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Technical Paper

CO2 Neutral Heavy-Duty Engine Concept with RCCI Combustion Using Seaweed-based Fuels

2020-04-14
2020-01-0808
This paper focusses on the application of bioalcohols (ethanol and butanol) derived from seaweed in Heavy-Duty (HD) Compression Ignition (CI) combustion engines. Seaweed-based fuels do not claim land and are not in competition with the food chain. Currently, the application of high octane bioalcohols is limited to Spark Ignition (SI) engines. The Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion concept allows the use of these low carbon fuels in CI engines which have higher efficiencies associated with them than SI engines. This contributes to the reduction of tailpipe CO2 emissions as required by (future) legislation and reducing fuel consumption, i.e. Total-Cost-of-Ownership (TCO). Furthermore, it opens the HD transport market for these low carbon bioalcohol fuels from a novel sustainable biomass source. In this paper, both the production of seaweed-based fuels and the application of these fuels in CI engines is discussed.
Technical Paper

Development, Validation and ECM Embedment of a Physics-Based SCR on Filter Model

2016-09-27
2016-01-8075
SCR on Filter (SCRoF) is an efficient and compact NOX and PM reduction technology already used in series production for light-duty applications. The technology is now finding its way into the medium duty and heavy duty market. One of the key challenges for successful application is the robustness to real world variations. The solution to this challenge can be found by using model-based control algorithms, utilizing state estimation by physics-based catalyst models. This paper focuses on the development, validation and real time implementation of a physics-based control oriented SCRoF model. An overview of the developed model will be presented, together with a brief description of the model parameter identification and validation process using engine test bench measurement data. The model parameters are identified following a streamlined approach, focusing on decoupling the effects of deNOx and soot phenomena.
Technical Paper

Experimental Demonstration of RCCI in Heavy-Duty Engines using Diesel and Natural Gas

2014-04-01
2014-01-1318
Premixed combustion concepts like PCCI and RCCI have attracted much attention, since these concepts offer possibilities to reduce engine out emissions to a low level, while still achieving good efficiency. Most RCCI studies use a combination of a high-cetane fuel like diesel, and gasoline as low-cetane fuel. Limited results have been published using natural gas as low-cetane fuel; especially full scale engine results. This study presents results from an experimental study of diesel-CNG RCCI operation on a 6 cylinder, 8 l heavy duty engine with cooled EGR. This standard Tier4f diesel engine was equipped with a gas injection system, which used single point injection and mixed the gaseous fuel with air upstream of the intake manifold. For this engine configuration, RCCI operating limits have been explored. In the 1200-1800 rpm range, RCCI operation with Euro-VI engine out NOx and soot emissions was achieved between 2 and 9 bar BMEP without EGR.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Approach for Calibration and Validation by Simulation of Emission Control Solutions for Next Generation Off-Road Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0309
The next generation off-road vehicles will see additional exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, ranging from DOC-SCR only to full DOC-DPF-SCR-AMOX systems. This will increase system complexity and development effort significantly. Emission requirements and the high number of vehicle configurations within the off-road industry will require a new process for development and validation. The introduced model-based approach using physical models of aftertreatment can reduce development effort and cost, improve performance robustness and help to identify performance issues early in the development process. A method to investigate and optimize a large matrix of variations by simulation is introduced. This can lead to a significant reduction in the number of required calibrations and can assist in the development of design specifications for the aftertreatment system. A case study for SCR calibration successfully demonstrates the potential of model-based development.
Technical Paper

Ramped Versus Square Injection Rate Experiments in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2020-04-14
2020-01-0300
CO2 regulations on heavy-duty transport are introduced in essentially all markets within the next decade, in most cases in several phases of increasing stringency. To cope with these mandates, developers of engines and related equipment are aiming to break new ground in the fields of combustion, fuel and hardware technologies. In this work, a novel diesel fuel injector, Delphi’s DFI7, is utilized to experimentally investigate and compare the performance of ramped injection rates versus traditional square fueling profiles. The aim is specifically to shift the efficiency and NOx tradeoff to a more favorable position. The design of experiments methodology is used in the tests, along with statistical techniques to analyze the data. Results show that ramped and square rates - after optimization of fueling parameters - produce comparable gross indicated efficiencies.
Journal Article

Robust Emission Management Strategy to Meet Real-World Emission Requirements for HD Diesel Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0998
Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in different application areas, like long-haul, city distribution, dump truck and building and construction industry. For these wide variety of areas, the engine performance needs to comply with the real-world legislation limits and should simultaneously have a low fuel consumption and good drivability. Meeting these requirements takes substantial development and calibration effort, where an optimal fuel consumption for each application is not always met in practice. TNO's Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy, is able to deal with these variations in operating conditions, while meeting legislation limits and obtaining on-line cost optimization. Based on the actual state of the engine and aftertreatment, optimal air-path setpoints are computed, which balances EGR and SCR usage.
Journal Article

Robust, Cost-Optimal and Compliant Engine and Aftertreatment Operation using Air-path Control and Tailpipe Emission Feedback

2016-04-05
2016-01-0961
Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in a wide range of applications. For varying operating environments, the engine and aftertreatment system must comply with the real-world emission legislation limits. Simultaneously, minimal fuel consumption and good drivability are crucial for economic competitiveness and usability. Meeting these requirements takes substantial development and calibration effort, and complying with regulations results in a trade-off between emissions and fuel consumption. TNO's Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy finds online, the cost-optimal point in this trade-off and is able to deal with variations in operating conditions, while complying with legislation limits. Based on the actual state of the engine and aftertreatment system, an optimal engine operating point is computed using a model-based optimal-control algorithm.
Technical Paper

Validation of Control-Oriented Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Models for Non-Standard Ambient Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0196
Complying to both the increasingly stringent pollutant emissions as well as (future) GHG emission legislation - with increased focus on in-use real-world emissions - puts a great challenge to the engine/aftertreatment control development process. Control system complexity, calibration and validation effort has increased dramatically over the past decade. A trend that is likely to continue considering the next steps in emission and GHG emission legislation. Control-oriented engine models are valuable tools for efficient development of engine monitoring and control systems. Furthermore, these (predictive) engine models are more and more used as part of control algorithms to ensure legislation compliant and optimized performance over the system lifetime. For these engine models, it is essential that simulation and prediction of system variables during non-nominal engine operation, such as non-standard ambient conditions, is well captured.
Journal Article

Virtual Cylinder Pressure Sensor for Transient Operation in Heavy-Duty Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0872
Cylinder pressure-based combustion control is widely introduced for passenger cars. Benefits include enhanced emission robustness to fuel quality variation, reduced fuel consumption due to more accurate (multi-pulse) fuel injection, and minimized after treatment size. In addition, it enables the introduction of advanced, high-efficient combustion concepts. The application in truck engines is foreseen, but challenges need to be overcome related to durability, increased system costs, and impact on the cylinder head. In this paper, a new single cylinder pressure sensor concept for heavy-duty Diesel engines is presented. Compared to previous studies, this work focuses on heavy-duty Diesel powertrains, which are characterized by a relatively flexible crank shaft in contrast to the existing passenger car applications.
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