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Technical Paper

A Co-Simulation Environment for Virtual Prototyping of Ground Vehicles

2007-10-30
2007-01-4250
The use of virtual prototyping early in the design stage of a product has gained popularity due to reduced cost and time to market. The state of the art in vehicle simulation has reached a level where full vehicles are analyzed through simulation but major difficulties continue to be present in interfacing the vehicle model with accurate powertrain models and in developing adequate formulations for the contact between tire and terrain (specifically, scenarios such as tire sliding on ice and rolling on sand or other very deformable surfaces). The proposed work focuses on developing a ground vehicle simulation capability by combining several third party packages for vehicle simulation, tire simulation, and powertrain simulation. The long-term goal of this project consists in promoting the Digital Car idea through the development of a reliable and robust simulation capability that will enhance the understanding and control of off-road vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Hydraulic Hybrid Systems for Class 6 Trucks

2013-04-08
2013-01-1472
In order to reduce fuel consumption, companies have been looking at hybridizing vehicles. So far, two main hybridization options have been considered: electric and hydraulic hybrids. Because of light duty vehicle operating conditions and the high energy density of batteries, electric hybrids are being widely used for cars. However, companies are still evaluating both hybridization options for medium and heavy duty vehicles. Trucks generally demand very large regenerative power and frequent stop-and-go. In that situation, hydraulic systems could offer an advantage over electric drive systems because the hydraulic motor and accumulator can handle high power with small volume capacity. This study compares the fuel displacement of class 6 trucks using a hydraulic system compared to conventional and hybrid electric vehicles. The paper will describe the component technology and sizes of each powertrain as well as their overall vehicle level control strategies.
Journal Article

A High Efficiency, Dilute Gasoline Engine for the Heavy-Duty Market

2012-09-24
2012-01-1979
A 13 L HD diesel engine was converted to run as a flame propagation engine using the HEDGE™ Dual-Fuel concept. This concept consists of pre-mixed gasoline ignited by a small amount of diesel fuel - i.e., a diesel micropilot. Due to the large bore size and relatively high compression ratio for a pre-mixed combustion engine, high levels of cooled EGR were used to suppress knock and reduce the engine-out emissions of the oxides of nitrogen and particulates. Previous work had indicated that the boosting of high dilution engines challenges most modern turbocharging systems, so phase I of the project consisted of extensive simulation efforts to identify an EGR configuration that would allow for high levels of EGR flow along the lug curve while minimizing pumping losses and combustion instabilities from excessive backpressure. A potential solution that provided adequate BTE potential was consisted of dual loop EGR systems to simultaneously flow high pressure and low pressure loop EGR.
Technical Paper

Advanced Combustion for Improved Thermal Efficiency in an Advanced On-Road Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0237
For internal combustion engines, the compression ratio (r) is defined as the ratio of volume at bottom dead center to the volume at top dead center and is a fundamental design parameter influencing the thermodynamic operation of the modern combustion engine. Thermodynamic cycle analysis can show that thermal efficiency increases as the compression ratio increases. An increase in the compression ratio changes the cycle such that peak compression pressure and temperatures are increased resulting in subsequent increases in the peak combustion pressure and temperature. Since the average temperature of heat addition is increased in the cycle, the thermal efficiency would theoretically increase as long as both cycles had the same heat rejection processes. These changes in peak pressure and temperature of the cycle must also be evaluated in terms of anticipated increases in engine friction and changes to the combustion duration respectively.
Journal Article

An Engine and Powertrain Mapping Approach for Simulation of Vehicle CO2 Emissions

2015-09-29
2015-01-2777
Simulations used to estimate carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and fuel consumption of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles over prescribed drive cycles often employ engine fuel maps consisting of engine measurements at numerous steady-state operating conditions. However, simulating the engine in this way has limitations as engine controls become more complex, particularly when attempting to use steady-state measurements to represent transient operation. This paper explores an alternative approach to vehicle simulation that uses a “cycle average” engine map rather than a steady state engine fuel map. The map contains engine CO2 values measured on an engine dynamometer on cycles derived from vehicle drive cycles for a range of generic vehicles. A similar cycle average mapping approach is developed for a powertrain (engine and transmission) in order to show the specific CO2 improvements due to powertrain optimization that would not be recognized in other approaches.
Journal Article

