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Technical Paper

100% LPG Long Haul Truck Conversion - Economy and Environmental Benefits

2012-09-24
2012-01-1983
Advanced Vehicle Technologies (AVT), a Ballarat Australia based company, has developed the World's first diesel to 100% LPG conversion for heavy haul trucks. There is no diesel required or utilized on the trucks. The engine is converted with minimal changes into a spark ignition engine with equivalent power and torque of the diesel. The patented technology is now deployed in 2 Mercedes Actros trucks. The power output in engine dynamometer testing exceeds that of the diesel (in excess of 370 kW power and 2700 Nm torque). In on-road application the power curve is matched to the diesel specifications to avoid potential downstream power-train stress. Testing at the Department of Transport Energy & Infrastructure, Regency Park, SA have shown the Euro 3 truck converted to LPG is between Euro 4 and Euro 5 NOx levels, CO2 levels 10% better than diesel on DT80 test and about even with diesel on CUEDC tests.
Technical Paper

20 Questions About Acoustics in Industry

1989-04-01
890969
The potential contributions of acoustical technology to manufacturing companies pervade nearly all of its functions from marketing and product planning to design engineering and quality control. Despite this, however, companies generally feel uneasy when they embark on programs to use acoustics in their operations because the technology seems complicated and somehow harder to “get a handle on” than it is in other cases. But the issues of product sound, and the benefits of acoustics on a diagnostic tool are too important to ignore, so in this paper we discuss these issues in a “20 questions” format to help planners, engineers and managers as they proceed to implement acoustical technology in their organizations.
Technical Paper

4994 Tractor Hydraulic System

1984-09-01
841100
J I Case Company has produced four-wheel-drive agricultural tractors since 1964. In 1984 however, the flagship of the Case fleet changed hands. Rising labor costs and larger farming operations spearheaded the need for a more efficient larger tractor. January 1984 marked the introduction of the largest four-wheel-drive tractor in the history of Case, the 4994, a 400-gross engine horsepower tractor, Figure 1. Sheer horsepower alone however, would not meet the requirements of today's farming operations. Case Engineering realized that tomorrows tractors must have sufficient power to handle the wide variety of attachments available. They also realized that along with the unmatched power must come precise control of the attachment. These advancements in farming have required improvements to the tractor hydraulic system. This paper describes the hydraulic system of the 4994, Case's new flagship.
Journal Article

5.9 GHz DSRC Standards Overview and Status

2008-10-07
2008-01-2651
Over the past several years the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Standards Association has developed standards for the 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communications protocols, also known as Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments. These standards consist of IEEE 1609 as well as an amendment to the IEEE 802.11 standard or 802.11p. The 1609 standards were published for Trial Use and these as well as the 802.11p draft have been implemented in a variety of test beds to provide lessons learned and feedback into the standards working groups. Based on ongoing testing, the protocols display a strong capability to address the requirements of crash avoidance and transportation mobility applications. The corresponding test results provide information necessary to update the standards after the first trial phase as industry moves toward commercial implementations.
Technical Paper

50 Years of Agricultural Tractor Development

1966-02-01
660584
The story of Power Farming is the great saga of our times. It is a story of free enterprise, perseverance and endurance of the individual, of vision, idealism and cooperation among men, of the lightening of human toil and the release of millions of workers from farms to feed the ever hungry industrial revolution. By no means least, it is the story of producing food necessary to win two global wars, keep our allies alive and millions of the defeated enemy from starvation. FOREWARD By 1915, the Steam Traction Engine had attained its highest development. It was the forerunner, rather than the predecessor, of the farm tractor. The former was the instrument of expansion; the latter, the instrument of progress. The invention of the tractor, following by only sixteen years Otto's practical embodiment application of the Beau de Rochas power cycle to a heat engine, marked the advent of a new order - - the age of Power Farming.
Technical Paper

A Cartridge Type Pivotal Pin and Bushing Joint

1982-02-01
820636
A cartridge type pivotal pin and bushing joint has been patented and is being tested and refined both in the laboratory and on construction machinery. It features “dry lubricated” (Teflon) bearings which are assembled and sealed prior to installation. It is suitable for heavy unit loads and use under severe wear conditions, such as in crawler track chains and loader bucket pivotal pin joints. A brief history of U. S. manufactured track pin joints is included to show the progress in extending the service life of these devices.
Technical Paper

A Chemical Industry's View of Application Needs

1985-11-01
851094
Current trends in application technology indicate an increasing realization on the part of manufacturers and users of agricultural chemicals of the important role that application techniques and/or equipment play in the overall success of pesticide application. The trends that are most significantly influencing the way chemicals are currently applied include: increased emphasis on improving the accuracy of application increased use of low volume application (3-8 GPA) renewed interest in use of granular application increased use of conservation tillage increased emphasis on reduction in environmental contamination, both within and outside the target area increased use of highly active cam-pounds
Technical Paper

A Close-Range Photogrammetric Solution Working with Zoomed Images from Digital Cameras

