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Technical Paper

100% LPG Long Haul Truck Conversion - Economy and Environmental Benefits

Advanced Vehicle Technologies (AVT), a Ballarat Australia based company, has developed the World's first diesel to 100% LPG conversion for heavy haul trucks. There is no diesel required or utilized on the trucks. The engine is converted with minimal changes into a spark ignition engine with equivalent power and torque of the diesel. The patented technology is now deployed in 2 Mercedes Actros trucks. The power output in engine dynamometer testing exceeds that of the diesel (in excess of 370 kW power and 2700 Nm torque). In on-road application the power curve is matched to the diesel specifications to avoid potential downstream power-train stress. Testing at the Department of Transport Energy & Infrastructure, Regency Park, SA have shown the Euro 3 truck converted to LPG is between Euro 4 and Euro 5 NOx levels, CO2 levels 10% better than diesel on DT80 test and about even with diesel on CUEDC tests.
Technical Paper

16-Channel Portable Data Acquisition and Reduction System

A Microprocessor Data Acquisition System has been designed to be cab-mounted in vehicles or used in laboratories to acquire up to 16 channels of test data. This data may be acquired as time-at-level histograms in one or two dimensions with min-max-mean data recovery, time histories, or peaks and valleys stored on digital tape. The system includes a microcomputer-based Playback/Support Box that simplifies playback of data tapes for computer analysis or stand-alone data plotting using a graphics terminal.

1995 Certified Power Engine Data for Kawasaki FX801V as used in 2017 General Purpose Engines - Level 2

This product includes information on the manufacturer, engine, applications, testing location, certified maximum horsepower, certified maximum torque along with the certified curves of horsepower and torque over a wide range of engine RPM speeds. In addition, this product contains complete engine information such as displacement, cylinder configuration, valve train, combustion cycle, pressure charging, charge air cooling, bore, stroke, cylinder numbering convention, firing order, compression ratio, fuel system, fuel system pressure, ignition system, knock control, intake manifold, exhaust manifold, cooling system, coolant liquid, thermostat, cooling fan, lubricating oil, fuel, fuel shut off speed, etc. Also included are all measured test parameters outlined in J2723.

2018 Ultimate GD&T Pocket Guide 2nd Ed

The 2018 Ultimate GD&T Pocket Guide explains the most common rules, symbols, and concepts used in geometric dimensioning and tolerancing. This one-of-a-kind reference guide includes more than 100 detailed examples to illustrate concepts. Numerous charts for quick reference provide explanations of each GD&T symbol, modifier, and more. This valuable on-the-job resource clarifies how to interpret standard-compliant technical drawings that use ASME Y14.5-2018.
Technical Paper

3D Aeroacoustics Simulation of a Complete Bus Exhaust System

Health related problems in over populated areas are a major concern and as such, there are specific legislations for noise generated by transport vehicles. In diesel powered commercial vehicles, the source for noise are mainly related to rolling, transmission, aerodynamics and engine. Considering internal combustion engine, three factors can be highlighted as major noise source: combustion, mechanical and tailpipe. The tailpipe noise is considered as the noise radiated from the open terminations of intake and exhaust systems, caused by both pressure pulses propagating to the open ends of the duct systems, and by vortex shedding as the burst leaves the tailpipe (flow generated noise). In order to reduce noise generated by vehicles, it is important to investigate the gas interactions and what can be improved in exhaust line design during the product development phase.
Technical Paper

4994 Tractor Hydraulic System

J I Case Company has produced four-wheel-drive agricultural tractors since 1964. In 1984 however, the flagship of the Case fleet changed hands. Rising labor costs and larger farming operations spearheaded the need for a more efficient larger tractor. January 1984 marked the introduction of the largest four-wheel-drive tractor in the history of Case, the 4994, a 400-gross engine horsepower tractor, Figure 1. Sheer horsepower alone however, would not meet the requirements of today's farming operations. Case Engineering realized that tomorrows tractors must have sufficient power to handle the wide variety of attachments available. They also realized that along with the unmatched power must come precise control of the attachment. These advancements in farming have required improvements to the tractor hydraulic system. This paper describes the hydraulic system of the 4994, Case's new flagship.
Journal Article