CFD-Guided Combustion System Optimization of a Gasoline Range Fuel in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Using Automatic Piston Geometry Generation and a Supercomputer

2019-01-15
2019-01-0001
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) guided combustion system optimization was conducted for a heavy-duty diesel engine running with a gasoline fuel that has a research octane number (RON) of 80. The goal was to optimize the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion recipe (piston bowl geometry, injector spray pattern, in-cylinder swirl motion, and thermal boundary conditions) for improved fuel efficiency while maintaining engine-out NOx within a 1-1.5 g/kW-hr window. The numerical model was developed using the multi-dimensional CFD software CONVERGE. A two-stage design of experiments (DoE) approach was employed with the first stage focusing on the piston bowl shape optimization and the second addressing refinement of the combustion recipe. For optimizing the piston bowl geometry, a software tool, CAESES, was utilized to automatically perturb key bowl design parameters. This led to the generation of 256 combustion chamber designs evaluated at several engine operating conditions.
Journal Article

CFD-Guided Heavy Duty Mixing-Controlled Combustion System Optimization with a Gasoline-Like Fuel

2017-03-28
2017-01-0550
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) guided combustion system optimization was conducted for a heavy-duty compression-ignition engine with a gasoline-like fuel that has an anti-knock index (AKI) of 58. The primary goal was to design an optimized combustion system utilizing the high volatility and low sooting tendency of the fuel for improved fuel efficiency with minimal hardware modifications to the engine. The CFD model predictions were first validated against experimental results generated using the stock engine hardware. A comprehensive design of experiments (DoE) study was performed at different operating conditions on a world-leading supercomputer, MIRA at Argonne National Laboratory, to accelerate the development of an optimized fuel-efficiency focused design while maintaining the engine-out NOx and soot emissions levels of the baseline production engine.
Journal Article

Development of Dual-Fuel Low Temperature Combustion Strategy in a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Using Conventional and Alternative Fuels

2013-09-24
2013-01-2422
Low temperature combustion through in-cylinder blending of fuels with different reactivity offers the potential to improve engine efficiency while yielding low engine-out NOx and soot emissions. A Navistar MaxxForce 13 heavy-duty compression ignition engine was modified to run with two separate fuel systems, aiming to utilize fuel reactivity to demonstrate a technical path towards high engine efficiency. The dual-fuel engine has a geometric compression ratio of 14 and uses sequential, multi-port-injection of a low reactivity fuel in combination with in-cylinder direct injection of diesel. Through control of in-cylinder charge reactivity and reactivity stratification, the engine combustion process can be tailored towards high efficiency and low engine-out emissions. Engine testing was conducted at 1200 rpm over a load sweep.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Analysis of Snow Falling from Roof of Cab on Cowl Tray with Equation of State Defined for Snow

2010-10-05
2010-01-1914
This paper talks about using an approach to simulate snow mass falling from roof of cab on the cowl tray of a commercial truck and predicting the durability life of the cowl tray based on this loading. It has always been a challenge for analysts to model the behavior of snow/slurry in dynamic simulations especially where the area of concern is structure and not the fluid. The conventional approach followed in most industries would be either to model snow as soft rubber or to divert from the conventional Lagrangian algorithm for mesh movement towards Eulerian method (or ALE algorithm). Although modeling snow as soft rubber captures the basic physics of the problem, it is not able to correctly simulate the fluid structure interaction behavior and the pressure wave movement inside the snow/slurry when it comes in contact with the structure.
Technical Paper

