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Article

2018-12-27
Two new installments in the burgeoning SAE International Podcast Series cast a spotlight on additive manufacturing, which is fueling innovation, greater efficiencies, and the future of mobility engineering. Additive manufacturing continues to advance and transform mobility engineering, as aerospace and automotive firms increasingly adopt and invest in 3D printing technologies, which are becoming more capable and cost-effective.
Technical Paper

1990-The Engineer and TQM

1990-04-01
900894
This paper will identify the role of the engineer in the Total Quality Management movement. In the latter 1980's quality and reliability were identified as being a result of good business practices, rather than only being effected by manufacturing and design systems. In the past, engineers were given total design responsibility with little or no control once the design left their hands. Product cost analysis recently identified approximately 65% of product cost comes from areas which the engineer cannot control. This paper will show how the skills of the engineer are being integrated into the total business environment through a structured planning system, resulting in products and services with customer focus. Quality and reliability in the 1990's will be a result of this well defined and applied business system.
Book

2009 Ultimate GD&T Pocket Guide 2nd Ed

2017-03-27
The Ultimate GD&T Pocket Guide explains the most common rules, symbols, and concepts used in geometric dimensioning and tolerancing. ...This one-of-a-kind reference guide includes over 100 detailed drawings to illustrate concepts, more than 40 charts for quick reference, explanations of each GD&T symbol and modifier and much more...Written by standards expert Alex Krulikowski, this valuable on-the-job reference clarifies how to interpret standard-compliant technical drawings that use ASME Y14.5-2009.
Book

2016 Mobility Engineering Professionals Salary Survey

2016-07-14
EXCLUSIVE MEMBER BENEFIT: 2016 MOBILITY ENGINEERING PROFESSIONAL SALARY SURVEY AND CALCULATOR Gain better insight into compensation practices: this salary survey is the only study its kind to explore levels and changes in compensation and employment for engineers and technical employees in the automotive, aerospace, and commercial vehicle industries. It benchmarks compensation levels based by geography, education, industry sector, experience, and managerial and budgetary responsibility. The full report is available to SAE International members by signing into your My SAE account and downloading it into your My Library area. Members also have full access to the updated online interactive salary calculator by visiting SAE’s website. Become a member of SAE International to access this exclusive benefit for free, or purchase it today. YOU BELONG HERE. Membership helps you succeed both personally and professionally. Join us today.
Technical Paper

4994 Tractor Hydraulic System

1984-09-01
841100
J I Case Company has produced four-wheel-drive agricultural tractors since 1964. In 1984 however, the flagship of the Case fleet changed hands. Rising labor costs and larger farming operations spearheaded the need for a more efficient larger tractor. January 1984 marked the introduction of the largest four-wheel-drive tractor in the history of Case, the 4994, a 400-gross engine horsepower tractor, Figure 1. Sheer horsepower alone however, would not meet the requirements of today's farming operations. Case Engineering realized that tomorrows tractors must have sufficient power to handle the wide variety of attachments available. They also realized that along with the unmatched power must come precise control of the attachment. These advancements in farming have required improvements to the tractor hydraulic system. This paper describes the hydraulic system of the 4994, Case's new flagship.
Technical Paper

4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicle Modeling and Simulation of Special Conditions

2011-09-13
2011-01-2158
This paper introduces the characteristics of the 4 wheel independent driving/4 wheel independent steering (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicle (EV). Models of Subsystems and the vehicle are constructed based on Matlab/simulink. The vehicle model allows the inputs of different drive torques and steer angles of four wheels. The dynamic characteristics of drive motors and steer motors are considered, and also it can reflect the vehicle longitudinal dynamics change due to the increase of the mass and inertia of the four wheels. Besides, drive mode selection function that is unique to this type vehicle is involved. Simulations and analyses of crab, oblique driving and zero radius turning which are the special conditions of 4WID/4WIS EV are conducted. The results show that the model can reflect the dynamic response characteristics. The model can be used to the simulation analyses of handling, stability, energy saving and control strategies verification of 4WID/4WIS EVs.
Technical Paper

A Case for Connected Vehicles in reducing Total Cost of Ownership in Indian CV Industry

2015-04-14
2015-01-0293
Indian automobile production increased at a CAGR of 12.2% over FY05-FY13, with a decline in Commercial Vehicle (CV) growth rate during FY09 and FY13. Globally, automotive industry suffered a decline in FY09 due to the global financial crisis and again on a decline in FY12 due to the European sovereign debt crisis. Apart from the global events, there are various internal risks the Indian OEMs need to consider: 1) regulatory risk due to excise duty hikes, decontrol of fuel pricing, etc., 2) market risks due to currency, inflation, interest rates, material cost, 3) industry risks due to increased competition, price war, etc. In this scenario, Indian Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) need to constantly recalibrate their strategies to the changing market dynamics and associated risks. A research on megatrends affecting the Indian CV industry has identified more focus on Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) as one of the megatrend.
Technical Paper

