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Technical Paper

A Basis for Estimating Mechanical Efficiency and Life of a Diesel Engine from its Size, Load Factor and Piston Speed

Parameters like brake mean effective pressure, mean velocity of the piston, hardness of the wear surface, oil film thickness, and surface areas of critical wear parts are similar for all the diesel engines. The mean piston velocity at the rated speed is nearly the same for all the diesel engines. The mechanical efficiency normalized to an arbitrary brake mean effective pressure (bmep) is dependent on the size of the engine. The engine life seems to be proportional directly to the square of a characteristic dimension namely, cylinder bore of the engine and inversely to speed and load factor for engines varying widely in sizes and ratings.
Journal Article

A Methodology to Assess Road Tankers Rollover Trend During Turning

An experimental methodology is proposed to measure the rollover propensity of road tankers when subjected to lateral perturbations derived from steering manoeuvers. The testing principle involves subjecting a scaled down sprung tank to the elimination of a lateral acceleration, to analyze its rollover propensity as a function of various vehicle's operational and design parameters. Initial acceleration is generated through putting the scaled tank on a tilt table supported by a hydraulic piston. The controlled release of the fluid in the hydraulic system generates a perturbation situation for the tank, similar to the one that a vehicle experiences when leaving a curved section of the road and going to a straight segment. Durations for the maneuver and initial tilt angles characterize both the corresponding intensities of the steering maneuver.
Journal Article

A Multiscale Cylinder Bore Honing Pattern Lubrication Model for Improved Engine Friction

Abstract Three-dimensional patterns representing crosshatched plateau-honed cylinder bores based on two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of measured surfaces were generated and used to calculate pressure flow, shear-driven flow, and shear stress factors. Later, the flow and shear stress factors obtained by numerical simulations for various surface patterns were used to calculate lubricant film thickness and friction force between piston ring and cylinder bore contact in typical diesel engine conditions using a mixed lubrication model. The effects of various crosshatch honing angles, such as 30°, 45°, and 60°, and texture heights on engine friction losses, wear, and oil consumption were discussed in detail. It is observed from numerical results that lower lubricant film thickness values are generated with higher honing angles, particularly in mixed lubrication regime where lubricant film thickness is close to the roughness level, mainly due to lower resistance to pressure flow.
Journal Article

A New Piston Insulation Concept for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines to Reduce Heat Loss from the Wall

To reduce heat transfer between hot gas and cavity wall, thin Zirconia (ZrO2) layer (0.5mm) on the cavity surface of a forged steel piston was firstly formed by thermal spray coating aiming higher surface temperature swing precisely synchronized with flame temperature near the wall resulting in the reduction of temperature difference. However, no apparent difference in the heat loss was analyzed. To find out the reason why the heat loss was not so improved, direct observation of flame impingement to the cavity wall was carried out with the top view visualization technique, for which one of the exhaust valves was modified to a sapphire window. Local flame behavior very close to the wall was compared by macrophotography. Numerical analysis by utilizing a three-dimensional simulation was also carried out to investigate the effect of several parameters on the heat transfer coefficient.
Technical Paper

A New Two Cylinder Diesel Engine Family for Off-road in Naturally Aspirated and Turbocharged Intercooled Versions

The design and development of a new four-stroke two-cylinder diesel engine family of 1.29 litre capacity for off road are discussed. The engine is in naturally aspirated and turbocharged and intercooled versions and rated from 11.9 kW/1500 rpm to 25.7 kW/2500 rpm. The engines were tuned for air and fuel flows, air utilisation, fuel air mixing, performance and emissions at steady state at a development lab and later certified in national labs. The high altitude capability of the TCIC was checked using a model. The engines rated at less than 19 kW satisfy India Generator set and off road norms of India and Europe equivalent to USTier4 standard, and at higher ratings, standard equivalent to US Tier4-interim. In the second part of the paper, the design of coolant and oil pumps, oil cooler for TCIC engine and the piston with steel oil control ring are discussed. The higher loaded TCIC engines use fillet hardened crankshafts of chromium molybdenum steel.
Technical Paper

A Study on Effects of Low Viscosity Engine Oil and MoDTC on Piston Friction Losses in a DI Diesel Engine

The reduction of friction losses is a subject of central importance in a diesel engine. The piston frictions of low viscosity engine oil and molybdenum dialkyl dithiocarbamate (MoDTC) have been measured by floating liner method. It was found that the low viscosity engine oil lower than 5W-30 is not effective against the reduction of friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) related to the fuel consumption. MoDTC showed a good performance against the reduction of FMEP. In the friction measurement points, the reduction ratio of 10W-30 with MoDTC to 10W-30 was greater than that of 5W-30 to 10W-30.
Technical Paper