2012-04-16
2012-01-0612
Close-range photogrammetry (CRP) is traditionally based on a network captured with the camera lens at a fixed focal length. A zoom lens is not desirable without solving the intrinsic camera parameters for varying focal length and lens distortion. When using a zoom lens camera, multiple focal lengths can be used if the camera is calibrated for each varying focal length, but most consumer grade lenses are not designed to accurately return to (or stay at) mid-range focal lengths. Similarly, using close-range photogrammetric software systems to accurately recover three-dimensional (XYZ) data from Point and Shoot (PAS) digital cameras has been problematic when the images were not intended for CRP. PAS cameras are automatically refocused and easily zoomed so the focal length and lens distortion are typically unknown for CRP mensuration purposes. In such circumstances, traditional CRP analysis can be both laborious and difficult without the correct camera parameters.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis of WHR System in HD Engines Using Conventional Diesel Combustion and Partially-Premixed Combustion

2012-09-24
2012-01-1930
In the truck industry there is a continuous demand to increase the efficiency and to decrease the emissions. To acknowledge both these issues a waste heat recovery system (WHR) is combined with a partially premixed combustion (PPC) engine to deliver an efficient engine system. Over the past decades numerous attempts to increase the thermal efficiency of the diesel engine has been made. One such attempt is the PPC concept that has demonstrated potential for substantially increased thermal efficiency combined with much reduced emission levels. So far most work on increasing engine efficiency has been focused on improving the thermal efficiency of the engine while WHR, which has an excellent potential for another 1-5 % fuel consumption reduction, has not been researched that much yet. In this paper a WHR system using a Rankine cycle has been developed in a modeling environment using IPSEpro.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Controller Designs for an Active, Electromagnetic, Offroad Vehicle Suspension System Traveling at High Speed

1998-02-23
980924
This paper discusses controller development for an active, off-road vehicle suspension system. A brief review of electronic filters and their characteristics is used to provide insight on the difficulties of designing a control algorithm for negotiating hilly and rough terrain at higher speeds. Two controller designs are presented. One was designed by pole placement and causes the suspension response to approximate a Type 1 Chebychev filter. The other was designed using constrained optimization. A comparison and discussion of simulation results leads to the conclusion that the suspension should be adaptively or predictively controlled for arbitrary terrain and velocity conditions.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Time Domain and Frequency Domain Test Methods for Automotive Components

1994-11-01
942279
Frequency domain testing has had limited use in the past for durability evaluations of automotive components. Recent advances and new perspectives now make it a viable option. Using frequency domain testing for components, test times can be greatly reduced, resulting in considerable savings of time, money, and resources. Quality can be built into the component, thus making real-time subsystem and full vehicle testing and development more meaningful. Time domain testing historically started with block cycle histogram tests. Improved capabilities of computers, controllers, math procedures, and algorithms have led to real time simulation in the laboratory. Real time simulation is a time domain technique for duplicating real world environments using computer controlled multi-axial load inputs. It contains all phase information as in the recorded proving ground data. However, normal equipment limitations prevent the operation at higher frequencies.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Regulatory Approval Process for Vehicles and Off-road Machines in the EU: ‘e-mark’ and ‘CE-mark’

1999-09-14
1999-01-2837
Regulatory requirements in the European Union (EU) for off-road machines and road vehicles are different. Vehicles which transport passengers and goods, along with attached trailers, as well as road motorcycles must meet EEC type-approval requirements. All other types of self-propelled machines must meet the requirements of the Machinery Directive (Council Directive 98/37/EC), and the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directive (Council Directive 89/336/EEC) and possibly other directives. This includes such categories as agriculture and forestry machines, construction machines, industrial trucks and similar products. The various directives outline the different processes for demonstrating compliance with the EU requirements. The intent of this paper is to summarize a few of the requirements that are of interest to off-highway equipment manufacturers and to identify some sources of information about the regulatory requirements.
Technical Paper

A Decision Network Framework for Vehicle Systems Engineering

2005-11-01
2005-01-3623
A Decision Network is an explicit model of the Thinking Breakdown Structure of any complex scientific, engineering, or societal challenge. Each node in the Decision Network represents a fundamental question that must be answered, i.e. a choice that demands a solution. A Decision Network provides an integrated Decision Management framework for any Systems Engineering effort that links business, technology and design choices. Effective Decision Management is the key to Systems Engineering success. This paper will provide an overview of a decision-centric approach to Systems Engineering built around Decision Networks. Lessons learned through the use of Decision Networks in other industries will be extrapolated for use in vehicle Systems Engineering.
Technical Paper

A Design Tool for Tuning and Optimizing Carburizing and Heat Treat Processes

2002-03-19
2002-01-1475
A software tool has been developed to aid designers and process engineers in the development and improvement of heat treat processes. This tool, DANTE™, combines metallurgical phase transformation models with mass diffusion, thermal and mechanical models to simulate the heating, carburization, quenching and tempering of steel parts. The technology behind the DANTE software and some applications are presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

