Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are worldwide recognized as one of the best and most immediate opportunities to solve the problems of fuel consumption, pollutant emissions and fossil fuels depletion, thanks to the high reliability of engines and the high efficiencies of motors. Moreover, as transport policy is becoming day by day stricter all over the world, moving people or goods efficiently and cheaply is the goal that all the main automobile manufacturers are trying to reach. In this context, the municipalities are performing their own action plans for public transport and the efforts in realizing high efficiency hybrid electric buses, could be supported by the local policies. For these reasons, the authors intend to propose an efficient control strategy for a hybrid electric bus, with a series architecture for the power-train.
Advanced Vehicle Technologies (AVT), a Ballarat Australia based company, has developed the World's first diesel to 100% LPG conversion for heavy haul trucks. There is no diesel required or utilized on the trucks. The engine is converted with minimal changes into a spark ignition engine with equivalent power and torque of the diesel. The patented technology is now deployed in 2 Mercedes Actros trucks. The power output in engine dynamometer testing exceeds that of the diesel (in excess of 370 kW power and 2700 Nm torque). In on-road application the power curve is matched to the diesel specifications to avoid potential downstream power-train stress. Testing at the Department of Transport Energy & Infrastructure, Regency Park, SA have shown the Euro 3 truck converted to LPG is between Euro 4 and Euro 5 NOx levels, CO2 levels 10% better than diesel on DT80 test and about even with diesel on CUEDC tests.
This paper summarizes the techniques and guidelines which were used to reduce the driver perceived noise level of a 145-210 HP series of agricultural tractors. Graphs of case study test results and comments on subjective noise quality are provided to guide the acoustic novice through the complexities of the vehicle sound environment in a methodical problem solving format.
This SAE standard establishes the minimum construction and performance requirements for a 15 Pole Connector Between Towing Vehicles and Trailers, for trucks, trailers, and dollies in conjunction with SAE J2742. The connector accommodates both power and ISO 11992-1 signal circuits along with dual ground wires to accommodate grounding requirements within the constraints of the SAE J2691 terminal capacity.
A Microprocessor Data Acquisition System has been designed to be cab-mounted in vehicles or used in laboratories to acquire up to 16 channels of test data. This data may be acquired as time-at-level histograms in one or two dimensions with min-max-mean data recovery, time histories, or peaks and valleys stored on digital tape. The system includes a microcomputer-based Playback/Support Box that simplifies playback of data tapes for computer analysis or stand-alone data plotting using a graphics terminal.
The demand for improved fuel economy in both cars and trucks has emphasized the need for lighter weight components. The application of high strength steel to wheels, both rim and disc, represents a significant opportunity for the automotive industry. This paper discusses the Ranger HSLA wheel program that achieved a 9.7 lbs. per vehicle weight savings relative to a plain carbon steel wheel of the same design. It describes the Ranger wheel specifications, the material selection, the metallurgical considerations of applying HSLA to wheels, and HSLA arc and flash butt welding. The Ranger wheel design and the development of the manufacturing process is discussed, including design modifications to accommodate the lighter gage. The results demonstrate that wheels can be successfully manufactured from low sulfur 60XK HSLA steel in a conventional high volume process (stamped disc and rolled rim) to meet all wheel performance requirements and achieve a significant weight reduction.
This paper is a summary of the aerodynamic development of the 1988 Chevrolet and GMC pickup truck. Comprehensive drag reduction work was performed with clay models from the original concept through the detailed full-scale model. In addition, the aerodynamic development included wind rush noise reduction, optimization of engine cooling air flow, and body surface pressures for HVAC performance.
