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Technical Paper

12 Present situation of Automated Guided Vehicle

Many automated guided golf cars using the electromagnetic guide technology are used in Japan to obtain more convenient and safer golf play. Now this technology is beginning to be used outside of the golf course as an on-demand people mover system. This paper presents an example of the engineering system of automated guided golf cars along for the 2 principles of automated guided vehicle. The first principle is “the steering control system including the automatic sensitivity adjustment function”, and the other principle is “the vehicle speed control system”.
Technical Paper

14 Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model for Roll Dynamics Study

A vehicle model is an important factor in the development of vehicle control systems. Various vehicle models having different complexities, assumptions, and limitations have been developed and applied to many different vehicle control systems. A 14 DOF vehicle model that includes a roll center as well as non-linear effects due to vehicle roll and pitch angles and unsprung mass inertias, is developed. From this model, the limitations and validity of lower order models which employ different assumptions for simplification of dynamic equations are investigated by analyzing their effect on vehicle roll response through simulation. The possible limitation of the 14 DOF model compared to an actual vehicle is also discussed.
Technical Paper

2 Stroke Fuel Injected Outboard Motor with Oxygen Sensor Feedback Control System

This paper describes new 2 stroke fuel injected spark ignition outboard motor equipped with unique oxygen sensor feed back control system to assure constantly optimized air/fuel ratio. First, the general concept and the engineering target of commercial model are explained, and then the design and arrangement of oxygen sensor feedback fuel injection control system are described. Common automotive oxygen sensor is utilized in this system, and it is devised to overcome the problems inherent in 2-stroke engines. This paper also describes the controlled combustion system that enhances consistent and stable performance, and improves fuel efficiency. Applying these technologies, 40% less fuel consumption in cruise range was demonstrated by the comparative test with conventional fuel injected 2-stroke model.
Journal Article

25cc HCCI Engine Fuelled with DEE

This paper describes the set-up and testing of a single cylinder 25cc, air cooled, 4-stroke Spark Ignition (SI) engine converted to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode with the aid of various combustion control systems. The combustion control systems were investigated regarding their effects on combustion stability and heat release phasing. Engine operation was compared with unique findings from previous work done on a very small 2-stroke HCCI engine. HCCI engine operation was possible between 1000 - 4000 rpm when using Diethyl Ether (DEE) as the test fuel. Maximum operational fuel-air equivalence ratio (Φ) was 0.75 when operating without Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). This relatively high equivalence ratio was attainable due to thermal gradients induced by the high surface area to volume ratio of the small engine combustion chamber, resulting in high chamber heat transfer.
Technical Paper

42V Power Control System for Mild Hybrid Vehicle (MHV)

In the 42V Mild Hybrid System introduced into market by Toyota for the first time in the world, the crankshaft using belt(s) drives the motor/generator (MG). The set-up employs an inverter unit to control the MG electronically. This paper describes the system configuration, operations, characteristic features and development results of the new power control system. The focus is on the MG, the inverter-for-MG-control and energy regeneration, as well as DC/DC converter for the power supply to the 14V devices.
Technical Paper

4WS Technology and the Prospects for Improvement of Vehicle Dynamics

FOUR-WHEEL STEERING (4WS) is beginning to find widespread use as a new approach to improving vehicle dynamics, especially in the medium and high speed ranges. Steering the rear wheels in the same phase as the front wheels enhances vehicle stability. Four-wheel steering systems have an even greater potential to improve stability and steering response through suitable control over the transient characteristics of the rear wheel steer angle. This paper traces the course of Nissan research and development work on four-wheel steering and the evolution of Nissan's HICAS (4WS) technology. It also describes research activities under way on vehicle dynamics using a newly developed Simulator Vehicle, equipped with a front and rear angle transient control system which makes it possible to vary the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle instantaneously and at will while driving.
Technical Paper

5th Generation Electronic Gas Injection Control System

The long time needed for the application and the money involved are some of the main obstacles preventing the CNG vehicles market penetration, costs are always too high and application time always too long compared with the relatively small volumes. Besides the activities to be carried out on the original engine control system to integrate the gas system are unwelcome by the OEM as they require a re-validation of already validated components/systems. This issue became more critical since the EOBD system has been installed into the vehicles as the extremely heavy validation activity are jeopardized by the gas system and the major part of the calibration/validation work shall be repeated. A new gas control system has been developed with the aims to achieve the best performances in terms of power, driveability, emissions, without any modifications on the OEM system, very short application time and costs.
Technical Paper