A Visual Study of D.I. Diesel Combustion from the Under and Lateral Sides of an Engine

A high-speed photographic study is presented illustrating the influence of engine variables such as an introduced air swirl, the number of nozzle holes and the piston cavity diameter, on the combustion process in a small direct-injection (D.I.) diesel engine. The engine was modified for optical access from the under and lateral sides of the combustion chamber. This modification enabled a three-dimensional analysis of the flame motion in the engine. The swirling velocity of a flame in a combustion chamber was highest in the piston cavity, and outside the piston cavity it became lower at the piston top and at the cylinder head in that order. The swirl ratio of the flame inside the cavity radius attenuated gradually with piston descent and approached the swirl ratio outside the cavity radius, which remained approximately constant during the expansion stroke. Engine performance was improved by retarding the attenuation of the swirl motion inside the cavity radius.
Technical Paper


Utilizing an opportunity presented by a mountain-road construction-project in California, eight Class-B 3½-ton trucks were assigned to the work and a test of air-cleaners was conducted during its progress. Six trucks were each equipped with an air-cleaner; two were not. The trucks had dump-bodies and were specially prepared for the test, details of this preparation being specified. Due to varied air-cleaner design, it was not feasible to locate the cleaners identically on all the trucks, and differences in mounting may have influenced the resulting air-cleaner efficiency, but mountings were made as nearly identical as possible. Tables of average wear of piston-rings, engine cylinders and crankpins, for 1000 hr. of use, are presented, and details of how the measurements were made are stated, together with a discussion of the “growth” of pistons and of the peculiarities of wear.

Air Compressor Size Rating Recommended Practice - Truck and Bus

This SAE Recommended Practice is intended to describe a procedure for rating the size of single-stage reciprocating air compressors. It describes the conditions that can be used for testing and it defines a standardized rating expressed in SLPM (SCFM).

Air Compressor Size Rating Recommended Practice - Truck and Bus

This SAE Recommended Practice is intended to describe a procedure for rating the size of single-stage reciprocating air compressors. It describes the conditions that can be used for testing and it defines a standardized rating expressed in SLPM (SCFM).
Technical Paper

Air Suspension Performance Analysis using Nonlinear Geometrical Parameters Model

This paper studies the nonlinear characteristics of air suspension. The air spring's nonlinear model by the internal volume variation due to the compression of the spring and the variation of effective area pressure acts on is established. The comparison of simulation and experiment indicates the validity of the model in the paper. The characteristics of a quarter vehicle model with the air spring model presented in the paper have been studied. This analysis can guide the design of the air spring's shape and the piston contour, and understand the performances and the effects of air spring in vehicle.
Journal Article

An Analysis of Lubricating Gap Flow in Radial Piston Machines

Radial piston units find several applications in fluid power, offering benefits of low noise and high power density. The capability to generate high pressures makes radial piston pumps suitable for clamping function in machine tools and also to operate presses for sheet metal forming. This study is aimed at developing a comprehensive multidomain simulation tool to model the operation of a rotating cam type radial piston pump, with particular reference to the lubricating gap flow between the pistons and the cylinder block. The model consists of a first module which simulates the main flow through the unit according to a lumped parameter approach. This module evaluates the features of the displacing action accounting for the detailed evaluation of the machine kinematics and for the mechanical dynamics of the check valves used to control the timing for the connection of each piston chamber with the inlet and outlet port.
Technical Paper

An Analysis on Heat Loss of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine by Wall-Impinged Spray Flame Observation

Impingement of a spray flame on the periphery of the piston cavity strongly affects heat loss to the wall. The heat release rate history is also closely correlated with the indicated thermal efficiency. For further thermal efficiency improvement, it is thus necessary to understand such phenomena in state of the art diesel engines, by observation of the actual behavior of an impinging spray flame and measurement of the local temperature and flow velocity. A top-view optically accessible engine system, for which flame impingement to the cavity wall can be observed from the top (vertically), was equipped with a high speed digital camera for direct observation. Once the flame impinged on the wall, flame tip temperature decreased roughly 100K, compared to the temperature before impingement.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Flow Through a Rotating Disc Valve

It is known that the mass flow rate through poppet valves of 4-stroke cycle engines and through piston valves of 2-stroke cycle engines decrease with increase in engine speed. In this paper, a disc-type rotary valve was used to experimentally analyze the decrease in flow rate at high rotational speeds and to determine what variables, other than rotational speed, give rise to the observed behaviour. These variables have been included in an empirical equation which is representative of the measured flow characteristics.
Journal Article

