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Technical Paper

1500 Hp Diesel Electric Tractor

The experience accumulated with a prototype 1000 HP diesel electric tractor since 1969 is described. The new 1500 HP V220 diesel electric tractors are described along with some of the initial operation of these two units. Experience with the initial 1000 HP unit and the two 1500 HP tractors confirm the necessity of additional testing and experimentation to refine the design to get greater productivity with reduced operator fatigue. The unpredictability of the load and operating surface are major problems that present a real challenge to the engineer.
Technical Paper

1985 Light-Duty Truck Fuel Economy

This paper addresses fuel economy standards that can be obtained in 1985 for two-wheel drive LDT's using existing technology. To estimate the fuel economy, the fleet of LDT's is first segmented into market classes based on the concept of utility. The 1985 sales share of each class is predicted from an extrapolation of current trends as well as published sales forecasts. The 1985 fuel economy of each market class is projected using 1) MY '80 truck technology and fuel economy as a baseline, 2) a regression equation that allows an estimate of fuel economy based on the weight, drag, and engine displacement, and 3) the addition of fuel-efficient technologies. Estimates of weight reduction and new model introduction within each market class were derived from published manufacturers' plans. Based on this methodology, this analysis concludes that a fleet fuel economy in excess of 24/25 mpg is feasible for 1985 without/with the use of diesel engines.
Technical Paper

3-D Modeling of Diesel Engine Intake Flow, Combustion and Emissions

Manufacturers of heavy-duty diesel engines are facing increasingly stringent, emission standards. These standards have motivated new research efforts towards improving the performance of diesel engines. The objective of the present program is to develop a comprehensive analytical model of the diesel combustion process that can be used to explore the influence of design changes. This will enable industry to predict the effect of these changes on engine performance and emissions. A major benefit of the successful implementation of such models is that engine development time and costs would be reduced through their use. The computer model is based on the three-dimensional KIVA-II code, with state-of-the-art submodels for spray atomization, drop breakup / coalescence, multi-component fuel vaporization, spray/wall interaction, ignition and combustion, wall heat transfer, unburned HC and NOx formation, and soot and radiation.
Technical Paper

48 V Diesel Hybrid - Advanced Powertrain Solution for Meeting Future Indian BS 6 Emission and CO2 Legislations

The legislations on emission reduction is getting stringent everywhere in the world. India is following the same trend, with Government of India (GOI) declaring the nationwide implementation of BS 6 legislation by April 2020 and Real Driving Emission (RDE) Cycle relevant legislation by 2023. Additionally GOI is focusing on reduction of CO2 emissions by introduction of stringent fleet CO2 targets through CAFE regulation, making it mandatory for vehicle manufacturers to simultaneously work on gaseous emissions and CO2 emissions. Simultaneous NOx emission reduction and CO2 reduction measures are divergent in nature, but with a 48 V Diesel hybrid, this goal can be achieved. The study presented here involves arriving at the right future hybrid-powertrain layout for a Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) in the Indian scenario to meet the future BS 6 and CAFÉ legislations. Diesel engines dominate the current LCV and SUV segments in India and the same trend can be expected to continue in future.
Technical Paper

50 Years of Agricultural Tractor Development

The story of Power Farming is the great saga of our times. It is a story of free enterprise, perseverance and endurance of the individual, of vision, idealism and cooperation among men, of the lightening of human toil and the release of millions of workers from farms to feed the ever hungry industrial revolution. By no means least, it is the story of producing food necessary to win two global wars, keep our allies alive and millions of the defeated enemy from starvation. FOREWARD By 1915, the Steam Traction Engine had attained its highest development. It was the forerunner, rather than the predecessor, of the farm tractor. The former was the instrument of expansion; the latter, the instrument of progress. The invention of the tractor, following by only sixteen years Otto's practical embodiment application of the Beau de Rochas power cycle to a heat engine, marked the advent of a new order - - the age of Power Farming.

