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Technical Paper

"Nickel electroformed" tools development through stereolithography (SLA) for sheet metal forming~An evaluation study

2000-06-12
2000-05-0272
Currently, advancements in Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies have led to considerable amount of research activities and has been playing a major role in the area of tooling development for which Rapid Tooling (RT) term was coined. While rapid prototyping techniques are employed to make prototype tools, the basic idea of the rapid tooling is to produce prototype and zero series parts by using prototype tools so the parts truly represent the future production. This paper will present an evaluation of a RP and RT technique in developing tools (punch and dies) for sheet metal forming, which had been manufactured and tested. Both punch and die have been manufactured by combining Stereolithography (SL), RP technique, with nickel electroforming process. The stereolithography technique that had been utilized in developing models for the tools had been built with modeling pattern called Accurate Clear Epoxy Solid (ACES).
Technical Paper

"Quattro"-Drive for Every Day Driving

1984-01-01
845070
An essential feature of the Audi Quattro permanent four-wheel drive system is in the inter-axle differential located on the hollow output shaft in the gearbox: the drive is taken from this differential forward to the front differential through the inside of the hollow shaft, and rearward to a propellor shaft driving the rear differential. The major advantages in everyday driving include improved traction and a reduced tendency toward throttle induced changes of attitude. The greater traction allows not only better progress in difficult road conditions; it also gives better acceleration in difficult traffic situations, such as when joining a busy main road. The more easily predictable handling response to throttle changes means that Quattro vehicles have better tracking stability. Altogether, the active safety and "roadability" are considerably improved.
Technical Paper

"Quick" tools development through stereolithography (SLA) for sheet metal forming~An evaluation study

2000-06-12
2000-05-0270
Currently, advancements in Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies have led to considerable amount of research activities and has been playing a major role in the area of tooling development for which Rapid Tooling (RT) term was coined. Rapid prototyping techniques are employed to make prototype tools. While, the basic idea of the rapid tooling is to produce prototype and zero series parts by using prototype tools so the parts truly represent the future production. This paper will present an evaluation of a RP & RT technique in developing tools (punch and dies) for sheet metal forming, which had been manufactured and tested. Both punch and die have been manufactured directly from Stereolithography (SL). The stereolithography technique that had been utilized in developing models for the tools had been built with modeling pattern called QuickCast infiltrated with Aluminum-Filled Epoxy, designated as Quick Tool.
Technical Paper

<PP/SEBS> Compounds: Sealing an Easier Future for Automotive Designers and Specifiers

2002-07-09
2002-01-1997
There is a definite trend toward the increasing use of “Glass Encapsulation Technology” in the automotive industry. In this technology a glass object such as a window is placed within a mould and an elastomer is injected around the window giving a tight sealing system. A wide variety of materials are currently used as the sealing materials in either static or semi-static encapsulated glazing systems, including a wide range of “elastomers”. New thermoplastic elastomer compounds are being developed that are characterized by their consistent properties; including high melt-fluidity, very good surface appearance, sealing properties, and resistance to weathering. Compound performance is highly dependent on formulation variables as well as the chemistries of the base materials. KRATON® SEBS polymers1 are block copolymers of styrene and ethylene/butylene.
Technical Paper

(Ce, Zr)O2 Solid Solutions for Three-Way Catalysts

1997-02-24
970463
It has been recently shown that (Ce, Zr)O2 mixed oxides provide improved catalytic performances compared to pure CeO2. Cerium oxide is the active Oxygen Storage Capacity (OSC) component in three way catalysts. However, higher performances, including OSC enhancement, can be achieved with thermally stable solid solutions of Ce and Zr oxides. In the present paper, we describe the structure and the advantages of Ce rich (Ce, Zr)O2 solid solutions and the improved catalytic properties of these materials when used in association with platinum. Various analytical techniques were used including thermo-reduction methods, OSC measurements, surface area measurements, XRD, HRTEM, XPS, and XANES/EXAFS.
Technical Paper

(Paint) Film Finishing in Practice

1992-02-01
920732
(Paint) film as an alternative to spray applied paint has received growing attention in recent years. The potential for economic and environmental advantage and quality enhancement with this technology has been reported in several technical papers (Ref. 1, 3 and 4). The actual practice of film finishing, however, has received only limited notice. Film finishes have been applied to aluminum, stainless steel, PVC, and ABS. Starting in 1982, part applications include: wheel covers, door edge guards, window surrounds, roof drip moldings, lower windshield moldings, rocker panels, body side moldings, B pillars, and A pillars. Industry awareness and acceptance of film finishing as a viable alternative to spray applied paint is increasing. The two technologies are similar in many ways, yet distinctly different in other ways. They share a common goal: To yield a durable finish, economically and with superior visual impact. This paper reviews the unique aspects of film finishing.
Technical Paper