A Designer's Guide for Heavy Duty Truck Wiring Harnesses

1976-02-01
760620
On January 10th, 1972, an S. A. E. Paper “Lighting System Performance and the Computer as a Maintenance Tool” (720087) was presented by Charles J. Owen. This was a paper presented on the causes, effects, corrections and a study in good and bad electrical wiring, presented pictorially as well as editorially. We recommend that paper to you for reading. On November 4th, 1974, S. A. E. Paper “A Case for Standardization” (741143) was presented by Charles J. Owen. The purpose of this paper was intent on “improving the breed”. The recommendations and specifications were very specific. In view of the two previous papers, this paper is presented specifically for the designer with back-up data involving recommendations that the industry have generally accepted as applied to the electrical wiring systems The practical data included, is a first in relating indexes of performance and indexes to cost comparisons. The usefulness of this paper in aiding a Designer is the target of the authors.
Technical Paper

A Diesel Exhaust Filter System for Industrial Diesel Forklifts

1991-09-01
911852
Diesel powered vehicles are characterized by two distinctives, of particulate, sensed by sight, and odor, sensed by smell. Dramatically reducing these distinctives would result in a “clean diesel”. A joint program of Yellow Freight System, Inc. (YFS) and the author's employer (DCI) has addressed one distinctive (particulate) and has resulted in an exhaust filtering system for the diesel forklift trucks YFS use to move freight at their terminals. This paper covers design, installation, and testing of the system to filter the particulate emissions emanating from these forklifts. The filters, designed to operate for one programmed maintenance (PM) cycle, are then cleaned in off-board equipment and returned to service for another cycle. All filter materials utilized are compatible with the 200°C normal maximum operating temperature, although short excursions to 260°C have not been detrimental.
Technical Paper

A Field Evaluation of the S-1 Pedestrian Guard: Transit and Shuttle Bus Applications

1998-11-16
982775
The need to reduce the injury to pedestrians that are run over or pinned beneath a bus is an ongoing concern for transit authorities and other operators. Occasionally, a pedestrian will be run over by the right rear wheel while exiting the rear door. This accident occurs in various scenarios such as when people exit the bus and become entangled in the door grab bars, or when they fall between the curb and the bus while it approaches or departs. With all scenarios, the S-1 Gard acts similar to a cow catcher, pushing the fallen pedestrian out and away from the rear tire. This paper will: outline various incident scenarios, evaluate the S-1 Gard's performance in a city environment, review installation of the guard as well as its maintenance requirements. The purpose of this paper is to bring to the attention of transit authorities and shuttle operators the overall value of this device.
Technical Paper

A GPS Based System for Minimizing Jolts to Heavy Equipment Operators

2004-10-26
2004-01-2726
When two pieces of heavy equipment interact, jolting and jarring can occur. During haulage truck loading for example, there is a chance that the operator of one or both pieces of the equipment will experience jolting and jarring. Additionally, a jolt can occur when an off highway equipment operator drives over a road defect or inadvertently strikes a berm. Aside from the operators, there is seldom anyone else that witnesses the interaction and can accurately describe the extent of the jolting. This makes it difficult for health and safety managers to address jolting and jarring. The devices and software described in this paper constitute a method for installing “black boxes” called Shox Boxes onboard equipment that already have a GPS system onboard. The resulting configuration provides an objective assessment of jolting and a chance to determine the root causes of it.
Technical Paper

A Generalized Component Efficiency and Input-Data Generation Model for Creating Fleet-Representative Vehicle Simulation Cases in VECTO

2019-04-02
2019-01-1280
The Vehicle Energy Consumption calculation Tool (VECTO) is used for the official calculation and reporting of CO2 emissions of HDVs in Europe. It uses certified input data in the form of energy or torque loss maps of driveline components and engine fuel consumption maps. Such data are proprietary and are not disclosed. Any further analysis of the fleet performance and CO2 emissions evolution using VECTO would require generic inputs or reconstructing realistic component input data. The current study attempts to address this issue by developing a process that would create VECTO input files based as much as possible on publicly available data. The core of the process is a series of models that calculate the vehicle component efficiency maps and produce the necessary VECTO input data. The process was applied to generate vehicle input files for rigid trucks and tractor-trailers of HDV Classes 4, 5, 9 and 10.
Technical Paper

A Generalized Isobaric and Isochoric Thermodynamic Scavenging Model

1987-09-01
871657
As a non-predictive model of the scavenging process, a generalized thermodynamic model has been suggested. This model can give a thermodynamic description for any possible scavenging process. Having specified a history of the scavenging process, this model is suitable for all scavenging systems including cross, loop and uniflow scavenging schemes. For the simplified isobaric and isochoric model with respectively constant coefficients of intake and discharge proportions during different scavengine phases, analytical solutions for this model have been obtained. From these, all existing models with the isobaric and isochoric assumptions can be derived.
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