6th AVL International Commercial Powertrain Conference Proceedings (2011)

The AVL International Commercial Powertrain Conference is the premier forum for truck, agricultural and construction equipment manufacturers to discuss powertrain technology challenges and solutions across their industries. The topics of the conference, which happens every two years, cover all five elements of a modern powertrain: engine, transmission, electric motor, battery and the electronic control which are used basically the same way in the quest for optimal efficiency and environmental compatibility. This event offers a unique opportunity for highly regarded professionals to address the synergy effects and distinctive characteristics of commercial vehicles, agricultural tractors and non-road vehicles, and industrial machinery. These proceedings are being co-published with SAE International, via a strategic partnership.
Technical Paper

A Band Variable-Inertia Flywheel Integrated-Urban Transit Bus Performance

By means of computer simulation, the potential of a Band Variable-Inertia Flywheel (BVIF) as an energy storage device for a diesel engine city bus is evaluated. Replacing both a fixed-inertia flywheel (FIF) and a continuously variable transmission (CVT), the BVIF is capable of accelerating a vehicle from rest to a nearly-constant speed, while recovering part of the kinetic energy normally dissipated through braking of the vehicle. The results are compared with that of conventionally-powered bus. A fuel saving of up to 30 percent is shown with the BVIF-integrated system. The regenerative braking system reduces brake wear by a factor of five in comparison with the conventional vehicle.
Technical Paper

A Basis for Estimating Mechanical Efficiency and Life of a Diesel Engine from its Size, Load Factor and Piston Speed

Parameters like brake mean effective pressure, mean velocity of the piston, hardness of the wear surface, oil film thickness, and surface areas of critical wear parts are similar for all the diesel engines. The mean piston velocity at the rated speed is nearly the same for all the diesel engines. The mechanical efficiency normalized to an arbitrary brake mean effective pressure (bmep) is dependent on the size of the engine. The engine life seems to be proportional directly to the square of a characteristic dimension namely, cylinder bore of the engine and inversely to speed and load factor for engines varying widely in sizes and ratings.
Technical Paper

A Bench Test for the Evaluation of Silver-Steel Lubrication Properties of Railroad Diesel Oils

A pin and disc machine has been modified for the evaluation of silver-steel lubrication characteristics of railroad diesel oils. Use of silver pins on polished steel discs at selected loads and rubbing speeds allows good correlation with known engine behavior. In comparison with wear and friction data obtained by the four ball method, this pin and disc test gives better correlation with engine tests than the Modified Four Ball Test.
Technical Paper

A Braking Force Distribution Strategy in Integrated Braking System Based on Wear Control and Hitch Force Control

A braking force distribution strategy in integrated braking system composed of the main braking system and the auxiliary braking system based on braking pad wear control and hitch force control under non-emergency braking condition is proposed based on the Electronically Controlled Braking System (EBS) to reduce the difference in braking pad wear between different axles and to decrease hitch force between tractors and trailers. The proposed strategy distributes the braking force based on the desired braking intensity, the degree of the braking pad wear and the limits of certain braking regulations to solve the coupling problems between braking safety, economical efficiency of braking and the comfort of drivers. Computer co-simulations of the proposed strategy are performed.
Technical Paper

A Cartridge Type Pivotal Pin and Bushing Joint

A cartridge type pivotal pin and bushing joint has been patented and is being tested and refined both in the laboratory and on construction machinery. It features “dry lubricated” (Teflon) bearings which are assembled and sealed prior to installation. It is suitable for heavy unit loads and use under severe wear conditions, such as in crawler track chains and loader bucket pivotal pin joints. A brief history of U. S. manufactured track pin joints is included to show the progress in extending the service life of these devices.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Automotive System Fatigue Models Processed in the Time and Frequency Domain

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that frequency domain methods for calculating structural response and fatigue damage can be more widely applicable than previously thought. This will be demonstrated by comparing results of time domain vs. frequency domain approaches for a series of fatigue/durability problems with increasing complexity. These problems involve both static and dynamic behavior. Also, both single input and multiple correlated inputs are considered. And most important of all, a variety of non-stationary loading types have been used. All of the example problems investigated are typically found in the automotive industry, with measured loads from the field or from the proving ground.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Braking Performance of Asbestos, Non-Asbestos, and Semi-Metallic Friction Material

To date, no definitive work to quantify and compare the braking rating horsepower relationships between vehicles equipped with brake assemblies containing asbestos, non-asbestos, and semi-metallic friction material has been completed. This paper will report the results of a brake fade evaluation performed on a 34,000-lb. GVW vehicle in accordance with SAE J880 Brake System Rating Test Code Procedures and has quantified braking horsepower, fade temperature resistance, thermal response temperature rise, lining wear, and drum wear.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Fatigue Life Estimation on the Frequency Domain with Test Data and Time Domain Calculations

