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Article

2018-12-27
Two new installments in the burgeoning SAE International Podcast Series cast a spotlight on additive manufacturing, which is fueling innovation, greater efficiencies, and the future of mobility engineering. Additive manufacturing continues to advance and transform mobility engineering, as aerospace and automotive firms increasingly adopt and invest in 3D printing technologies, which are becoming more capable and cost-effective.
Technical Paper

1988 Chevrolet/GMC Full-Size Pickup Truck Aerodynamics

1987-11-01
872274
This paper is a summary of the aerodynamic development of the 1988 Chevrolet and GMC pickup truck. Comprehensive drag reduction work was performed with clay models from the original concept through the detailed full-scale model. In addition, the aerodynamic development included wind rush noise reduction, optimization of engine cooling air flow, and body surface pressures for HVAC performance.
Technical Paper

1990-The Engineer and TQM

1990-04-01
900894
This paper will identify the role of the engineer in the Total Quality Management movement. In the latter 1980's quality and reliability were identified as being a result of good business practices, rather than only being effected by manufacturing and design systems. In the past, engineers were given total design responsibility with little or no control once the design left their hands. Product cost analysis recently identified approximately 65% of product cost comes from areas which the engineer cannot control. This paper will show how the skills of the engineer are being integrated into the total business environment through a structured planning system, resulting in products and services with customer focus. Quality and reliability in the 1990's will be a result of this well defined and applied business system.
Book

2009 Ultimate GD&T Pocket Guide 2nd Ed

2017-03-27
The Ultimate GD&T Pocket Guide explains the most common rules, symbols, and concepts used in geometric dimensioning and tolerancing. ...This one-of-a-kind reference guide includes over 100 detailed drawings to illustrate concepts, more than 40 charts for quick reference, explanations of each GD&T symbol and modifier and much more...Written by standards expert Alex Krulikowski, this valuable on-the-job reference clarifies how to interpret standard-compliant technical drawings that use ASME Y14.5-2009.
Book

2016 Mobility Engineering Professionals Salary Survey

2016-07-14
EXCLUSIVE MEMBER BENEFIT: 2016 MOBILITY ENGINEERING PROFESSIONAL SALARY SURVEY AND CALCULATOR Gain better insight into compensation practices: this salary survey is the only study its kind to explore levels and changes in compensation and employment for engineers and technical employees in the automotive, aerospace, and commercial vehicle industries. It benchmarks compensation levels based by geography, education, industry sector, experience, and managerial and budgetary responsibility. The full report is available to SAE International members by signing into your My SAE account and downloading it into your My Library area. Members also have full access to the updated online interactive salary calculator by visiting SAE’s website. Become a member of SAE International to access this exclusive benefit for free, or purchase it today. YOU BELONG HERE. Membership helps you succeed both personally and professionally. Join us today.
Journal Article

3D-CFD-Study of Aerodynamic Losses in Compressor Impellers

2018-07-05
Abstract Due to the increasing requirements for efficiency, the wide range of characteristics and the improved possibilities of modern development and production processes, compressors in turbochargers have become more individualized in order to adapt to the requirements of internal combustion engines. An understanding of the working mechanisms as well as an understanding of the way that losses occur in the flow allows a reduced development effort during the optimization process. This article presents three-dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) investigations of the loss mechanisms and quantitative calculations of individual losses. The 3D-CFD method used in this article will reduce the drawbacks of one-dimensional calculation as far as possible. For example, the twist of the blades is taken into account and the “discrete” method is used for loss calculation instead of the “average” method.
Technical Paper

4994 Tractor Hydraulic System

1984-09-01
841100
J I Case Company has produced four-wheel-drive agricultural tractors since 1964. In 1984 however, the flagship of the Case fleet changed hands. Rising labor costs and larger farming operations spearheaded the need for a more efficient larger tractor. January 1984 marked the introduction of the largest four-wheel-drive tractor in the history of Case, the 4994, a 400-gross engine horsepower tractor, Figure 1. Sheer horsepower alone however, would not meet the requirements of today's farming operations. Case Engineering realized that tomorrows tractors must have sufficient power to handle the wide variety of attachments available. They also realized that along with the unmatched power must come precise control of the attachment. These advancements in farming have required improvements to the tractor hydraulic system. This paper describes the hydraulic system of the 4994, Case's new flagship.
Technical Paper

4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicle Modeling and Simulation of Special Conditions

