Refine Your Search




Search Results

Technical Paper

20 Questions About Acoustics in Industry

The potential contributions of acoustical technology to manufacturing companies pervade nearly all of its functions from marketing and product planning to design engineering and quality control. Despite this, however, companies generally feel uneasy when they embark on programs to use acoustics in their operations because the technology seems complicated and somehow harder to “get a handle on” than it is in other cases. But the issues of product sound, and the benefits of acoustics on a diagnostic tool are too important to ignore, so in this paper we discuss these issues in a “20 questions” format to help planners, engineers and managers as they proceed to implement acoustical technology in their organizations.
Technical Paper

A Chemical Industry's View of Application Needs

Current trends in application technology indicate an increasing realization on the part of manufacturers and users of agricultural chemicals of the important role that application techniques and/or equipment play in the overall success of pesticide application. The trends that are most significantly influencing the way chemicals are currently applied include: increased emphasis on improving the accuracy of application increased use of low volume application (3-8 GPA) renewed interest in use of granular application increased use of conservation tillage increased emphasis on reduction in environmental contamination, both within and outside the target area increased use of highly active cam-pounds
Technical Paper

A Close-Range Photogrammetric Solution Working with Zoomed Images from Digital Cameras

Close-range photogrammetry (CRP) is traditionally based on a network captured with the camera lens at a fixed focal length. A zoom lens is not desirable without solving the intrinsic camera parameters for varying focal length and lens distortion. When using a zoom lens camera, multiple focal lengths can be used if the camera is calibrated for each varying focal length, but most consumer grade lenses are not designed to accurately return to (or stay at) mid-range focal lengths. Similarly, using close-range photogrammetric software systems to accurately recover three-dimensional (XYZ) data from Point and Shoot (PAS) digital cameras has been problematic when the images were not intended for CRP. PAS cameras are automatically refocused and easily zoomed so the focal length and lens distortion are typically unknown for CRP mensuration purposes. In such circumstances, traditional CRP analysis can be both laborious and difficult without the correct camera parameters.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Time Domain and Frequency Domain Test Methods for Automotive Components

Frequency domain testing has had limited use in the past for durability evaluations of automotive components. Recent advances and new perspectives now make it a viable option. Using frequency domain testing for components, test times can be greatly reduced, resulting in considerable savings of time, money, and resources. Quality can be built into the component, thus making real-time subsystem and full vehicle testing and development more meaningful. Time domain testing historically started with block cycle histogram tests. Improved capabilities of computers, controllers, math procedures, and algorithms have led to real time simulation in the laboratory. Real time simulation is a time domain technique for duplicating real world environments using computer controlled multi-axial load inputs. It contains all phase information as in the recorded proving ground data. However, normal equipment limitations prevent the operation at higher frequencies.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Regulatory Approval Process for Vehicles and Off-road Machines in the EU: ‘e-mark’ and ‘CE-mark’

Regulatory requirements in the European Union (EU) for off-road machines and road vehicles are different. Vehicles which transport passengers and goods, along with attached trailers, as well as road motorcycles must meet EEC type-approval requirements. All other types of self-propelled machines must meet the requirements of the Machinery Directive (Council Directive 98/37/EC), and the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directive (Council Directive 89/336/EEC) and possibly other directives. This includes such categories as agriculture and forestry machines, construction machines, industrial trucks and similar products. The various directives outline the different processes for demonstrating compliance with the EU requirements. The intent of this paper is to summarize a few of the requirements that are of interest to off-highway equipment manufacturers and to identify some sources of information about the regulatory requirements.
Technical Paper

A Design Tool for Tuning and Optimizing Carburizing and Heat Treat Processes

A software tool has been developed to aid designers and process engineers in the development and improvement of heat treat processes. This tool, DANTE™, combines metallurgical phase transformation models with mass diffusion, thermal and mechanical models to simulate the heating, carburization, quenching and tempering of steel parts. The technology behind the DANTE software and some applications are presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