This paper focus on some of the fatigue methodologies based on the frequency domain and how they can be used on the heavy vehicle industry. A calculation flow was developed which consist of two steps. At first the stresses on the desired frequency bandwidth are calculated using a finite element software and those are then used as inputs on a Matlab script that estimate the expected life using two different theories, Bendat’s narrow band and Dirlik. The proposed methodology is then compared with more established time domain calculations. At first a plain hand calculation with a simpler input is performed on both domains before evaluating the differences with a more complex random stress signal input. Finally, test data from a rig test is used to validate the frequency domain fatigue methods using real life data.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Fatigue Lives of Polyvinylchloride & Steel Welds

This paper describes the results of a series of fatigue studies relating the lives of several weld geometries. Rotating beam and axially loaded specimens were used. A comparison between steel and plastic (polyvinylchloride scale models is made. Using plastic scale models of welded structures for fatigue life determination is the ultimate goal of this work.
Technical Paper

A Composite Approach to Reducing Abrasive Wear

“Today, wearing parts are regularly subjected to abnormal loading conditions. They must be able to accept these conditions without failure. In continuous operations, unscheduled downtime greatly increases maintenance costs, not to mention the cost of lost production. White iron castings offer premium abrasion resistance for many of these applications, but are often not used due to the possibility of brittle failure and the difficulty of mechanical attachment. This paper discusses the properties and applications of a composite of martensitic white iron and mild steel. This laminate will accept medium to high impact without loss of service failure, and can be installed by mechanical means or with welded attachment.”
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Phenomenological Model of the Jet Mixing Process in D.I. Diesel Engines

The paper describes a detailed mathematical analysis of the problem of jet mixing in swirling or transverse flow fields under non-isothermal, non-isodense conditions. The model takes into account potential core effects, cross sectional distortion and differences in profiles between the distributed properties (velocity, concentration, temperature and density). Comparisons with a wide range of experimental results have produced excellent agreement.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation into the Effects of Included Spray Angle on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Operating Parameters

Effects of included spray angle with different injection strategies on combustion characteristics, performance and amount of pollutant emission have been computationally investigated in a common rail heavy-duty DI diesel engine. The CFD model was firstly validated with experimental data achieved from a Caterpillar 3401 diesel engine for a conventional part load condition at 1600 rev/min. Three different included spray angles (α = 145°, 105°, 90°) were studied in comparison with the traditional spray injection angle (α = 125°). The results show that spray targeting is very effective for controlling the in-cylinder mixture distributions especially when it accompanied with various injection strategies. It was found that 105° spray cone angle along with an optimized split pre- and post-Top Dead Center (TDC) injection strategy could significantly reduce NOx and soot emissions without much penalty of the fuel consumption, as compared to the wide spray angle.
Technical Paper

A Computer Cooling System Study of a Diesel Powered Truck for Control of Transient Coolant, Oil and Cab Temperatures

A Vehicle-Engine-Cooling (VEC) system computer simulation model was used to study the transient performance of control devices and their temperature settings on oil, coolant and cab temperatures. The truck used in the study was an International Harvester COF-9670 cab over chassis heavy-duty vehicle equipped with a standard cab heater, a Cummins NTC-350 diesel engine with a McCord radiator and standard cooling system components and aftercooler. Input data from several portions of a Columbus to Bloomington, Indiana route were used from the Vehicle Mission Simulation (VMS) program to determine engine and vehicle operating conditions for the VEC system computer simulation model. The control devices investigated were the standard thermostat, the Kysor fan-clutch and shutter system. The effect of shutterstat location on shutter performance along with thermostat, shutter and fan activation temperature settings were investigated for ambient temperatures of 32, 85 and 100°F.
Technical Paper

A Contact Stress Model for Predicting Rolling Contact Fatigue

Predicting fatigue performance in concentrated contacts under thin film (or mixed) lubrication conditions has historically involved various empirical approaches. Typically a lubrication parameter is used in an experimentally derived equation to predict the expected rolling contact performance. However, this model doesn't explain the performance improvements. Enhanced finish bearings have exhibited longer life than standard finish bearings, especially when bearings are operated with thin EHL film. In this paper, the contact surfaces of test bearings were analyzed by using a micro-macro contact model in which the macro-contact was elastic contact, and the micro-contact was elastic-plastic contact. The interior subsurface stress maps were calculated from the real contact surfaces, which included the effects of roughnesses, waviness, and profiles.