2011-09-13
2011-01-2158
This paper introduces the characteristics of the 4 wheel independent driving/4 wheel independent steering (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicle (EV). Models of Subsystems and the vehicle are constructed based on Matlab/simulink. The vehicle model allows the inputs of different drive torques and steer angles of four wheels. The dynamic characteristics of drive motors and steer motors are considered, and also it can reflect the vehicle longitudinal dynamics change due to the increase of the mass and inertia of the four wheels. Besides, drive mode selection function that is unique to this type vehicle is involved. Simulations and analyses of crab, oblique driving and zero radius turning which are the special conditions of 4WID/4WIS EV are conducted. The results show that the model can reflect the dynamic response characteristics. The model can be used to the simulation analyses of handling, stability, energy saving and control strategies verification of 4WID/4WIS EVs.
Technical Paper

A CFD Study of Drag Reduction Devices for a Full Size Production Pickup Truck

2015-04-14
2015-01-1541
Various drag reduction strategies have been applied to a full size production pickup truck to evaluate their effectiveness by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The drag reduction devices evaluated in this study were placed at the rear end of the truck bed and the tailgate. Three types of devices were evaluated: (1) boat tail-like extended plates attached to the tailgate; (2) mid-plate attached to the mid-section of the tailgate and; (3) flat plates partially covering the truck bed. The effect of drag reduction by various combinations of these three devices are presented in this paper. Twenty-four configurations were evaluated in the study with the best achievable drag reduction of around 21 counts (ΔCd = 0.021). A detailed breakdown of the pressure differentials at the base of the truck is provided in order to understand the flow mechanism for the drag reductions.
Technical Paper

A Case for Connected Vehicles in reducing Total Cost of Ownership in Indian CV Industry

2015-04-14
2015-01-0293
Indian automobile production increased at a CAGR of 12.2% over FY05-FY13, with a decline in Commercial Vehicle (CV) growth rate during FY09 and FY13. Globally, automotive industry suffered a decline in FY09 due to the global financial crisis and again on a decline in FY12 due to the European sovereign debt crisis. Apart from the global events, there are various internal risks the Indian OEMs need to consider: 1) regulatory risk due to excise duty hikes, decontrol of fuel pricing, etc., 2) market risks due to currency, inflation, interest rates, material cost, 3) industry risks due to increased competition, price war, etc. In this scenario, Indian Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) need to constantly recalibrate their strategies to the changing market dynamics and associated risks. A research on megatrends affecting the Indian CV industry has identified more focus on Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) as one of the megatrend.
Technical Paper

A Chemical Industry's View of Application Needs

1985-11-01
851094
Current trends in application technology indicate an increasing realization on the part of manufacturers and users of agricultural chemicals of the important role that application techniques and/or equipment play in the overall success of pesticide application. The trends that are most significantly influencing the way chemicals are currently applied include: increased emphasis on improving the accuracy of application increased use of low volume application (3-8 GPA) renewed interest in use of granular application increased use of conservation tillage increased emphasis on reduction in environmental contamination, both within and outside the target area increased use of highly active cam-pounds
Technical Paper

A Co-Simulation Environment for Virtual Prototyping of Ground Vehicles

2007-10-30
2007-01-4250
The use of virtual prototyping early in the design stage of a product has gained popularity due to reduced cost and time to market. The state of the art in vehicle simulation has reached a level where full vehicles are analyzed through simulation but major difficulties continue to be present in interfacing the vehicle model with accurate powertrain models and in developing adequate formulations for the contact between tire and terrain (specifically, scenarios such as tire sliding on ice and rolling on sand or other very deformable surfaces). The proposed work focuses on developing a ground vehicle simulation capability by combining several third party packages for vehicle simulation, tire simulation, and powertrain simulation. The long-term goal of this project consists in promoting the Digital Car idea through the development of a reliable and robust simulation capability that will enhance the understanding and control of off-road vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Investigation of Filter Performance Under Laboratory and Field Conditions

1986-04-01
860735
The Standard Multipass (Beta) Filter Method (ISO 4572) has been a highly recognized and widely accepted test throughout industry since its introduction in the early 1970's. In the past decade, the Beta Method has indeed made a major contribution in assisting users in selecting filters to meet system design requirements. However, many complaints have been voiced by users that filters normally produce a lower particle removal efficiency under field applications than they do during laboratory tests. Research results from work carried out at the Fluid Power Research Center at Oklahoma State University indicate that the degradation of the filtration (Beta) ratio in service depends mainly on the filter's retentivity characteristic. This paper highlights the theoretical basis of the Epsilon Rating Method and the concept of retentivity. Most important, the paper uses these concepts to correlate filter performance between laboratory tests and field operation.
Technical Paper

A Comparison between Two Different Computer Simulations in Measuring the Vehicle/Pedestrian Impact