A Designer's Guide for Heavy Duty Truck Wiring Harnesses

On January 10th, 1972, an S. A. E. Paper “Lighting System Performance and the Computer as a Maintenance Tool” (720087) was presented by Charles J. Owen. This was a paper presented on the causes, effects, corrections and a study in good and bad electrical wiring, presented pictorially as well as editorially. We recommend that paper to you for reading. On November 4th, 1974, S. A. E. Paper “A Case for Standardization” (741143) was presented by Charles J. Owen. The purpose of this paper was intent on “improving the breed”. The recommendations and specifications were very specific. In view of the two previous papers, this paper is presented specifically for the designer with back-up data involving recommendations that the industry have generally accepted as applied to the electrical wiring systems The practical data included, is a first in relating indexes of performance and indexes to cost comparisons. The usefulness of this paper in aiding a Designer is the target of the authors.
Technical Paper

A Diesel Exhaust Filter System for Industrial Diesel Forklifts

Diesel powered vehicles are characterized by two distinctives, of particulate, sensed by sight, and odor, sensed by smell. Dramatically reducing these distinctives would result in a “clean diesel”. A joint program of Yellow Freight System, Inc. (YFS) and the author's employer (DCI) has addressed one distinctive (particulate) and has resulted in an exhaust filtering system for the diesel forklift trucks YFS use to move freight at their terminals. This paper covers design, installation, and testing of the system to filter the particulate emissions emanating from these forklifts. The filters, designed to operate for one programmed maintenance (PM) cycle, are then cleaned in off-board equipment and returned to service for another cycle. All filter materials utilized are compatible with the 200°C normal maximum operating temperature, although short excursions to 260°C have not been detrimental.
Technical Paper

A GPS Based System for Minimizing Jolts to Heavy Equipment Operators

When two pieces of heavy equipment interact, jolting and jarring can occur. During haulage truck loading for example, there is a chance that the operator of one or both pieces of the equipment will experience jolting and jarring. Additionally, a jolt can occur when an off highway equipment operator drives over a road defect or inadvertently strikes a berm. Aside from the operators, there is seldom anyone else that witnesses the interaction and can accurately describe the extent of the jolting. This makes it difficult for health and safety managers to address jolting and jarring. The devices and software described in this paper constitute a method for installing “black boxes” called Shox Boxes onboard equipment that already have a GPS system onboard. The resulting configuration provides an objective assessment of jolting and a chance to determine the root causes of it.
Technical Paper

A High Performance Solution for In-Vehicle Networking - ‘Controller Area Network (CAN)’

Recently, significant focus and development effort has been dedicated toward in-vehicle networking. This effort includes work on behalf of the American Trucking Association (ATA), the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), the International Standards Organization (ISO), and independent developments by automotive and semiconductor manufacturers. In-vehicle networking extends, as a result, beyond passenger cars into heavy truck, military, and construction vehicles. In the course of these developments, the benefits of networking have been examined and networking is perceived as having significant benefits, resulting in production and custom development [1, 2, 3]. The Controller Area Network (CAN) is a high-performance serial communication solution which has been designed to meet the requirements for the broad range of applications and has now progressed from a specification to a product.
Technical Paper

A History of instrumentation on Agricultural Equipment

The use of instrumentation on agricultural equipment slowly evolved from human observation of the operation of the equipment to a level of instrumentation which parallels that found on automobiles, and shared that automotive plateau for approximately 40 years. It has now embarked on a path which differs from that of the automobile. These differences are now openly competitive within the agricultural industry in both the choice of display technology and in function selection. This paper reviews both the early and modern agricultural instrumentation along with some of the unique functions now being monitored.
Technical Paper

A Knowledge-Based System for Tillage Equipment Management

A knowledge-based system for agricultural tillage equipment selection and management is presented. There are ten tillage systems suitable for corn and soybean production in Ontario. These systems manipulate the soil by different amounts resulting in varying levels of soil degradation, crop yields, and weed problems. Many factors, such as soil characteristics, climate, farm economics, and environmental impact make the selection of the most appropriate tillage practice a difficult task. Except for mouldboard plough, few farmers have experience operating and managing these tillage systems. Knowledge and information obtained from three experts is incorporated into the knowledge-based computer program to aid farmers in the selection and management of tillage systems. Selection criteria included in the program are environmental impact, management difficulty, economic return, and energy output/input ratio.
Technical Paper

