Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

100% LPG Long Haul Truck Conversion - Economy and Environmental Benefits

2012-09-24
2012-01-1983
Advanced Vehicle Technologies (AVT), a Ballarat Australia based company, has developed the World's first diesel to 100% LPG conversion for heavy haul trucks. There is no diesel required or utilized on the trucks. The engine is converted with minimal changes into a spark ignition engine with equivalent power and torque of the diesel. The patented technology is now deployed in 2 Mercedes Actros trucks. The power output in engine dynamometer testing exceeds that of the diesel (in excess of 370 kW power and 2700 Nm torque). In on-road application the power curve is matched to the diesel specifications to avoid potential downstream power-train stress. Testing at the Department of Transport Energy & Infrastructure, Regency Park, SA have shown the Euro 3 truck converted to LPG is between Euro 4 and Euro 5 NOx levels, CO2 levels 10% better than diesel on DT80 test and about even with diesel on CUEDC tests.
Technical Paper

16-Channel Portable Data Acquisition and Reduction System

1984-04-01
840764
A Microprocessor Data Acquisition System has been designed to be cab-mounted in vehicles or used in laboratories to acquire up to 16 channels of test data. This data may be acquired as time-at-level histograms in one or two dimensions with min-max-mean data recovery, time histories, or peaks and valleys stored on digital tape. The system includes a microcomputer-based Playback/Support Box that simplifies playback of data tapes for computer analysis or stand-alone data plotting using a graphics terminal.
Book

2018 Ultimate GD&T Pocket Guide 2nd Ed

2020-11-23
The 2018 Ultimate GD&T Pocket Guide explains the most common rules, symbols, and concepts used in geometric dimensioning and tolerancing. This one-of-a-kind reference guide includes more than 100 detailed examples to illustrate concepts. Numerous charts for quick reference provide explanations of each GD&T symbol, modifier, and more. This valuable on-the-job resource clarifies how to interpret standard-compliant technical drawings that use ASME Y14.5-2018.
Technical Paper

4994 Tractor Hydraulic System

1984-09-01
841100
J I Case Company has produced four-wheel-drive agricultural tractors since 1964. In 1984 however, the flagship of the Case fleet changed hands. Rising labor costs and larger farming operations spearheaded the need for a more efficient larger tractor. January 1984 marked the introduction of the largest four-wheel-drive tractor in the history of Case, the 4994, a 400-gross engine horsepower tractor, Figure 1. Sheer horsepower alone however, would not meet the requirements of today's farming operations. Case Engineering realized that tomorrows tractors must have sufficient power to handle the wide variety of attachments available. They also realized that along with the unmatched power must come precise control of the attachment. These advancements in farming have required improvements to the tractor hydraulic system. This paper describes the hydraulic system of the 4994, Case's new flagship.
Journal Article

5.9 GHz DSRC Standards Overview and Status

2008-10-07
2008-01-2651
Over the past several years the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Standards Association has developed standards for the 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communications protocols, also known as Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments. These standards consist of IEEE 1609 as well as an amendment to the IEEE 802.11 standard or 802.11p. The 1609 standards were published for Trial Use and these as well as the 802.11p draft have been implemented in a variety of test beds to provide lessons learned and feedback into the standards working groups. Based on ongoing testing, the protocols display a strong capability to address the requirements of crash avoidance and transportation mobility applications. The corresponding test results provide information necessary to update the standards after the first trial phase as industry moves toward commercial implementations.
Technical Paper

50 Years of Agricultural Tractor Development

1966-02-01
660584
The story of Power Farming is the great saga of our times. It is a story of free enterprise, perseverance and endurance of the individual, of vision, idealism and cooperation among men, of the lightening of human toil and the release of millions of workers from farms to feed the ever hungry industrial revolution. By no means least, it is the story of producing food necessary to win two global wars, keep our allies alive and millions of the defeated enemy from starvation. FOREWARD By 1915, the Steam Traction Engine had attained its highest development. It was the forerunner, rather than the predecessor, of the farm tractor. The former was the instrument of expansion; the latter, the instrument of progress. The invention of the tractor, following by only sixteen years Otto's practical embodiment application of the Beau de Rochas power cycle to a heat engine, marked the advent of a new order - - the age of Power Farming.
Technical Paper

A 2000 Ton Crawler/Transporter for Operation in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska

1986-09-01
861205
Recently designed and fabricated in Kennewick, Washington, a pair of 2000 ton capacity crawler/transporters has been used in moving refinery modules to permanent installations on Alaska's North Slope. Vehicle design features include four corner chain-driven, track driving sprockets (tumblers), resilient track roller suspensions, elevating load platform (hereinafter “bolsters”), dynamic braking, diesel/torque converter power, automatic lubrication and electro-pneumatic controls. Four independent power units provide 14 00 horse-power per crawler and over two million pounds of drawbar pull at converter stall. Weighing 300 tons, the pin-connected crawler dissembles for highway transport into loads of under 95,000 pounds.
Technical Paper