100 HP / 200 Nm Diesel Motorcycle with 6 Speed Automated Manual Transmission

2004-09-27
2004-32-0069
Diesel engines, especially CR (Common Rail) DI (Direct Injection) TCI (Turbo Charged Inter-cooled), share a wide acceptance in the passenger car market due to the enormous torque and flexibility at low engine speed. A pre - condition for the use of a diesel engine in a motorcycle is that the disadvantages like combustion noise and visible smoke are reduced or eliminated. Moreover the fuel economy and performance characteristics of a diesel engine are dedicated to be used in a touring or large displacement motorcycle. The AVL engine concept is the first high performance diesel engine to be specially designed for motorcycles in terms of packaging and styling. To compensate for the limited engine speed range a gearbox with a wide ratio spread is required. This leads to a manual transmission with at least 6 gears or an automatic transmission. For the AVL concept an AMT (Automated Manual Transmission) was selected.
Technical Paper

100% Post-Consumer Recycled Nylon 6: Repolymerized Resin Provides Full Mechanical, Physical, & Aesthetic Properties

2000-03-06
2000-01-1394
The increased use of recycled resins can create a dilemma for automotive designers. On the one hand, there is a growing initiative to increase recycled materials content on vehicles, globally. On the other hand, traditional methods of recycling polymeric materials -both thermoplastics and thermosets - can lead to degradation of engineering, mechanical, processing, and / or aesthetic properties of the resin. In an era where quality rules, this situation forces designers to accept a much lower percentage of recyclate than they might otherwise wish to use or risk unacceptable property loss in molded parts - something no automaker can “afford ” for long. Hence, a valuable feedstream of materials (polymers) often ends up destined for a landfill once many consumer products are broken down and more easily reusable or recyclable materials are salvaged. As a case in point, each passenger car built globally contains an average of 15 - 20 kg of nylon polymers.
Technical Paper

16 Optimisation of a Stratified Charge Strategy for a Direct Injected Two-Stroke Engine

2002-10-29
2002-32-1785
Direct fuel injection is becoming mandatory in two-stroke S.I. engines, since it prevents one of the major problems of these engines, that is fuel loss from the exhaust port. Another important problem is combustion irregularity at light loads, due to excessive presence of residual gas in the charge, and can be solved by charge stratification. High-pressure liquid fuel injection is able to control the mixing process inside the cylinder for getting either stratified charge at partial loads or quasi-stoichiometric conditions, as it is required at full load. This paper shows the development of this solution for a small engine for moped and light scooter, using numeric and experimental tools. In order to obtain the best charge characteristics at every load and engine speed, different combustion chambers have been conceived and studied, examining the effects of combustion chamber geometry, together with injector position and injection timing
Technical Paper

175°C-Capable Thermoplastic Elastomers for Automotive Air Management and Sealing Applications

2007-11-28
2007-01-2576
Flexibility, oil resistance, and the need for heat resistance to 150°C-plus temperatures have traditionally limited automotive design engineers to two options - thermoset rubber or heat-shielding conventional thermoplastic elastomers (TPE). Both of these options present limitations in part design, the ability to consolidate the number of components in a part of assembly, and on total cost. This paper presents a class of high-performance, flexible thermoplastic elastomers based on dynamically vulcanized polyacrylate (ACM) elastomer dispersed in a continuous matrix of polyamide (PA) thermoplastic. These materials are capable of sustained heat resistance to 150°C and short-term heat resistance to 175°C, without requiring heat shielding. Recent advancements in blow molding and functional testing of the PA//ACM TPEs for automotive air management (ducts) and underhood sealing applications will be shown.
Technical Paper

180 Cu Yd Stripping Shovel

1967-02-01
670745
Because of the size and weight of the various components going into the machine, new approaches were used to solve the practical limitations of manufacturing facilities, shipping clearances, and erection procedures. Although the general appearance of the machine is similar to previous units, there are a number of new design features incorporated in the unit. This paper will be limited to the major design considerations as follows: adaption to stripping two seams of coal simultaneously; dipper with two doors; computerized hydraulic steering maintaining Ackerman correction; double end drive crawlers and belt tensioning; and electrical innovations.
Technical Paper

1958 Chevrolet LEVEL AIR SUSPENSION

1958-01-01
580049
CHEVROLET has made its new air-suspension system easily interchangeable in production line assembly with standard full-coil suspension by adopting a 4-link-type rear suspension with short and long arms. A feature of the system is the mounting of the leveling valves within the air-spring assemblies. These valves correct riding height continually at a moderate rate, regardless of whether the springs are leveling or operating in ride motion. The system provides constant frequency ride—ride comfort remains the same whether the car is occupied by the driver alone or is fully loaded.
Technical Paper