A Materials Selection Tool for Automotive Structural and Body Skin Systems

The traditional approach to materials selection is to compare the results of direct substitution of alternative materials on an individual part-by-part basis. The engineer then frequently faces so many design constraints that use of a new material is infeasible. This approach also precludes redesign to optimize the characteristics of new materials. A methodology is presented which facilitates the consideration of a large system comprised of many components. The management science technique of “multi-attribute utility analysis” is applied as a tool for use by automotive design engineers. Attributes include capital cost, piece cost, weight, design flexibility and corrosion resistance. The results serve as a decision making tool to determine which design provides the greatest overall value. Also, the results may be used as a design aid to quantify desirable tradeoffs between attributes, thus pointing the way towards optimal redesign.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for the Derivation of Movement-and Load Spectra for Energy-Efficiency Test Cycles of Heavy Equipment Vehicles

As a result of the Kyoto Protocol [1], the European Union's legislation demands higher saving rates for the total energy consumption of technical equipment. Heavy Equipment, such as construction- and agricultural machines, contributes over 80% of the total off-road diesel fuel consumption in Germany per annum. It is therefore necessary to provide helpful solutions in order to reach this ambitious aim. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research cooperates with machine manufacturers, component suppliers and research institutes in the area of heavy equipment. Under the project name TEAM [2] a three year project has been started, which is focused on the development and integration of new propulsion and steering systems for heavy equipment. One task within the project is finding an appropriate way of evaluating the energy efficiency of the enhanced machines, after the powertrain modifications have been applied to it.
Technical Paper

A Multi-Channel, Multi-Mode Field Data Acquisition and Analysis System

A STD Bus, PC-DOS based data acquisition system has been developed for collecting ride, function and fatigue data from field vehicles. The system is modular with a channel capacity of 8 to 32 channels when configured with a full set of conditioning modules. Several alternate storage media systems are available to provide efficient data storage and transfer to standard personal computer systems for analysis. A modest system extension expands the system to enable it to become a flexible development tool for closed-loop control concepts and algorithms.
Technical Paper

A Multi-Level Approach for the Validation of a Tractor-Semitrailer Ride and Handling Model

The accurate prediction of commercial-vehicle ride and handling performance with computer simulation tools is dependent on the level of correlation between the computer model and experimental data. Correlating vehicle attributes to physical test data is often challenging due to the large number of degrees of freedom - and, correspondingly, the large number of tunable parameters - typically required to accurately model vehicle behavior. A high level of interaction between input parameters and vehicle attributes further complicates the task. As a result, this type of correlation is a multi-objective optimization exercise in which the judicious planning of supporting test activity is critical to achieving the right level of model accuracy with an acceptable amount of resource investment. This paper discusses the methodology implemented in the validation of a tractor-semitrailer ADAMS model for both ride and handling simulations and presents the results obtained.
Technical Paper

A New Facility for Building Prototype Tractor Shovels

Review of various construction, equipment and organization factors considered in the design of new plant facility for fabrication of prototype earthmoving vehicles. Emphasis on eliminating existing problems and maximizing plant efficiency.
Technical Paper

A New Method for Engine Low Power Detection in Trucks

A new method for detecting the low power conditions on electronically-controlled diesel engines used in on-road vehicles has been developed. The advantage of this method is that it uses readily available diagnostic tools and engine installed sensors with no necessity for a dynamometer test. Without removing the engine, it gives an estimate of the real engine power which is accurate to 5%.
Technical Paper

A One-Wire Brushless Integral Charging System for Earthmovers

It is apparent that a new generator and regulator design is needed to supply the additional electrical loads and meet the requirements for durability, reliability, and environmental protection on earthmoving equipment. The author discusses the d-c and alternator type systems which have been used to supply electrical needs. A detailed analysis of the integral charging system is presented. This system overcomes many of the shortcomings of the present electrical systems and, because it has a minimum number of moving parts, it is potentially the most reliable charging system in use on heavy duty equipment.
Technical Paper

A Picture is Worth a Thousand Lines of Code

The objective of this paper is to delineate the importance of pictures, i.e., graphical models, in documenting and communicating the high level functionality of a complex system, primarily for embedded software requirements and specifications. An overview is given of various graphical techniques and methodologies for modeling complex systems. The aspects (advantages and disadvantages) relating to different categories of modeling are outlined. Discussion of complex systems extends beyond the functional/software aspects of product design to both process and project modeling. The author shares personal observations and experiences with modeling, and tools used.