A 2D Model for Tractor Tire-Soil Interaction: Evaluation of the Maximum Traction Force and Comparison with Experimental Results

2011-04-12
2011-01-0191
The paper investigates the interaction between soil and tractor tires through a 2D numerical model. The tire is schematized as a rigid ring presenting a series of rigid tread bars on the external circumference. The outer profile of the tire is divided into a series of elements, each one able to exchange a normal and a tangential contact force with the ground. A 2D soil model was developed to compute the forces at the ground-tire interface: the normal force is determined on the basis of the compression of the soil generated by the sinking of the tire. The soil is modeled through a layer of springs characterized by two different stiffness for the loading (lower stiffness) and unloading (higher stiffness) condition. This scheme allows to introduce a memory effect on the soil which results stiffer and keeps a residual sinking after the passage of the tire. The normal contact force determines the maximum value of tangential force provided before the soil fails.
Technical Paper

A Cartridge Type Pivotal Pin and Bushing Joint

1982-02-01
820636
A cartridge type pivotal pin and bushing joint has been patented and is being tested and refined both in the laboratory and on construction machinery. It features “dry lubricated” (Teflon) bearings which are assembled and sealed prior to installation. It is suitable for heavy unit loads and use under severe wear conditions, such as in crawler track chains and loader bucket pivotal pin joints. A brief history of U. S. manufactured track pin joints is included to show the progress in extending the service life of these devices.
Technical Paper

A Case Study on the Response Surface Method Applied to the Optimization of the Dynamical Behavior of Vehicles

2001-03-05
2001-01-3850
This paper describes the application of statistical techniques related to the condensation of computational models so that gradient based optimization procedures can be used more effectively. The adoption of these techniques is encouraged by the possibility of an important reduction in time and cost associated to the vehicle development process. A sophisticated computational model of a Mini-baja vehicle is defined in the virtual environment by means of CAD/CAE software, intending to provide the major information related to the study of its dynamic behaviour and to define the statistical surrogates (approximate models). The creation of the computational model deals with the determination of physical and geometric properties, and is fed by stiffness and damping parameters obtained through experimental procedures.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis of WHR System in HD Engines Using Conventional Diesel Combustion and Partially-Premixed Combustion

2012-09-24
2012-01-1930
In the truck industry there is a continuous demand to increase the efficiency and to decrease the emissions. To acknowledge both these issues a waste heat recovery system (WHR) is combined with a partially premixed combustion (PPC) engine to deliver an efficient engine system. Over the past decades numerous attempts to increase the thermal efficiency of the diesel engine has been made. One such attempt is the PPC concept that has demonstrated potential for substantially increased thermal efficiency combined with much reduced emission levels. So far most work on increasing engine efficiency has been focused on improving the thermal efficiency of the engine while WHR, which has an excellent potential for another 1-5 % fuel consumption reduction, has not been researched that much yet. In this paper a WHR system using a Rankine cycle has been developed in a modeling environment using IPSEpro.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis of a Rigid Bicycle Model with an Elastic Bicycle Model for Small Trucks

2011-04-12
2011-01-0240
The planar rigid bicycle model is one of the most popular models used in vehicle dynamics. It has widely been used in studying vehicle handling characteristics and designing steering control system for vehicles. This paper analyses a modified dynamic model called the "Elastic Bicycle Model." This model improves upon the classical bicycle model by taking into account the flexibility of the vehicle frame by using concepts from the Euler beam theory. Complete set of the resulting dynamic equations of this model are presented. Non-dimensional versions of the equations are used to investigate the steady state response of the model. Finally, the results of the response study obtained by modeling a small truck with an elastic model and the classical bicycle model are presented. These include the steady state solutions as function of different parameters as well as a transient solution in response to a saw-tooth steering input and a step input. Octave® has been used for simulation purpose.
Technical Paper

A Comparison Between Micromachined Piezoresistive and Capacitive Pressure Sensors

1997-11-17
973241
Hundreds of millions of micromachined, piezoresistive Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensors have been produced to reduce pollution and improve fuel efficiency in engine control systems. Other vehicle applications for micromachined pressure sensors include monitoring turbo pressure, barometric pressure, fuel tank leakage, fuel rail pressure and tire pressure. Exhaust gas recirculation and even door compression for side impact detection are employing micromachined silicon pressure sensors. Piezoresistive pressure sensors have dominated the automotive market to date. Practical micromachined capacitive pressure sensors have recently been developed and could replace the piezoresistive sensor in many applications. This paper will examine the advantages of both pressure sensing technologies, and discuss applications that an inexpensive capacitive pressure sensor will open up.
Technical Paper