Effects of Nanofluid Coolant in a Class 8 Truck Engine

2007-11-01
2007-01-2141
The cooling system of a Class 8 truck engine was modeled using the Flowmaster computer code. Numerical simulations were performed replacing the standard coolant, 50/50 mixture of ethylene-glycol and water, with nanofluids comprised of CuO nanoparticles suspended in a base fluid of a 50/50 mixture of ethylene-glycol and water. By using engine and cooling system parameters from the standard coolant case, the higher heat transfer coefficients of the nanofluids resulted in lower engine and coolant temperatures. These temperature reductions introduced flexibility in system parameters - three of which were investigated for performance improvement: engine power, coolant pump speed and power, and radiator air-side area.
Journal Article

Efficient, Active Radiator-Cooling System

2013-05-15
2013-01-9017
A new concept for an efficient radiator-cooling system is presented for reducing the size or increasing the cooling capacity of vehicle coolant radiators. Under certain conditions, the system employs active evaporative cooling in addition to conventional finned air cooling. In this regard, it is a hybrid radiator-cooling system comprised of the combination of conventional air-side finned surface cooling and active evaporative water cooling. The air-side finned surface is sized to transfer required heat under all driving conditions except for the most severe. In the later case, evaporative cooling is used in addition to the conventional air-side finned surface cooling. Together the two systems transfer the required heat under all driving conditions. However, under most driving conditions, only the air-side finned surface cooling is required. Consequently, the finned surface may be smaller than in conventional radiators that utilize air-side finned surface cooling exclusively.
Journal Article

Engine Technologies for Clean and High Efficiency Heavy Duty Engines

2012-09-24
2012-01-1976
Diesel engine manufacturers have faced stringent emission regulations for oxides of nitrogen and particulate emissions for the last two decades. The emission challenges have been met with a host of technologies such as turbocharging, exhaust gas recirculation, high- pressure common rail fuel injection systems, diesel aftertreatment devices, and electronic engine controls. The next challenge for diesel engine manufacturers is fuel-economy regulations starting in 2014. As a prelude to this effort the department of energy (DOE) has funded the Supertruck project which intends to demonstrate 50% brake-thermal efficiency on the dynamometer while meeting US 2010 emission norms. In order to simultaneously meet the emission and engine efficiency goals in the cost effective manner engine manufacturer have adopted a systems approach, since individual fuel saving technologies can actually work against each other if fuel economy is not approached from a total vehicle perspective.
Technical Paper

Fuel Consumption and Performance Benefits of Electrified Powertrains for Transit Buses

2018-04-03
2018-01-0321
This study presents a process to quantify the fuel saving potential of electrified powertrains for medium and heavy duty vehicles. For this study, equivalent vehicles with electrified powertrains are designed with the underlying principle of not compromising on cargo carrying capacity or performance. Several performance characteristics, that are relevant for all types of medium and heavy duty vehicles, were identified for benchmarking based on the feedback from the industry. Start-stop hybrids, parallel pre-transmission hybrids, plug-in hybrids, and battery electric vehicles are the technology choices in this study. This paper uses one vehicle as an example, explains the component sizing process followed for each powertrain, and examines each powertrain’s fuel saving potential. The process put forth in this paper can be used for evaluating vehicles that belong to all medium and heavy duty classes.
Technical Paper

Ignition Control of Gasoline-Diesel Dual Fuel Combustion

2012-09-24
2012-01-1972
The use of gasoline fuels in compression ignition engines, with or without diesel pilots, has shown encouraging progress in engine efficiency and emissions. The dual fuel combustion of gasoline-diesel offers the flexibility of modulating the cylinder charge reactivity, but an accurate and reliable control over the ignition in the dual fuel applications is more challenging than in classical engines. In this work, the gasoline-diesel dual fuel operation is investigated on a single cylinder research engine. The effects of the intake boost, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates, diesel/gasoline ratio, and diesel injection timing are studied in regard to the ignition control. The results indicate that at low load, a diesel pilot can improve the cylinder charge reactivity and reduce emissions of incomplete combustion products.
Technical Paper

Impact of Effective Compression Ratio on Gasoline-Diesel Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine Using Variable Valve Actuation

