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Technical Paper

A Next-Generation Emission Test Procedure for Small Utility Engines - Part 1, Background and Approach

Measurement of emissions from small utility engines has usually been accomplished using steady-state raw emissions procedures such as SAE Recommended Practice J1088. While raw exhaust measurements have the advantage of producing modal exhaust gas concentration data for design feedback; they are laborious, may influence both engine performance and the emissions themselves, and have no provision for concurrent particulate measurements. It is time to consider a full-dilution procedure similar in principle to automotive and heavy-duty on-highway emission measurement practice, leading to improvements in many of the areas noted above, and generally to much higher confidence in data obtained. When certification and audit of small engine emissions become a reality, a brief dilute exhaust procedure generating only the necessary data will be a tremendous advantage to both manufacturers and regulatory agencies.
Technical Paper

Influence of Maladjustment on Emissions from Two Heavy-Duty Diesel Bus Engines

Diesel engines are adjusted to manufacturers' specifications when produced and placed in service, but varying degrees of maintenance and wear can cause changes in engine performance and exhaust emissions. Maladjustments were made on two heavy-duty diesel engines typically used in buses in an effort to simulate some degree of wear and/or lack of maintenance. Emissions were characterized over steady-state and transient engine operation, in both baseline and maladjusted configurations. Selected maladjustments of the Cummins VTB-903 substantially increased HC, smoke and particulate emission levels. Maladjustments of the Detroit Diesel 6V-71 coach engine resulted in lower HC and NOX emission levels, but higher CO emissions, smoke, and particulate.