5.9 GHz DSRC Standards Overview and Status

Over the past several years the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Standards Association has developed standards for the 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communications protocols, also known as Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments. These standards consist of IEEE 1609 as well as an amendment to the IEEE 802.11 standard or 802.11p. The 1609 standards were published for Trial Use and these as well as the 802.11p draft have been implemented in a variety of test beds to provide lessons learned and feedback into the standards working groups. Based on ongoing testing, the protocols display a strong capability to address the requirements of crash avoidance and transportation mobility applications. The corresponding test results provide information necessary to update the standards after the first trial phase as industry moves toward commercial implementations.
Technical Paper

50 Years of Agricultural Tractor Development

The story of Power Farming is the great saga of our times. It is a story of free enterprise, perseverance and endurance of the individual, of vision, idealism and cooperation among men, of the lightening of human toil and the release of millions of workers from farms to feed the ever hungry industrial revolution. By no means least, it is the story of producing food necessary to win two global wars, keep our allies alive and millions of the defeated enemy from starvation. FOREWARD By 1915, the Steam Traction Engine had attained its highest development. It was the forerunner, rather than the predecessor, of the farm tractor. The former was the instrument of expansion; the latter, the instrument of progress. The invention of the tractor, following by only sixteen years Otto's practical embodiment application of the Beau de Rochas power cycle to a heat engine, marked the advent of a new order - - the age of Power Farming.
Technical Paper

A 2000 Ton Crawler/Transporter for Operation in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska

Recently designed and fabricated in Kennewick, Washington, a pair of 2000 ton capacity crawler/transporters has been used in moving refinery modules to permanent installations on Alaska's North Slope. Vehicle design features include four corner chain-driven, track driving sprockets (tumblers), resilient track roller suspensions, elevating load platform (hereinafter “bolsters”), dynamic braking, diesel/torque converter power, automatic lubrication and electro-pneumatic controls. Four independent power units provide 14 00 horse-power per crawler and over two million pounds of drawbar pull at converter stall. Weighing 300 tons, the pin-connected crawler dissembles for highway transport into loads of under 95,000 pounds.
Technical Paper

A 2D Model for Tractor Tire-Soil Interaction: Evaluation of the Maximum Traction Force and Comparison with Experimental Results

The paper investigates the interaction between soil and tractor tires through a 2D numerical model. The tire is schematized as a rigid ring presenting a series of rigid tread bars on the external circumference. The outer profile of the tire is divided into a series of elements, each one able to exchange a normal and a tangential contact force with the ground. A 2D soil model was developed to compute the forces at the ground-tire interface: the normal force is determined on the basis of the compression of the soil generated by the sinking of the tire. The soil is modeled through a layer of springs characterized by two different stiffness for the loading (lower stiffness) and unloading (higher stiffness) condition. This scheme allows to introduce a memory effect on the soil which results stiffer and keeps a residual sinking after the passage of the tire. The normal contact force determines the maximum value of tangential force provided before the soil fails.
Technical Paper

A CFD Multidimensional Approach to Hydraulic Components Design

This paper presents a multidimensional approach to the hydraulic components design by means of an open-source fluid dynamics code. A preliminary study of a basic geometry was carried out by simulating the efflux of an incompressible fluid through circular pipes. Both laminar and turbulent conditions were analyzed and the influence of the grid resolution and modeling settings were investigated. A qualitative description of the internal flow-field distribution, and a quantitative comparison of pressure and velocity profiles along the pipe axis were used to asses the multidimensional open-source code capabilities. Moreover the results were compared with the experimental measurements available in literature and with the theoretical trends which can be found in well-known literature fundamentals (Hagen-Poiseuille theory and Nikuradse interpolation). Further comparison was performed by using a commercial CFD code.
Technical Paper

A Cartridge Type Pivotal Pin and Bushing Joint

A cartridge type pivotal pin and bushing joint has been patented and is being tested and refined both in the laboratory and on construction machinery. It features “dry lubricated” (Teflon) bearings which are assembled and sealed prior to installation. It is suitable for heavy unit loads and use under severe wear conditions, such as in crawler track chains and loader bucket pivotal pin joints. A brief history of U. S. manufactured track pin joints is included to show the progress in extending the service life of these devices.
Technical Paper

A Case Study on the Response Surface Method Applied to the Optimization of the Dynamical Behavior of Vehicles

This paper describes the application of statistical techniques related to the condensation of computational models so that gradient based optimization procedures can be used more effectively. The adoption of these techniques is encouraged by the possibility of an important reduction in time and cost associated to the vehicle development process. A sophisticated computational model of a Mini-baja vehicle is defined in the virtual environment by means of CAD/CAE software, intending to provide the major information related to the study of its dynamic behaviour and to define the statistical surrogates (approximate models). The creation of the computational model deals with the determination of physical and geometric properties, and is fed by stiffness and damping parameters obtained through experimental procedures.
Technical Paper