A Comparison Of The Dynamic Performance Of A U.S. And A European Heavy Vehicle

1988-09-01
885111
Despite the general similarity of U.S. and European heavy trucks, there are differences in design properties that affect braking and turning performance. A European tractor-semitrailer was studied for the purpose of comparing its properties to those of U.S. vehicles and assessing the comparative performance. Mass, suspension, and braking system properties of the European tractor and semitrailer were measured in the laboratory and on the proving ground. Turning and braking performance qualities were evaluated by computer simulation and by experimental tests. In turning performance the European combination had a 9 percent advantage in rollover threshold, compared to a generic U.S. vehicle with properties that were in the midrange of U.S. design practice. Higher suspension roll stiffness and higher chassis weight on the European tractor and semitrailer accounted for the higher threshold.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Controller Designs for an Active, Electromagnetic, Offroad Vehicle Suspension System Traveling at High Speed

1998-02-23
980924
This paper discusses controller development for an active, off-road vehicle suspension system. A brief review of electronic filters and their characteristics is used to provide insight on the difficulties of designing a control algorithm for negotiating hilly and rough terrain at higher speeds. Two controller designs are presented. One was designed by pole placement and causes the suspension response to approximate a Type 1 Chebychev filter. The other was designed using constrained optimization. A comparison and discussion of simulation results leads to the conclusion that the suspension should be adaptively or predictively controlled for arbitrary terrain and velocity conditions.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Crash Patterns in Heavy Trucks with and Without Collision Warning System Technology

2004-10-26
2004-01-2651
Collision warning systems (CWS) are a relatively new technology to reduce or mitigate motor vehicle rear-end and side impact collisions. This study compared available police-reported crash experiences of 6,143 CWS-equipped heavy trucks with the experiences of 383,058 heavy trucks without CWS. Data were from the Motor Carrier Management Information System (2000-2002). Results suggest that CWS-equipped trucks had a significantly lower proportion of crashes involving other moving vehicles and a significantly lower proportion of multiple vehicle crashes compared to trucks without CWS, (40% vs. 49%, p<0.0001; 62% vs. 67%, p<0.004 respectively). These changes are the first crash-data based evidence that supports the design effect of CWS. However, more studies are needed to determine the specific impacts of CWS on heavy truck crashes.
Technical Paper

A Computer Simulation Analysis of Road Dynamics of Log Hauling Trucks

1994-11-01
942305
A nonlinear yaw-roll model for log hauling trucks is developed in this paper. Several nonlinear effects, such as nonlinear tire cornering forces, nonlinear tire aligning moments, and the coupling between the yaw and roll motions, are considered in this model. Using this model, a computer simulation of the directional and roll responses of a logging truck with tractor and pole-trailer configurations is carried out through various maneuvers. Simulated results for the lateral accelerations are compared with those obtained from field tests. Good agreement has been achieved.
Technical Paper

A Computer-Based Study of the Yaw/Roll Stability of Heavy Trucks Characterized by High Centers of Gravity

1982-02-01
821260
A class of heavy truck vehicles, characterized primarily by high centers of gravity, was studied using analysis and computer simulation to identify and understand the relationship between directional and roll stability of such vehicles during steady turning maneuvers. Findings of the computer-based study suggest: (1) directional instability (yaw divergence) is possible for such vehicles during steady turning while operating at elevated speeds on horizontal road surfaces, (2) yaw divergence will lead to rollover in the absence of corrective steering action and/or reduced speed, and (3) the primary mechanism responsible for precipitating yaw divergent behavior in such vehicles is the nonlinear sensitivity of truck tire cornering stiffness to vertical load acting in combination with typical heavy truck fore/aft roll stiffness distributions. In addition, the influences of roadway superelevation and driver steering control as contributors to vehicle stabilization are examined and discussed.
Technical Paper

A Contact Stress Model for Predicting Rolling Contact Fatigue

1992-09-01
921720
Predicting fatigue performance in concentrated contacts under thin film (or mixed) lubrication conditions has historically involved various empirical approaches. Typically a lubrication parameter is used in an experimentally derived equation to predict the expected rolling contact performance. However, this model doesn't explain the performance improvements. Enhanced finish bearings have exhibited longer life than standard finish bearings, especially when bearings are operated with thin EHL film. In this paper, the contact surfaces of test bearings were analyzed by using a micro-macro contact model in which the macro-contact was elastic contact, and the micro-contact was elastic-plastic contact. The interior subsurface stress maps were calculated from the real contact surfaces, which included the effects of roughnesses, waviness, and profiles.
Technical Paper

A Corporate Product Quality Assurance Program

1983-09-12
831351
This paper outlines what a large company is doing on a corporate staff basis to help combat Product Liability problems. Eaton Corporation is multi-national and serves a variety of markets. The extensive and complex line of products dictates the need for a well organized, corporate Product Assurance Program. The program is made up of five thrusts: 1) Corporate Policy, 2) Guidelines, 3) Divisional Committees, 4) Surveys and 5) Training. Utilizing a product development project, the implementation of several elements of Product Quality Assurance are explained. The program was designed for flexibility and emphasizes the chairman's motto to “DO IT RIGHT THE FIRST TIME, EVERY TIME.”
X