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Technical Paper

4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicle Modeling and Simulation of Special Conditions

This paper introduces the characteristics of the 4 wheel independent driving/4 wheel independent steering (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicle (EV). Models of Subsystems and the vehicle are constructed based on Matlab/simulink. The vehicle model allows the inputs of different drive torques and steer angles of four wheels. The dynamic characteristics of drive motors and steer motors are considered, and also it can reflect the vehicle longitudinal dynamics change due to the increase of the mass and inertia of the four wheels. Besides, drive mode selection function that is unique to this type vehicle is involved. Simulations and analyses of crab, oblique driving and zero radius turning which are the special conditions of 4WID/4WIS EV are conducted. The results show that the model can reflect the dynamic response characteristics. The model can be used to the simulation analyses of handling, stability, energy saving and control strategies verification of 4WID/4WIS EVs.
Technical Paper

A Braking Force Distribution Strategy in Integrated Braking System Based on Wear Control and Hitch Force Control

A braking force distribution strategy in integrated braking system composed of the main braking system and the auxiliary braking system based on braking pad wear control and hitch force control under non-emergency braking condition is proposed based on the Electronically Controlled Braking System (EBS) to reduce the difference in braking pad wear between different axles and to decrease hitch force between tractors and trailers. The proposed strategy distributes the braking force based on the desired braking intensity, the degree of the braking pad wear and the limits of certain braking regulations to solve the coupling problems between braking safety, economical efficiency of braking and the comfort of drivers. Computer co-simulations of the proposed strategy are performed.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of a Semi-Active Inerter and a Semi-Active Suspension

Inerters have become a hot topic in recent years, especially in vehicle, train, and building suspension systems. The performance of a passive inerter and a semi-active inerter was analyzed and compared with each other and it showed that the semi-active inerter has much better performance than the passive inerter, especially with the Hybrid control method. Eight different layouts of suspensions were analyzed with a quarter car model in this paper. The adaptation of dimensionless parameters was considered for a semi-active suspension and the semi-active inerters. The performance of the semi-active inerter suspensions with different layouts was compared with a semi-active suspension with a conventional parallel spring-damper arrangement. It shows a semi-active suspension, with more simple configuration and lower cost, has similar or better compromise between ride and handling than a semi-active inerter with the Hybrid control.
Technical Paper

A Model-Based Mass Estimation and Optimal Braking Force Distribution Algorithm of Tractor and Semi-Trailer Combination

Taking a good longitudinal braking performance on flat and level road of tractor and semi-trailer combination as a target, in order to achieve an ideal braking force distribution among axles, while the vehicle deceleration is just depend on the driver's intention, not affected by the variation of semi-trailer mass, the paper proposes a model based vehicle mass identification and braking force distribution strategy. The strategy identifies the driver's braking intention via braking pedal, estimates semi-trailer's mass during the building process of braking pressure in brake chamber, distributes braking force among axles by using the estimated mass. And a double closed-loop regulation of the vehicle deceleration and utilization adhesion coefficient of each axle is presented, in order to eliminate the bad effect of mass estimation error, and enhance the robustness of the whole algorithm. A simulation is conducted by utilizing MATLAB/Simulink and TruckSim.
Technical Paper

A Study of Calculation Method of Wheel Speed and Wheel Angular Acceleration Based on dSPACE Rapid Control Prototyping in Modern Automotive Control Systems

One of the key technologies of automotive active safety systems is to calculate the wheel speed and wheel angular acceleration or deceleration. Obtaining an accurate control quantity is the prerequisite for active safety systems no matter what control logics are used to realize the control function. This paper puts forward a new wheel speed processing algorithm. This method was simulated in MATLAB \ Simulink. Then it was tested in a certain type of vehicle of FAW by applying dSPACE RCP. It proves that this algorithm assures the precision at high and low speed and the real-time performance at low speed.
Technical Paper

Aeroelastic Response and Structural Improvement for Heavy-Duty Truck Cab Deflectors

Numerical simulations on the fluid-structure interaction were conducted using commercial software STAR-CCM+ and ABAQUS. The aeroelastic responses of a deflector under several different working conditions were simulated utilizing finite volume and finite element methods to investigate the aeroelastic problem of automotive deflectors. Results showed that the structural response of a top deflector is minimal under the influence of aerodynamics given its large structural stiffness. The size of the top deflector was optimised by using thickness as a variable. The volume and quality of the top deflector were significantly reduced, and its lightweight performance was improved to satisfy the stiffness performance requirement. The vibration of a side deflector structure was mainly induced by the turbulence on the structure surface. The amplitude of vibration was small and the vibration gradually converged in a few seconds without obvious regularity.
Technical Paper

An Over-Temperature Protection Control Strategy for Electric Power Steering Motor