1982-02-01
820171
This paper presents the analytical results of two different computer simulations of the vehicle pedestrian impact; PROMETHEUS 2 and the MacLaughlin/Daniel (MACDAN) models. The results presented illustrate the simularity and differences between the two models and accuracy of both to predict the actual occurrance. Also presented is a discussion relative to the modeling techniques of obtaining data for the pedestrian. This presentation illustrates the scaling techniques and actual data obtained in order to accurately simulate the pedestrian.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Braking Performance of Asbestos, Non-Asbestos, and Semi-Metallic Friction Material

1990-10-01
902272
To date, no definitive work to quantify and compare the braking rating horsepower relationships between vehicles equipped with brake assemblies containing asbestos, non-asbestos, and semi-metallic friction material has been completed. This paper will report the results of a brake fade evaluation performed on a 34,000-lb. GVW vehicle in accordance with SAE J880 Brake System Rating Test Code Procedures and has quantified braking horsepower, fade temperature resistance, thermal response temperature rise, lining wear, and drum wear.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Fatigue Life Estimation on the Frequency Domain with Test Data and Time Domain Calculations

2016-10-25
2016-36-0168
This paper focus on some of the fatigue methodologies based on the frequency domain and how they can be used on the heavy vehicle industry. A calculation flow was developed which consist of two steps. At first the stresses on the desired frequency bandwidth are calculated using a finite element software and those are then used as inputs on a Matlab script that estimate the expected life using two different theories, Bendat’s narrow band and Dirlik. The proposed methodology is then compared with more established time domain calculations. At first a plain hand calculation with a simpler input is performed on both domains before evaluating the differences with a more complex random stress signal input. Finally, test data from a rig test is used to validate the frequency domain fatigue methods using real life data.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Full Scale Aft Cavity Drag Reduction Concepts With Equivalent Wind Tunnel Test Results

2013-09-24
2013-01-2429
Comparison studies have been conducted on a 1:16th scale model and a full scale tractor trailer of a variety of sealed aft cavity devices as a means to develop or enhance commercial drag reduction technology for class 8 vehicles. Various base cavity geometries with pressure taps were created for the scale model. The studies confirmed that length has an important effect on performance. The interaction of the boat-tailed aft cavity with other drag reduction devices, specifically side skirts, was investigated with results showing no discernable drag performance interaction between them. Overall, the experiments show that a boat-tailed aft cavity can reduce the drag up to 13%. Full-scale tests of a commercially derived product based on these scale tests were also completed using SAE Type II testing procedures. Full-scale tests indicated a fuel savings of over 6.5%.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Regulatory Approval Process for Vehicles and Off-road Machines in the EU: ‘e-mark’ and ‘CE-mark’

1999-09-14
1999-01-2837
Regulatory requirements in the European Union (EU) for off-road machines and road vehicles are different. Vehicles which transport passengers and goods, along with attached trailers, as well as road motorcycles must meet EEC type-approval requirements. All other types of self-propelled machines must meet the requirements of the Machinery Directive (Council Directive 98/37/EC), and the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directive (Council Directive 89/336/EEC) and possibly other directives. This includes such categories as agriculture and forestry machines, construction machines, industrial trucks and similar products. The various directives outline the different processes for demonstrating compliance with the EU requirements. The intent of this paper is to summarize a few of the requirements that are of interest to off-highway equipment manufacturers and to identify some sources of information about the regulatory requirements.
Technical Paper

A Composite Approach to Reducing Abrasive Wear

1983-09-12
831375
“Today, wearing parts are regularly subjected to abnormal loading conditions. They must be able to accept these conditions without failure. In continuous operations, unscheduled downtime greatly increases maintenance costs, not to mention the cost of lost production. White iron castings offer premium abrasion resistance for many of these applications, but are often not used due to the possibility of brittle failure and the difficulty of mechanical attachment. This paper discusses the properties and applications of a composite of martensitic white iron and mild steel. This laminate will accept medium to high impact without loss of service failure, and can be installed by mechanical means or with welded attachment.”
Technical Paper

A Computer Simulation of the Effect of Wind on Heavy Truck Fuel Consumption Testing

2010-10-05
2010-01-2039
A computer simulation was developed to investigate the effect of wind on test track estimation of heavy truck fuel efficiency. Monte Carlo simulations were run for various wind conditions, both with and without gusts, and for two different vehicle aerodynamic configurations. The vehicle configurations chosen for this study are representative of typical Class 8 tractor trailers and use wind tunnel measured drag polars for performance computations. The baseline (control) case is representative of a modern streamlined tractor and conventional trailer. The comparison (test) case is the baseline case with the addition of a trailer drag reduction device (trailer skirt). The integrated drag coefficient, overall required power, total fuel consumption, and average rate of fuel consumption were calculated for a heavy truck on an oval test track to show the effect of wind on test results.
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