A CAD-Driven Flexible Forming System for Three-Dimensional Sheet Metal Parts

A novel system for the forming of three dimensional sheet metal parts is described that can form a variety of part shapes without the need for fixed tooling, and given only geometry (CAD) information about the desired part. The central elements of this system are a tooling concept based on a programmable discrete die surface and closed-loop shape control. The former give the process the degrees of freedom to change shape rapidly, and the latter is used to insure that the correct shape is formed with a minimum of forming trials. A 540 kN (60 ton) lab press has been constructed with a 0.3 m (12 in) square pair of discrete tools that can be rapidly re-shaped between forming trials. The shape control system uses measured part shapes to determine a shape error and to correct the tooling shape. This correction is based on a unique “Deformation Transfer Function” approach using a spatial frequency decomposition of the surface.
Technical Paper


The military aviation services pay a phenomenal price due to turbine engine stall. Several of the major factors which comprise a substantial portion of the total price are presented. Included are weapon system development time, operational limitations, field maintenance problems, overhaul costs and accident rates. Also presented, in a general fashion, are several technical approaches to the solution of turbine engine stall. Fundamental research and orderly development of basic engine components, power control systems, and airframe and installation factors are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the need for tighter control of production tolerances and the requirement for united efforts in the integration of components into a complete system.
Technical Paper

A Characterization of Exhaust Emissions from Lean Burn, Rotary, and Stratified Charge Engines

This paper reports the results of an exhaust emissions characterization from the non-catalyst control systems employed on the Mazda RX-4 rotary, the Honda CVCC, and the Chrysler electronic lean burn. Throughout the paper, exhaust emissions from these vehicles are compared to those from a Chrysler equipped with an oxidation catalyst and an air pump. The emissions characterized are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, sulfates, hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen cyanide, aldehydes, particulate matter, and detailed hydrocarbons. A brief description of the sampling and analysis procedures used is included within the discussion.
Journal Article

A Combination of Intelligent Tire and Vehicle Dynamic Based Algorithm to Estimate the Tire-Road Friction

Abstract One of the most important factors affecting the performance of vehicle active chassis control systems is the tire-road friction coefficient. Accurate estimation of the friction coefficient can lead to better performance of these controllers. In this study, a new three-step friction estimation algorithm, based on intelligent tire concept, is proposed, which is a combination of experiment-based and vehicle dynamic based approaches. In the first step of the proposed algorithm, the normal load is estimated using a trained Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The network was trained using the experimental data collected using a portable tire testing trailer. In the second step of the algorithm, the tire forces and the wheel longitudinal velocity are estimated through a two-step Kalman filter. Then, in the last step, using the estimated tire normal load and longitudinal and lateral forces, the friction coefficient can be estimated.
Technical Paper

A Combustion Pressure Sensor Utilizing Silicon Piezoresistive Effect

A new combustion pressure sensor capable of measuring the combustion pressure in an engine cylinder has been developed. This combustion pressure sensor has been used for control of the advanced lean combustion engine in TOYOTA 1992 model (Oct. 1992). The control system is useful for improvement of energy consumption efficiency and reduction of emissions from commercial cars. The successfully designed combustion pressure sensor has excellent features of low impedance and good linearity. It has been realized with the smallest number of components and reasonable cost. This paper describes the principle, structure and basic characteristics of the combustion pressure sensor.
Technical Paper

A Common Software Architecture for Diesel and Gasoline Engine Control Systems of the New Generation EDC/ME(D)17

In the new generation of engine control systems EDC/ME(D)17 Robert Bosch GmbH presents the approach for a common software architecture for gasoline and diesel systems. Motivations for this development are our customers' requirements for an open system architecture, the unification of engine type independent functionality and future business models for Hard- and Software. The architecture design supports a clear identification of common software components for a Gasoline and Diesel Control System by using the CARTRONIC domain model as a comprehensive basis for structures and interfaces of the application layer. To support software exchange with customers on any code level, a XML-based standard document type definition (DTD) is proposed. The requests for future business models is addressed by a layered architecture with consequent encapsulation of control unit hardware, sensors and actuators.
Technical Paper

A Compact Temperature Control System for Lean Exhaust Gas to Improve Conversion Performance of NOx Aftertreatment

A compact exhaust gas temperature control unit is presented. The unit was fitted to a gasoline direct injection production car together with a modified exhaust system. It was shown that it was possible to keep the exhaust gas temperature within the lean operational NOx temperature window of typical NOx absorption catalysts for the whole European drive cycle. This should improve the lean NOx conversion of such a catalyst system significantly. It was shown that the standard vehicle cooling system should be able to cope with the additional heat input from the temperature control unit without major modifications.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis of Active and Passive Emission Control Systems Adopting Standard Emission Test Cycles