A Chemical Industry's View of Application Needs

1985-11-01
851094
Current trends in application technology indicate an increasing realization on the part of manufacturers and users of agricultural chemicals of the important role that application techniques and/or equipment play in the overall success of pesticide application. The trends that are most significantly influencing the way chemicals are currently applied include: increased emphasis on improving the accuracy of application increased use of low volume application (3-8 GPA) renewed interest in use of granular application increased use of conservation tillage increased emphasis on reduction in environmental contamination, both within and outside the target area increased use of highly active cam-pounds
Technical Paper

A Co-Simulation Environment for Virtual Prototyping of Ground Vehicles

2007-10-30
2007-01-4250
The use of virtual prototyping early in the design stage of a product has gained popularity due to reduced cost and time to market. The state of the art in vehicle simulation has reached a level where full vehicles are analyzed through simulation but major difficulties continue to be present in interfacing the vehicle model with accurate powertrain models and in developing adequate formulations for the contact between tire and terrain (specifically, scenarios such as tire sliding on ice and rolling on sand or other very deformable surfaces). The proposed work focuses on developing a ground vehicle simulation capability by combining several third party packages for vehicle simulation, tire simulation, and powertrain simulation. The long-term goal of this project consists in promoting the Digital Car idea through the development of a reliable and robust simulation capability that will enhance the understanding and control of off-road vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Investigation of Filter Performance Under Laboratory and Field Conditions

1986-04-01
860735
The Standard Multipass (Beta) Filter Method (ISO 4572) has been a highly recognized and widely accepted test throughout industry since its introduction in the early 1970's. In the past decade, the Beta Method has indeed made a major contribution in assisting users in selecting filters to meet system design requirements. However, many complaints have been voiced by users that filters normally produce a lower particle removal efficiency under field applications than they do during laboratory tests. Research results from work carried out at the Fluid Power Research Center at Oklahoma State University indicate that the degradation of the filtration (Beta) ratio in service depends mainly on the filter's retentivity characteristic. This paper highlights the theoretical basis of the Epsilon Rating Method and the concept of retentivity. Most important, the paper uses these concepts to correlate filter performance between laboratory tests and field operation.
Technical Paper

A Comparison between Two Different Computer Simulations in Measuring the Vehicle/Pedestrian Impact

1982-02-01
820171
This paper presents the analytical results of two different computer simulations of the vehicle pedestrian impact; PROMETHEUS 2 and the MacLaughlin/Daniel (MACDAN) models. The results presented illustrate the simularity and differences between the two models and accuracy of both to predict the actual occurrance. Also presented is a discussion relative to the modeling techniques of obtaining data for the pedestrian. This presentation illustrates the scaling techniques and actual data obtained in order to accurately simulate the pedestrian.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Fatigue Life Estimation on the Frequency Domain with Test Data and Time Domain Calculations

2016-10-25
2016-36-0168
This paper focus on some of the fatigue methodologies based on the frequency domain and how they can be used on the heavy vehicle industry. A calculation flow was developed which consist of two steps. At first the stresses on the desired frequency bandwidth are calculated using a finite element software and those are then used as inputs on a Matlab script that estimate the expected life using two different theories, Bendat’s narrow band and Dirlik. The proposed methodology is then compared with more established time domain calculations. At first a plain hand calculation with a simpler input is performed on both domains before evaluating the differences with a more complex random stress signal input. Finally, test data from a rig test is used to validate the frequency domain fatigue methods using real life data.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Regulatory Approval Process for Vehicles and Off-road Machines in the EU: ‘e-mark’ and ‘CE-mark’

1999-09-14
1999-01-2837
Regulatory requirements in the European Union (EU) for off-road machines and road vehicles are different. Vehicles which transport passengers and goods, along with attached trailers, as well as road motorcycles must meet EEC type-approval requirements. All other types of self-propelled machines must meet the requirements of the Machinery Directive (Council Directive 98/37/EC), and the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directive (Council Directive 89/336/EEC) and possibly other directives. This includes such categories as agriculture and forestry machines, construction machines, industrial trucks and similar products. The various directives outline the different processes for demonstrating compliance with the EU requirements. The intent of this paper is to summarize a few of the requirements that are of interest to off-highway equipment manufacturers and to identify some sources of information about the regulatory requirements.
Technical Paper

A Computer-Aided System for Evaluation of Off-Road Wheeled Vehicle Mobility

1995-09-01
952120
A Computer Aided System (CAS) is developed in order to evaluate off-road wheeled vehicle mobility. The system takes into consideration both vehicle technical parameters and the main specifications of the soil on which the vehicle is expected to operate. Thirty seven vehicle technical parameters organized in nine groups are considered. These groups are: weights, engine parameters, dimensions, performance, transmission, steering, brakes, tires, and self recovery means. The main soil specifications of the soil considered are the soil type (clay, silt, or sand) and the shear and bearing resistance represented by the cone index or the gradient cone index. The evaluation process depends on considering a datum value for each vehicle technical parameter. These datum values or norms are obtained from a statistical analysis study of the technical parameters for a sample of 155 off-road wheeled vehicles representing different schools from all over the world [1].
Technical Paper