The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 have brought about wholesale changes in the mandated requirements for the EPA and states to bring clean air to the country. Of particular interest to the light and heavy duty truck and bus industry are the requirements for VOC reductions in Title I, the hazardous pollutant reductions requirements in Title III, and the new permitting scheme required under Title V of the Act. The inter-relationship of lower VOC coatings, hazardous pollutant reduction, and permitting requirements will be presented. Since the Act does not fully mesh these requirements, the pathways that coating suppliers and coating application facilities can use to come into compliance will be explored. Specific VOC content of conforming coatings will be presented, how they will impact application processes, and how hazardous air pollutant reductions can be achieved is explored.
This paper will identify the role of the engineer in the Total Quality Management movement. In the latter 1980's quality and reliability were identified as being a result of good business practices, rather than only being effected by manufacturing and design systems. In the past, engineers were given total design responsibility with little or no control once the design left their hands. Product cost analysis recently identified approximately 65% of product cost comes from areas which the engineer cannot control. This paper will show how the skills of the engineer are being integrated into the total business environment through a structured planning system, resulting in products and services with customer focus. Quality and reliability in the 1990's will be a result of this well defined and applied business system.
The work presented here seeks to compare different means of providing scavenging systems for an automotive 2-stroke engine. It follows on from previous work solely investigating uniflow scavenging systems, and aims to provide context for the results discovered there as well as to assess the benefits of a new scavenging system: the reverse-uniflow sleeve-valve. For the study the general performance of the engine was taken to be suitable to power a medium-duty truck, and all of the concepts discussed here were compared in terms of indicated fuel consumption for the same cylinder swept volume using a one-dimensional engine simulation package. In order to investigate the sleeve-valve designs layout drawings and analysis of the Rolls-Royce Crecy-type sleeve had to be undertaken.
The potential contributions of acoustical technology to manufacturing companies pervade nearly all of its functions from marketing and product planning to design engineering and quality control. Despite this, however, companies generally feel uneasy when they embark on programs to use acoustics in their operations because the technology seems complicated and somehow harder to “get a handle on” than it is in other cases. But the issues of product sound, and the benefits of acoustics on a diagnostic tool are too important to ignore, so in this paper we discuss these issues in a “20 questions” format to help planners, engineers and managers as they proceed to implement acoustical technology in their organizations.
Airbag systems have been part of passenger car and truck programs since the mid-1980's. However, systems designed for medium and heavy duty truck applications are relatively new. The release of airbag systems for medium duty truck has provided some unique challenges, especially for the airbag sensing systems. Because of the many commercial applications within the medium duty market, the diversity of the sensing environments must be considered when designing and calibrating the airbag sensing system. The 2003 Chevrolet Kodiak and GMC TopKick airbag sensing development included significant work, not only on the development of airbag deployment events but also non-deployment events – events which do not require the airbag to deploy. This paper describes the process used to develop the airbag sensing system deployment events and non-deployment event used in the airbag sensing system calibration.
The Ultimate GD&T Pocket Guide explains the most common rules, symbols, and concepts used in geometric dimensioning and tolerancing. ...This one-of-a-kind reference guide includes over 100 detailed drawings to illustrate concepts, more than 40 charts for quick reference, explanations of each GD&T symbol and modifier and much more...Written by standards expert Alex Krulikowski, this valuable on-the-job reference clarifies how to interpret standard-compliant technical drawings that use ASME Y14.5-2009.
This paper describes the design concept and characteristics created to develop a new 200 hp class crawler tractor and the subsequent test to assume the achievement of objectives. The new tractor provides a stable platform for good control of the dozer blade and ripper, a main frame for independent mounting of the hydraulically controlled power train and superstructure components, easy servicing of power train components, integration of the ROPS with the chassis, and a 210 hp engine at 2100 rpm.
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The 2018 Ultimate GD&T Pocket Guide explains the most common rules, symbols, and concepts used in geometric dimensioning and tolerancing. This one-of-a-kind reference guide includes more than 100 detailed examples to illustrate concepts. Numerous charts for quick reference provide explanations of each GD&T symbol, modifier, and more. This valuable on-the-job resource clarifies how to interpret standard-compliant technical drawings that use ASME Y14.5-2018.