2015-09-01
2015-01-1796
Dual-fuel combustion using port-injected gasoline with a direct diesel injection has been shown to achieve low-temperature combustion with moderate peak pressure rise rates, low engine-out soot and NOx emissions, and high indicated thermal efficiency. A key requirement for extending high-load operation is moderating the reactivity of the premixed charge prior to the diesel injection. Reducing compression ratio, in conjunction with a higher expansion ratio using alternative valve timings, decreases compressed charge reactivity while maintain a high expansion ratio for maximum work extraction. Experimental testing was conducted on a 13L multi-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine modified to operate dual-fuel combustion with port gasoline injection to supplement the direct diesel injection. The engine employs intake variable valve actuation (VVA) for early (EIVC) or late (LIVC) intake valve closing to yield reduced effective compression ratio.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of a Gasoline-Like Fuel in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Using Global Sensitivity Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-0578
Fuels in the gasoline auto-ignition range (Research Octane Number (RON) > 60) have been demonstrated to be effective alternatives to diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Such fuels allow more time for mixing with oxygen before combustion starts, owing to longer ignition delay. Moreover, by controlling fuel injection timing, it can be ensured that the in-cylinder mixture is “premixed enough” before combustion occurs to prevent soot formation while remaining “sufficiently inhomogeneous” in order to avoid excessive heat release rates. Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) has the potential to offer diesel-like efficiency at a lower cost and can be achieved with fuels such as low-octane straight run gasoline which require significantly less processing in the refinery compared to today’s fuels.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Thermal Efficiency of a Multi-Cylinder Heavy Duty Engine with E85 Gasoline Compression Ignition

2019-04-02
2019-01-0557
Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) using a single gasoline-type fuel for direct/port injection has been shown as a method to achieve low-temperature combustion with low engine-out NOx and soot emissions and high indicated thermal efficiency. However, key technical barriers to achieving low temperature combustion on multi-cylinder engines include the air handling system (limited amount of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)) as well as mechanical engine limitations (e.g. peak pressure rise rate). In light of these limitations, high temperature combustion with reduced amounts of EGR appears more practical. Previous studies with 93 AKI gasoline demonstrated that the port and direct injection strategy exhibited the best performance, but the premature combustion event prevented further increase in the premixed gasoline fraction and efficiency.
Technical Paper

Proof-of-Concept Numerical Study for NOx Reduction in Diesel Engines Using Enriched Nitrogen and Enriched Oxygen

2016-09-27
2016-01-8082
The medium and heavy duty vehicle industry has fostered an increase in emissions research with the aim of reducing NOx while maintaining power output and thermal efficiency. This research describes a proof-of-concept numerical study conducted on a Caterpillar single-cylinder research engine. The target of the study is to reduce NOx by taking a unique approach to combustion air handling and utilizing enriched nitrogen and oxygen gas streams provided by Air Separation Membranes. A large set of test cases were initially carried out for closed-cycle situations to determine an appropriate set of operating conditions that are conducive for NOx reduction and gas diffusion properties. Several parameters - experimental and numerical, were considered. Experimental aspects, such as engine RPM, fuel injection pressure, start of injection, spray inclusion angle, and valve timings were considered for the parametric study.
Journal Article

Recent Experimental and Simulation Efforts to Mitigate Wobble and Shimmy in Commercial Line Haul Vehicles

2014-09-30
2014-01-2314
Wobble and shimmy vibrations are commonly observed in commercial highway vehicles with solid-beam front axles. These vibrations are typically self-excited and manifest themselves as sustained oscillations about the kingpin and axle tramp. A study was initiated to investigate and quantify wobble and shimmy behaviors, with a primary focus on wobble. A cross functional team including test and simulation engineers evaluated a vehicle exhibiting these behaviors. The team developed an ADAMS model to reproduce the behaviors and developed a DOE to quantify the impact of variables and combinations of variables. The evaluation demonstrated that dynamic imbalance in the rotating masses is a primary source of excitation. Wheel run-out, caster angle, tire brand, tire wear and tire inflation are also significant sources. Future studies will use these findings to mitigate the concern.
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