A Compact Cooling System (CCS™): The Key to Meet Future Demands in Heavy Truck Cooling

To meet future needs for heavy truck cooling, a novel high performance radial compact cooling system (CCS) was developed. Measurements with a prototype system were conducted in a component wind tunnel and with truck-installed systems in a climatic vehicular wind tunnel. The CSS is compared to conventional axial and side-by-side systems. In comparison with a conventional axial system, the performance per unit volume of the CCS is 42% higher, the noise level is about 6 dB lower and the power consumption of the radial fan is 70% of the axial fan leading to significant savings in fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis of WHR System in HD Engines Using Conventional Diesel Combustion and Partially-Premixed Combustion

In the truck industry there is a continuous demand to increase the efficiency and to decrease the emissions. To acknowledge both these issues a waste heat recovery system (WHR) is combined with a partially premixed combustion (PPC) engine to deliver an efficient engine system. Over the past decades numerous attempts to increase the thermal efficiency of the diesel engine has been made. One such attempt is the PPC concept that has demonstrated potential for substantially increased thermal efficiency combined with much reduced emission levels. So far most work on increasing engine efficiency has been focused on improving the thermal efficiency of the engine while WHR, which has an excellent potential for another 1-5 % fuel consumption reduction, has not been researched that much yet. In this paper a WHR system using a Rankine cycle has been developed in a modeling environment using IPSEpro.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis of a Rigid Bicycle Model with an Elastic Bicycle Model for Small Trucks

The planar rigid bicycle model is one of the most popular models used in vehicle dynamics. It has widely been used in studying vehicle handling characteristics and designing steering control system for vehicles. This paper analyses a modified dynamic model called the "Elastic Bicycle Model." This model improves upon the classical bicycle model by taking into account the flexibility of the vehicle frame by using concepts from the Euler beam theory. Complete set of the resulting dynamic equations of this model are presented. Non-dimensional versions of the equations are used to investigate the steady state response of the model. Finally, the results of the response study obtained by modeling a small truck with an elastic model and the classical bicycle model are presented. These include the steady state solutions as function of different parameters as well as a transient solution in response to a saw-tooth steering input and a step input. Octave® has been used for simulation purpose.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Automotive System Fatigue Models Processed in the Time and Frequency Domain

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that frequency domain methods for calculating structural response and fatigue damage can be more widely applicable than previously thought. This will be demonstrated by comparing results of time domain vs. frequency domain approaches for a series of fatigue/durability problems with increasing complexity. These problems involve both static and dynamic behavior. Also, both single input and multiple correlated inputs are considered. And most important of all, a variety of non-stationary loading types have been used. All of the example problems investigated are typically found in the automotive industry, with measured loads from the field or from the proving ground.
Technical Paper

A Comparison Between Micromachined Piezoresistive and Capacitive Pressure Sensors

Hundreds of millions of micromachined, piezoresistive Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensors have been produced to reduce pollution and improve fuel efficiency in engine control systems. Other vehicle applications for micromachined pressure sensors include monitoring turbo pressure, barometric pressure, fuel tank leakage, fuel rail pressure and tire pressure. Exhaust gas recirculation and even door compression for side impact detection are employing micromachined silicon pressure sensors. Piezoresistive pressure sensors have dominated the automotive market to date. Practical micromachined capacitive pressure sensors have recently been developed and could replace the piezoresistive sensor in many applications. This paper will examine the advantages of both pressure sensing technologies, and discuss applications that an inexpensive capacitive pressure sensor will open up.
Technical Paper

A Comparison Of The Dynamic Performance Of A U.S. And A European Heavy Vehicle

Despite the general similarity of U.S. and European heavy trucks, there are differences in design properties that affect braking and turning performance. A European tractor-semitrailer was studied for the purpose of comparing its properties to those of U.S. vehicles and assessing the comparative performance. Mass, suspension, and braking system properties of the European tractor and semitrailer were measured in the laboratory and on the proving ground. Turning and braking performance qualities were evaluated by computer simulation and by experimental tests. In turning performance the European combination had a 9 percent advantage in rollover threshold, compared to a generic U.S. vehicle with properties that were in the midrange of U.S. design practice. Higher suspension roll stiffness and higher chassis weight on the European tractor and semitrailer accounted for the higher threshold.