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Journal Article

CFD-Guided Combustion System Optimization of a Gasoline Range Fuel in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Using Automatic Piston Geometry Generation and a Supercomputer

2019-01-15
2019-01-0001
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) guided combustion system optimization was conducted for a heavy-duty diesel engine running with a gasoline fuel that has a research octane number (RON) of 80. The goal was to optimize the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion recipe (piston bowl geometry, injector spray pattern, in-cylinder swirl motion, and thermal boundary conditions) for improved fuel efficiency while maintaining engine-out NOx within a 1-1.5 g/kW-hr window. The numerical model was developed using the multi-dimensional CFD software CONVERGE. A two-stage design of experiments (DoE) approach was employed with the first stage focusing on the piston bowl shape optimization and the second addressing refinement of the combustion recipe. For optimizing the piston bowl geometry, a software tool, CAESES, was utilized to automatically perturb key bowl design parameters. This led to the generation of 256 combustion chamber designs evaluated at several engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Mixing-Controlled Combustion of Conventional and Higher Reactivity Gasolines in a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0696
This research investigates the combustion characteristics and engine performance of a conventional non-ethanol gasoline with a research octane number of 91(RON 91) and a higher reactivity RON80 gasoline under mixing-controlled combustion. The work was conducted in a model year 2013 Cummins ISX15 heavy-duty diesel engine. A split fuel injection strategy was developed to address the long ignition delay and high maximum pressure rise rate for the two gasoline fuels. Using the split fuel injection strategy, steady-state NOx sweeps were conducted at 1375 rpm with a load sweep from 5 to 15 bar BMEP. At 5 and 10 bar BMEP, both gasolines consistently exhibited lower soot levels than ULSD with the reduction more pronounced at 5 bar BMEP. 3-D CFD combustion simulation suggested that the higher volatility and lower viscosity of gasoline fuels can help improve the in-cylinder air utilization and therefore reduce the presence of fuel-rich regions in the combustion chamber.
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