The EPS motor will be over-heated if large current lasts for a long time, which will decline the performance of EPS motor and even lead to irreparable damage. So the over-temperature protection control should be conducted in order to protect the components of EPS system, especially the durability of EPS motor. In this paper, the motor temperature was estimated according to the environmental temperature and the current of motor armature, and then the EPS assist current was limited based on the estimated temperature of motor to ensure that the EPS motor had a good working condition. So the over-temperature protection control for motor can be realized without increasing the EPS system components. Finally the control strategy for over-temperature protection was conducted in a vehicle with EPS system and its performance was verified.
Technical Paper

Auxiliary Drive Control Strategy of Hydraulic Hub-Motor Auxiliary System for Heavy Truck

To improve traditional heavy commercial vehicles performance, this paper introduces a novel hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary system, which could achieve auxiliary driving and auxiliary braking function. Firstly, the system configuration and operation modes are described. In order to achieve coordinating control and distribution of the engine power between mechanical and hydraulic paths, the paper proposes an optimal algorithm based on enhance of vehicle slip efficiency and the results show that displacement of hydraulic variable pump relates with the transmission gear ratio. And then the hydraulic pump displacement controller is designed, in which the feedforward and feedback strategy is adopted. Considering the characteristics of hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary system, a layered auxiliary drive control strategy is proposed in the paper, which includes signal layers, core control layers and executive layers.
Technical Paper

Balanced Suspension Thrust Rod Fatigue Life Prediction

In order to predict the fatigue life of thrust rod heavy duty commercial vehicle balanced suspension, based on the continuum mechanics theory, the fatigue life prediction model of rubber with equivalent effect as damage parameter is established. Based on the equivalent stress and fatigue cumulative damage theory, the fatigue damage evolution equation of rubber material expressed by stress is derived by using the strain energy function. The general fatigue life model is established by using the maximum logarithmic principal strain as the damage parameter. The finite element model of the thrust rod is established, and the stress distribution of the spherical hinge rubber layer and the easy damage area are analyzed. Based on the equivalent stress calculation results and the axial tension stress and strain data of the rubber material, the accuracy of the results of the finite element calculation is verified.
Technical Paper

CAN Communication Applying on the Performance Evaluating of Electronic Brake System for Commercial Vehicle

In the performance evaluating of Electronic Brake System, conventional test methods have some inconvenience in existence. For example, the fixing of pressure sensors and wheel speed sensors is restrained by the installation position, and the precision of measuring is prone to be affected by the environment conditions. Since Electronic Brake System is featured by CAN (Controller Area Network) communication, special testing instrument can be connected with CAN bus, monitoring signals transmitting on the bus. This paper outlines the results of the study performed to analyze the application of CAN communication in the way of performance evaluation of Electronic Braking System.
Technical Paper

Chassis Tuning Study of a Commercial Vehicle

This paper presents the study of chassis tuning of a commercial vehicle, which has a rear suspension with dual stage leaf spring assembly and a front suspension with double wishbone torsion bar. To balance the handling and ride performance of the vehicle, it is necessary to tune the key suspension parameters of the chassis including the dual stage stiffness of the leaf spring, the contact load of the leaf spring, the torsional rigidity of the torsion bar, the force curve of the front and rear dampers etc. The chassis tuning process of a physical commercial vehicle was first put forward. In the proposed flowchart, the kinematics and statics of front & rear suspensions were checked at the beginning of the tuning. Then the tire mechanical characteristics were tested by using a plate-type tire tester and the inertial parameters of the vehicle were indirectly measured. The K&C characteristics of front and rear suspensions were also tested and compared with the benchmark vehicle's.
Technical Paper

Commercial Vehicles Thrust Rod Static and Dynamic Characteristics Analysis

In order to study the static and dynamic characteristics of the thrust rod. Based on the multi-body dynamics theory, the dynamic model of the thrust rod and the vehicle system is established by using ADAMS software. The limit braking condition is simulated, and the limit braking load of the thrust rod is obtained. Thrust rod finite element model is established, the load calculation value and rubber test data as a finite element analysis of input conditions, using ABAQUS software to carry on the stiffness and strength analysis, analysis results show that the strength meets the requirement, and the stiffness and strength calculation result is in good agreement with the sample test, accurately describes the finite element model. The analytical method used can be used to predict the stiffness of the thrust rod.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Truck Ride Comfort of 4 Degree of Freedom Rigid-Elastic Model with 2 Degree of Freedom Rigid Model

In order to study the influence of body flexibility on the truck ride comfort, a 4 DOF half vibration model of truck based on the motion synthesis between rigid body and body flexibility is established using elastic beam theory of equal section with both free ends. At the same time, a corresponding 2 DOF rigid vibration model is also built. The frequency response functions of system and response variables of two models are derived based on front wheel. The power spectral densities and the root mean square values of body acceleration, dynamic deflections and relative dynamic loads are obtained. By comparing the simulation results of rigid-elastic model and rigid model, it shows that body flexibility has a great impact on truck ride comfort and it cannot be ignored.
Technical Paper