A Control Method For 4WS Truck To Suppress Excursion of a Body Rear Overhang

1989-11-01
892521
A rear-steering control method for a four-wheel steering truck has been developed. The purpose of this investigation is to develop a control method to minimize the turning radius without the excursion of the vehicle rear end toward the outside of the turn. The basic control concept is to steer the rear wheels so that the vehicle rear end follows the path of the front end. The control method was applied to an experimental medium-duty truck with four-wheel steering system. The simulation and vehicle test results showed the control method to be effective in minimizing the turning radius without causing the excursion of the vehicle rear end toward the outside in short turns.
Technical Paper

A Controllable Water Cooled Charge Air Cooler (WCCAC) for Diesel Trucks

2004-10-26
2004-01-2614
Water-cooled charge air cooling is being considered as part of various technology solutions in response to 2007 US, 2010 US, EU4 and EU5 emissions standards. As manufacturers determine appropriate engine and vehicle solutions to meet the upcoming emissions standards, charge air cooling requirements are increasing due to higher turbocharger outlet temperatures and pressures, higher EGR rates, and requests for intake manifold temperature control to manage combustion and exhaust temperatures. Valeo and EMP have collaborated on the development and testing of a water cooled charge air cooler (WCCAC), controlled by a 12 volt brushless motor coolant pump. The system design addresses material temperature limitations of air-air aluminum CAC's and has the potential to simplify the packaging of the air induction system.
Technical Paper

A Corporate Product Quality Assurance Program

1983-09-12
831351
This paper outlines what a large company is doing on a corporate staff basis to help combat Product Liability problems. Eaton Corporation is multi-national and serves a variety of markets. The extensive and complex line of products dictates the need for a well organized, corporate Product Assurance Program. The program is made up of five thrusts: 1) Corporate Policy, 2) Guidelines, 3) Divisional Committees, 4) Surveys and 5) Training. Utilizing a product development project, the implementation of several elements of Product Quality Assurance are explained. The program was designed for flexibility and emphasizes the chairman's motto to “DO IT RIGHT THE FIRST TIME, EVERY TIME.”
Technical Paper

A Detailed Analysis of Proper Safety Features Implementation in the Design and Construction of Modern Automotive LPG and CNG Containers

2014-04-01
2014-01-0418
Paper describes analysis of the design process of modern automotive LPG and CNG containers. Over decade experience in the field of both computer based analysis as well as in the real conditions testing has been collected and presented in the paper. Authors present the potentials of modern FEM methodologies in the optimization and production of lightweight steel containers. It has been proved that the most sophisticated numerical analysis have to be followed by the construction verification, particularly considering direct exposure to fire. Bonfire test have become obligatory for both liquid and compressed gases containers. Properly chosen fire protection system, together with the adequate level of quality of materials applied for its production together with proper directing of the gas flowing out from safety devices are the essential factors defining gas containers fire safety.
Technical Paper

A Digital Computer Method for the Prediction of the Directional Response of Trucks and Tractor-Trailers

1974-02-01
740138
It has long been recognized by vehicle dynamicists that tire properties are of utmost importance in the determination of vehicle handling. Trucks and tractor-trailers are no exception; thus, to provide a reasonable simulation of commercial vehicle handling, careful attention must be paid to the representation of the mechanics of the tire-road interface. In this paper, a newly developed simulation of commercial vehicles is discussed, with special consideration given to the modeling of the tire-road interface. Comparisons are also presented which show a high degree of correlation between commercial vehicle test data and simulation results for steady turn and braking-in-a-turn maneuvers.
Journal Article

A Direct Yaw Control Algorithm for On- and Off-Road Yaw Stability

2011-04-12
2011-01-0183
Models for off-road vehicles, such as farm equipment and military vehicles, require an off-road tire model in order to properly understand their dynamic behavior on off-road driving surfaces. Extensive literature can be found for on-road tire modeling, but not much can be found for off-road tire modeling. This paper presents an off-road tire model that was developed for use in vehicle handling studies. An on-road, dry asphalt tire model was first developed by performing rolling road force and moment testing. Off-road testing was then performed on dirt and gravel driving surfaces to develop scaling factors that explain how the lateral force behavior of the tire will scale from an on-road to an off-road situation. The tire models were used in vehicle simulation software to simulate vehicle behavior on various driving surfaces. The simulated vehicle response was compared to actual maximum speed before sliding vs. turning radius data for the studied vehicle to assess the tire model.
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