The aim of the present work is to analyse and compare the energetic performances and the emissions conversion capability of active and passive aftertreatment systems for lean burn engines. To this purpose, a computational one-dimensional transient model has been developed and validated. The code permits to assess the heat exchange between the solid and the exhaust gas, to evaluate the conversion of the main engine pollutants, and to estimate the energy effectiveness. The response of the systems to variations in engine operating conditions have been investigated considering standard emission test cycles. The analysis highlighted that the active flow control tends to increase the thermal inertia of the apparatus and then it appears more suitable to maintain higher temperature level and to guarantee higher pollutants conversion at low engine loads after long full load operation.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Different Methods for Battery and Supercapacitor Modeling

In future vehicles (e.g. fuel cell vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles), the electrical system will have an important impact on the mechanical systems in the car (e.g. powertrain, steering). Furthermore, this coupling will become increasingly important over time. In order to develop effective designs and appropriate control systems for these systems, it is important that the plant models capture the detailed physical behavior in the system. This paper will describe models of two electrical components, a battery and a supercapacitor, which have been modeled in two ways: (i) modeling the plant and controller using block diagrams in Simulink and (ii) modeling the plant and controller in Dymola followed by compiling this model to an S-function for simulation in Simulink. Both the battery and supercapacitor model are based on impedance spectroscopy measurements and can be used for highly dynamic simulations.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Different Squeak & Rattle Test Methods for Large Modules and Subsystems

Many engineers today use large, powerful multi-purpose test systems to do squeak & rattle testing of modules and subsystems such as Instrument Panels, Consoles and Seat Assemblies. Such test systems include Multi-Axis Hydraulic Shaker Tables and Electrodynamic Vibration Systems with large head expanders and rigid (or at least stiff) fixtures. These test systems have been successful when used for squeak & rattle test programs, have been validated as approved test methods, and have become the standards of comparison in many labs today. They are, however, expensive and throughput can be limited due to the time needed to unbolt, unload, handle, load, and re-bolt a test item at its many attachment points on the rigid fixture. Furthermore, the capital cost of these Legacy systems can be prohibitive, especially for the smaller supplier, who is being compelled to perform squeak & rattle testing on the products they supply to their customers, the vehicle manufacturers and Tier 1 suppliers.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Refueling Emissions Control With Onboard and Stage II Systems

A comparison of alternative methods for the control of motor vehicle refueling emissions indicates that Stage II control systems installed at gasoline service stations can provide greater control at lower cost than Onboard control systems installed on motor vehicles. In addition, Stage II control can be achieved with a shorter implementation schedule. Because of this advantage, Stage II controls can achieve more than twice the hydrocarbon reductions possible with Onboard systems during the next ten years, when additional reductions are needed to meet the ambient air quality standard for ozone. Several assumptions are critical to a comparison of Stage II and Onboard controls. These include service station population and size cut-offs, whether “breathing loss” emissions are considered, system cost and lead time, and whether additional evaporative emission controls are considered under both Stage II and Onboard control programs.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Two Optimal Preview Driver Models for Automobile Directional Control

A systematic comparison between the two position preview driver models, the optimal preview acceleration model and the optimal preview control model for directional control has been carried out in this paper by means of the theoretical analysis and the digital simulation. The comparison results indicate that the optimal preview control model belongs essentially to the second order following control system, and its following performance is not so good as the optimal preview acceleration model in which the order number is greater than 2. Also, the results from the double-lane-change experiment of the closed-loop system show that the control strategy of most real drivers is basically corresponding to the so-called second-and-half-order optimal preview acceleration model.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Two Soft-Sensing Methods for Estimating Vehicle Side Slip Angle

Two soft-sensing methods which are neural network and Kalman filter for estimating vehicle side slip angle are compared. A radial basis function (RBF) neural network based soft-sensing model is proposed to estimate vehicle side slip angle in driver-vehicle closed-loop system. Vehicle side slip angle is considered as mapping of time series of yaw rate and lateral acceleration which are easily measured, the nonlinear mapping relationship of the three state parameters is established through neural network. In addition the method based on Kalman filter is also given. The results of comparison between estimation and measurement show that the neural network method proposed in this paper has higher accuracy and less computation requirement. It can provide theoretical guidance for design of estimator in vehicle stability control system.