An Investigation of the Effects of the Piston Bowl Geometries of a Heavy-Duty Engine on Performance and Emissions Using Direct Dual Fuel Stratification Strategy, and Proposing Two New Piston Profiles

Abstract Direct dual fuel stratification (DDFS) strategy benefits the advantages of the RCCI and PPC strategies simultaneously. DDFS has improved control over the heat release rate, by injecting a considerable amount of fuel near TDC, compared to RCCI. In addition, the third injection (near TDC) is diffusion-limited. Consequently, piston bowl geometry directly affects the formation of emissions. The modified piston geometry was developed and optimized for RCCI by previous scholars. Since all DDFS experimental tests were performed with the modified piston profile, the other piston profiles need to be investigated for this strategy. In this article, first, a comparative study between the three conventional piston profiles, including the modified, stock, and scaled pistons, was performed. Afterward, the gasoline injector position was shifted to the head cylinder center for the stock piston. NOX emissions were improved; however, soot was increased slightly.
Technical Paper

An Optical Study of the Effects of Diesel-like Fuels with Different Densities on a Heavy-duty CI Engine with a Wave-shaped Piston Bowl Geometry

The novel wave-shaped bowl piston geometry design with protrusions has been proved in previous studies to enhance late-cycle mixing and therefore significantly reduce soot emissions and increase engine thermodynamic efficiency. The wave-shaped piston is characterized by the introduction of evenly spaced protrusions around the inner wall of the bowl, with a matching number with the number of injection holes, i.e., flames. The interactions between adjacent flames strongly affect the in-cylinder flow and the wave shape is designed to guide the near-wall flow. The flow re-circulation produces a radial mixing zone (RMZ) that extends towards the center of the piston bowl, where unused air is available for oxidation promotion. The waves enhance the flow re-circulation and thus increase the mixing intensity of the RMZ.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Elastic Distortions of a Piston Ring in the Reciprocating Air Brake Compressor Due to the Installation Stresses

The objective of this paper is to present the results of an investigation of elastic distortions of split piston rings that are used in lubricated and non-lubricated air brake compressors. Concepts of advanced stress analysis and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) have been employed in this study. The analysis of elastic distortions (twist) of piston rings due to the installation stresses has been quite poorly documented in the technical literature. As a result, unjustifiable engineering assumptions are some time made which result in misleading design solutions. This paper demonstrates analytically and with the support of FEA the mechanical/geometrical parameters of a split ring which affect the twist of the ring during the installation in the cylinder bore, and the calculated magnitude of this twist along the ring circumference.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Three-Dimensional Distortions of the Piston Rings with Arbitrary Cross-Section

With consideration of the importance (for oil passing and blow-by) of the issue of three-dimensional deformation of piston rings in a cylinder due to either installation stress, or operational gas, friction, and thermal loads the subject of piston ring distortions still generates continuing interest. The current paper demonstrates application of a mathematical model developed in the former works of the authors for analysis of the distortions of arbitrary cross-section rings loaded by tangential force. Applications of the model to the several typical cross-sections are given for illustration. The work is a necessary step for the development of a comprehensive three-dimensional theory of piston ring installation and operational distortions.
Technical Paper

Analytical Solution of Piston Ring Pack Lubrication for Truck Air Brake Compressor

This paper presents an analytical solution of piston ring pack lubrication for two-cylinder truck air brake compressor. A system of nonlinear equations with seven variables was developed to describe lubrication phenomena of the piston ring pack for both fully flooded and starvation conditions. The full mass conservation boundary conditions defined by JFO ([14],[15]) theory were employed for complete description of the cavitation algorithm with enclosed and open cavitation patterns. Impact of the piston ring design parameters such as offset, crown height, and tension on the oil transport, lubrication conditions and friction losses of the compressor were discussed in details.
Technical Paper

Application of Electrohydraulic Proportional Technology to Constant Pressure Variable Delivery Pump

With the application of two new principles- “supply pressure direct test negative feedback” and “transient pressure difference negative feedback between two stages”, a new type of variable delivery radial piston pump with electrohydraulic proportional pressure regulator which is built in the pump has been recently developed for the purpose of energy-saving of hydraulic power systems. In this paper, some importart constructional parameters of the pump that influence the dynamic characteristics of the regulation system are discussed, and the results of theoretical analysis on the pump's simplified model and experimental research are also presented. The experimental results show that the static and dynamic characteristics of the pump are very satisfactory. It can be used as a constant pressure source in hydraulic power systems.