Develop Hybrid Transit Buses for Chinese Cities1

This paper summarized the first phase research work to develop hybrid transit buses for China, including driving cycle analysis, performance requirements setting, key components first dimensioning, configuration choosing, saving potential estimate and parametric study. Through these fundamental works, we realize that (1) the Chinese urban bus cycle has some specialties compared with foreign ones, and these specialties cause differences on the design criteria and design results of the hybrid buses; (2) the parallel configuration is better than the series one for the Chinese cycle from both fuel consumption and cost points of view.
Technical Paper

Development and Research on Control Strategy of Advanced Electronic Braking Systems for Commercial Vehicle

Electronic braking system (EBS) of commercial vehicle is developed based on Anti-lock Braking System (ABS), for the purpose of enhancing the braking performance. Based on the previous study, this paper aims at the development and research on the control strategy of advanced electronic braking system for commercial vehicle, which mainly includes braking force distribution and multiple targets control strategy. In the study of braking force distribution control strategy, the mass of vehicle and the axle loads will be calculated dynamically and the braking force of each wheel will be distributed regarding to the axle loads. The braking intention recognition takes the brake pad wear into account when braking uncritically, so it can detect a difference in the pads between the front and the rear axles. The brake assist strategy supports the driver during emergency braking and the braking distance is shortened by the reduction of the braking system response time.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of New Control Algorithm for Parallel Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

The new control algorithm for parallel hybrid electric vehicle is presented systematically, in which engine operation points are limited within higher efficient area by the control algorithm and the state of charge (SOC) is limited in a range in order to enhance the batteries' charging and discharging efficiency. In order to determine the ideal operating point of the vehicle's engine, the control strategy uses a lookup table to determine the torque output of the engine. The off-line simulation model of parallel HEV power train is developed which includes the control system and controlled objective (such as engine, electric motor, battery pack and so on). The results show that the control algorithm can effectively limite engine and battery operation points and much more fuel economy can be achieved than that of conventional one.
Technical Paper

Development and Verification of Electronic Braking System ECU Software for Commercial Vehicle

Electronic braking system (EBS) of commercial vehicle is developed from ABS to enhance the brake performance. Based on the early development of controller hardware, this paper starts with an analysis of the definition of EBS. It aims at the software design of electronic control unit, and makes it compiled into the controller in the form of C language by the in-depth study about control strategy of EBS in different braking conditions. Designed controller software is divided into two layers. The upper control strategy includes the recognition algorithm of driver's braking intention, estimation algorithm of the vehicle state, conventional braking strategy which consists of the algorithm of deceleration control and braking force distribution, and emergency braking strategy which consists of the algorithm of brake assist control and ABS control.
Technical Paper

Development of Simulation Platform and Control Strategy of Electronic Braking System for Commercial Vehicles

Pneumatic Electric Braking System (EBS) is getting widely spread for commercial vehicles. Pneumatic EBS improves the problem of slow response of traditional pneumatic braking system by implementing brake-by-wire. However, the time-delay response and hysteresis of some electro-pneumatic components and some other issues decrease the response and control accuracy of the pneumatic EBS.
Technical Paper

Development of a Control Strategy and HIL Validation of Electronic Braking System for Commercial Vehicle

This article focuses on the research of control algorithm and control logic for the pneumatic EBS (Electronic Braking System) of commercial vehicle. An overall technical program was proposed which develops conventional braking and emergency braking for commercial vehicle EBS. According to the overall scheme, the methods of vehicle state estimation and driver's braking intention were determined, modeling and simulation for key components of commercial vehicle EBS were then carried out. This lead to the development of deceleration control, braking force distribution, brake assist and ABS control. Simulation models for key components of EBS and control strategy were validated through hardware-in-the-loop simulation tests. Simulation results show that the control strategy improves vehicle braking stability and vehicle active safety.
Technical Paper

Developmental Driver Model for Long Vehicles Based on Preview-Follower Theory

A long vehicle is more difficult to drive than a short one, but the mechanism of this phenomenon is still ambiguous. This paper will devote main effort to elaborate this phenomenon based on the theory of preview-follower driver model. Drivers always hope that the vehicle center can travel according to a predetermined trajectory. However, there is often a deviation between the vehicle center predicted by the driver and the actual center. As for this phenomenon, a conception of driver preview eccentricity is proposed. In order to analyze the influence of the proposed conception on vehicle driving track, a multi-axle steering vehicle model is built and some basic expressions of important parameters are deduced from this model firstly. Then, the developmental driver model with the factor of preview eccentricity based on preview-follower theory is established in the state of low velocity quasi-static. Subsequently, this model for long vehicles is extended to a dynamic driver model.