1983 Ford Ranger Truck HSLA Steel Wheel

1982-02-01
820019
The demand for improved fuel economy in both cars and trucks has emphasized the need for lighter weight components. The application of high strength steel to wheels, both rim and disc, represents a significant opportunity for the automotive industry. This paper discusses the Ranger HSLA wheel program that achieved a 9.7 lbs. per vehicle weight savings relative to a plain carbon steel wheel of the same design. It describes the Ranger wheel specifications, the material selection, the metallurgical considerations of applying HSLA to wheels, and HSLA arc and flash butt welding. The Ranger wheel design and the development of the manufacturing process is discussed, including design modifications to accommodate the lighter gage. The results demonstrate that wheels can be successfully manufactured from low sulfur 60XK HSLA steel in a conventional high volume process (stamped disc and rolled rim) to meet all wheel performance requirements and achieve a significant weight reduction.
Technical Paper

1996 GM 7.4 Liter Engine Upgrade

1996-02-01
960012
General Motors Powertrain Division has developed the next generation big block V8 engine for introduction in the 1996 model year. In addition to meeting tighter emission and on-board diagnostic legislation, this engine evolved to meet both customer requirements and competitive challenges. Starting with the proven dependability of the time tested big block V8, goals were set to substantially increase the power, torque, fuel economy and overall pleaseability of GM's large load capacity gasoline engine. The need for this new engine to meet packaging requirements in many vehicle platforms, both truck and OEM, as well as a requirement for minimal additional heat rejection over the engine being replaced, placed additional constraints on the design.
Technical Paper

1997 GM 5.7 LITER LS1 V8 ENGINE

1997-02-24
970915
General Motors Powertrain Group (GMPTG) has developed an all new small block V8 engine, designated LS1, for introduction into the 1997 Corvette. This engine was designed to meet both customer requirements and competitive challenges while also meeting the ever increasing legislated requirements of emissions and fuel economy. This 5.7L V8 provides increased power and torque while delivering higher fuel economy. In addition, improvements in both QRD and NVH characteristics were made while meeting packaging constraints and achieving significant mass reductions.
Technical Paper

1D Model of a Copper Exchanged Small Pore Zeolite Catalyst Based on Transient SCR Protocol

2013-04-08
2013-01-1578
Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are the leading aftertreatment technology for diesel engines, but there are major challenges associated with meeting future NOx emission standards, especially under transient drive cycle conditions that include large swings in exhaust temperatures. Here we present a simplified, transient, one-dimensional integral model of NOx reduction by NH₃ on a commercial small-pore Cu-zeolite urea-SCR catalyst for which detailed kinetic parameters have not been published. The model was developed and validated using data acquired from bench reactor experiments on a monolith core, following a transient SCR reactor protocol. The protocol incorporates NH₃ storage, NH₃ oxidation, NO oxidation and three global SCR reactions under isothermal conditions, at three space velocities and at three NH₃/NOx ratios.
Technical Paper

1D Simulation of Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection Engine for Transient Strategy Optimization

2005-04-11
2005-01-0693
This paper presents 1D engine simulation used for engine control strategy optimization for a twin-scroll turbocharged gasoline direct injection 2.0 L engine with twin camphaser. The results show good agreement of the engine model behavior with testbed acquisitions for a large amount of steady state set points and under transient operating conditions. The presented method demonstrates that a 1D engine code represents a useful and efficient tool during all steps of the engine control development process from design to real-time for such an advanced engine technology.
Journal Article

1D Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Reacting Flows inside Three-Way Catalytic Converters

2009-04-20
2009-01-1510
In this work a detailed model to simulate the transient behavior of catalytic converters is presented. The model is able to predict the unsteady and reacting flows in the exhaust ducts, by solving the system of conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy and transport of reacting chemical species. The en-gine and the intake system have not been included in the simulation, imposing the measured values of mass flow, gas temperature and chemical composition as a boundary condition at the inlet of the exhaust system. A detailed analysis of the diffusion stage triggering is proposed along with simplifications of the physics, finalized to the reduction of the calculation time. Submodels for water condensation and its following evaporation on the monolith surface have been taken into account as well as oxygen storage promoted by ceria oxides.
Standard

2-D CAD Template for SAE J826 H-point Machine

2016-10-13
CURRENT
J826/2_201610
This document describes the 2-D computer-aided design (CAD) template for the HPM-1 H-point machine or HPD available from SAE. The elements of the HPD include the curve shapes, datum points and lines, and calibration references. The intended purpose for this information is to provide a master CAD reference for design and benchmarking. The content and format of the data files that are available are also described.
Technical Paper

2-D Springback Analysis for Stretch-Bending Processes Based on Total Strain Theory

1995-02-01
950691
A theoretical model is presented for predicting springback of wide sheet metal subjected to 2D-stretch-bending operation. The material is assumed to be normal anisotropic with n-th power hardening law, σ = Fεn. Two types of stretch-bending experiment, bending with simultaneous stretching and stretch-bending followed by consecutive re-stretching, is conducted using AK sheet steel and sheet aluminum alloy A5182-O. The measured values of springback are in good agreement with analytical ones for a wide range of bending radii, stretching forces, and loading conditions. Furthermore, a calculation method for predicting springback configurations of 2D sheet metal parts with arbitrary cross-sections which include both stretch-bending and stretch-bending-unbending deformation is proposed.
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