defined as the product of the spacing distance I (the distance from the top dead center at the explosion stroke [TDC2] to the engine speed trend line parallel to the engine speed axis) and spacing distance II (the distance from the bottom dead center at the expansion stroke [BDC2] to the engine speed trend line parallel to the engine speed axis). GS is defined as the difference between the two slopes between the engine speed inclination line and the engine speed trend line. Here the engine speed trend line connects two engine speeds at the top dead center at the intake stroke (TDC1) of the current and subsequent cycles.
Technical Paper

A Mixing Timescale Model for PDF Simulations of LTC Combustion Process in Internal Combustion Engines

Transported probability density function (PDF) methods are currently being pursued as a viable approach to model the effects of turbulent mixing and mixture stratification, especially for new alternative combustion modes as for example Homogeneous Charge Compression ignition (HCCI) which is one of the advanced low temperature combustion (LTC) concepts. Recently, they have been applied to simple engine configurations to demonstrate the importance of accurate accounting for turbulence/chemistry interactions. PDF methods can explicitly account for the turbulent fluctuations in species composition and temperature relative to mean value. The choice of the mixing model is an important aspect of PDF approach. Different mixing models can be found in the literature, the most popular is the IEM model (Interaction by Exchange with the Mean). This model is very similar to the LMSE model (Linear Mean Square Estimation).
Journal Article

A New Approach for Development of a High-Performance Intake Manifold for a Single-Cylinder Engine Used in Formula SAE Application

Abstract The Formula SAE (FSAE) is an international engineering competition where a Formula style race car is designed and built by students from worldwide universities. According to FSAE regulation, an air restrictor with circular cross section of 20 mm for gasoline-fuelled and 19 mm for E-85-fuelled vehicles is to be incorporated between the throttle valve and engine inlet. The sole purpose of this regulation is to limit the airflow to the engine used. The only sequence allowed is throttle valve, restrictor and engine inlet. A new approach of combining ram theory and acoustic theory methods are investigated to increase the performance of the engine by designing an optimized intake runner for a particular engine speed range and an optimized plenum volume in this range. Engine performance characteristics such as brake power, brake torque and volumetric efficiency are taken into considerations.
Technical Paper

A New Combustion Chamber for Fast-Burn Applications

A new combustion chamber design is proposed in which it is possible to control the scale and intensity of turbulence generated just prior to ignition. A single cylinder engine has been fitted with the new chamber, and measurements of the turbulence field with a hot-wire anemometer are presented. The chamber design has been compared to a conventional bowl-in-piston design under both motoring and fired operation. Hotwire measurements showed an increase in turbulence intensity of 50% and a reduction in the length scale of turbulence compared to the conventional chamber. Cylinder pressure measurements indicated that the mass-burn rate is increased with the new chamber, particularly during the early stage of combustion. During operation at 1140 rpm with the new chamber, peak cylinder pressure was 4% higher and occurred 3° earlier than for the conventional chamber.
Technical Paper

A New Flame Jet Concept to Improve the Inflammation of Lean Burn Mixtures in SI Engines

Engines with gasoline direct injection promise an increase in efficiency mainly due to the overall lean mixture and reduced pumping losses at part load. But the near stoichiometric combustion of the stratified mixture with high combustion temperature leads to high NOx emissions. The need for expensive lean NOx catalysts in combination with complex operation strategies may reduce the advantages in efficiency significantly. The Bowl-Prechamber-Ignition (BPI) concept with flame jet ignition was developed to ignite premixed lean mixtures in DISI engines. The mainly homogeneous lean mixture leads to low combustion temperatures and subsequently to low NOx emissions. By additional EGR a further reduction of the combustion temperature is achievable. The BPI concept is realized by a prechamber spark plug and a piston bowl. The main feature of the concept is its dual injection strategy.
Journal Article

A New Model to Describe the Heat Transfer in HCCI Gasoline Engines

In this work, heat loss was investigated in two different HCCI single cylinder engines. Thermocouples were adapted to the surfaces of the cylinder heads and the temperature oscillations were detected in a wide range of the engine operation maps. The resultant heat transfer profiles were compared to the heat losses predicted by existing models. As major discrepancies were stated, a new phenomenological model was developed that is well-manageable and describes the heat loss in HCCI mode more precisely than existing models. To analyze the insulating effect of deposits, the heat transfer equation was solved analytically by an approach that allows consideration of multiple layers with different material properties and thickness. This approach was used for the first time in conjunction with engines to calculate the heat flux at the surface of deposits and the deposit thickness.
Technical Paper

A New Phenomenological Model for Combustion and Performance Studies of Direct Injection Diesel Engines

A computer simulation of a four-stroke turbocharged diesel engine has been developed for combustion and performance studies. The combustion model accounts for spray geometry evolution, ignition delay, heat release rate, equilibrium product concentrations and heat transfer evaluation. In the model, the fuel spray is divided into five zones which are treated as open systems. While mass and energy equations are solved for each zone, a simplified momentum conservation equation is used to calculate the amount of air entrained into each zone. Details of the DI spray, combustion model and its implementation into the open cycle simulation are described in this paper. The model is validated by experimental data. First, prediction of spray penetration is validated against measurements in a pressurized constant volume chamber.