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Technical Paper

1983 Ford Ranger Truck HSLA Steel Wheel

The demand for improved fuel economy in both cars and trucks has emphasized the need for lighter weight components. The application of high strength steel to wheels, both rim and disc, represents a significant opportunity for the automotive industry. This paper discusses the Ranger HSLA wheel program that achieved a 9.7 lbs. per vehicle weight savings relative to a plain carbon steel wheel of the same design. It describes the Ranger wheel specifications, the material selection, the metallurgical considerations of applying HSLA to wheels, and HSLA arc and flash butt welding. The Ranger wheel design and the development of the manufacturing process is discussed, including design modifications to accommodate the lighter gage. The results demonstrate that wheels can be successfully manufactured from low sulfur 60XK HSLA steel in a conventional high volume process (stamped disc and rolled rim) to meet all wheel performance requirements and achieve a significant weight reduction.
Technical Paper

A Bench Test for the Evaluation of Silver-Steel Lubrication Properties of Railroad Diesel Oils

A pin and disc machine has been modified for the evaluation of silver-steel lubrication characteristics of railroad diesel oils. Use of silver pins on polished steel discs at selected loads and rubbing speeds allows good correlation with known engine behavior. In comparison with wear and friction data obtained by the four ball method, this pin and disc test gives better correlation with engine tests than the Modified Four Ball Test.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Fatigue Lives of Polyvinylchloride & Steel Welds

This paper describes the results of a series of fatigue studies relating the lives of several weld geometries. Rotating beam and axially loaded specimens were used. A comparison between steel and plastic (polyvinylchloride scale models is made. Using plastic scale models of welded structures for fatigue life determination is the ultimate goal of this work.
Technical Paper

A Composite Approach to Reducing Abrasive Wear

“Today, wearing parts are regularly subjected to abnormal loading conditions. They must be able to accept these conditions without failure. In continuous operations, unscheduled downtime greatly increases maintenance costs, not to mention the cost of lost production. White iron castings offer premium abrasion resistance for many of these applications, but are often not used due to the possibility of brittle failure and the difficulty of mechanical attachment. This paper discusses the properties and applications of a composite of martensitic white iron and mild steel. This laminate will accept medium to high impact without loss of service failure, and can be installed by mechanical means or with welded attachment.”
Technical Paper

A Correlation Study Between Two Heavy-Duty Vehicle Chassis Dynamometer Emissions Testing Facilities

A correlation study of vehicle exhaust emissions measurements was conducted by the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory and the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) Emissions Testing Facility. A diesel fueled transit bus was tested by both chassis dynamometer emissions testing laboratories. Exhaust emissions were sampled from the tested vehicle during the operation of the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Central Business District (CBD) testing cycle. Data of gaseous and particulate matter emissions was obtained at each testing laboratory. The emissions results were compared to evaluate the effects of different equipment, test procedures, and drivers on the measurements of exhaust emissions of heavy-duty vehicles operated on a chassis dynamometer.
Technical Paper

A Cost Effective, New Coating for Multi Layer Steel Exhaust Gaskets

Current trends in environmental and emissions regulations are driving changes in new engine systems, and increasing the need for more effectively sealed joints in exhaust systems. At the high temperatures in these exhaust systems it is difficult for traditional gaskets to provide an effective seal, as they degrade at high operating temperatures. This paper introduces a coating that has both excellent temperature stability and good compliance, thus forming an excellent sealing enhancement for metallic layers in exhaust system gaskets. Temperature stability data is presented along with sealing data, which illustrate the superior performance of this material compared to current systems.
Technical Paper

A Design Tool for Tuning and Optimizing Carburizing and Heat Treat Processes

A software tool has been developed to aid designers and process engineers in the development and improvement of heat treat processes. This tool, DANTE™, combines metallurgical phase transformation models with mass diffusion, thermal and mechanical models to simulate the heating, carburization, quenching and tempering of steel parts. The technology behind the DANTE software and some applications are presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

A Detailed Analysis of Proper Safety Features Implementation in the Design and Construction of Modern Automotive LPG and CNG Containers

Paper describes analysis of the design process of modern automotive LPG and CNG containers. Over decade experience in the field of both computer based analysis as well as in the real conditions testing has been collected and presented in the paper. Authors present the potentials of modern FEM methodologies in the optimization and production of lightweight steel containers. It has been proved that the most sophisticated numerical analysis have to be followed by the construction verification, particularly considering direct exposure to fire. Bonfire test have become obligatory for both liquid and compressed gases containers. Properly chosen fire protection system, together with the adequate level of quality of materials applied for its production together with proper directing of the gas flowing out from safety devices are the essential factors defining gas containers fire safety.
Technical Paper

A Diesel Oxidation Catalyst for Exhaust Emissions Reduction

The authors used a mass spectrometer to determine an SOF reduction mechanism of a diesel oxidation catalyst. The results indicate that SOF reduction lies in the catalytic conversion of high molecular organic matter to low molecular organic matter. And unregulated emissions are also reduced through this conversion. It is also found that the SOF reduction performance is highly dependent up on the condition of the wash coat. There is some limitation to improving diesel oxidation catalyst performance because of the sulfur content found in diesel fuel. Finally, the authors have determined what we think are the specifications of the presently best catalytic converter.
Technical Paper

A Fast Start-Up On-Board Diesel Fuel Reformer for NOx Trap Regeneration and Desulfation

This paper describes recent progress in our program to develop an emissions technology allowing diesel engines to meet the upcoming 2007/2010 regulations for NOx. At the heart of this technology is the ArvinMeritor Diesel Fuel Reformer that reforms the fuel, on-demand, on-board a vehicle. The fuel reformer uses plasma to partially oxidize a mixture of diesel fuel and air creating a highly reducing mixture of Hydrogen and Carbon monoxide. In a previous publication, we have demonstrated that using a reformate rich in H2 and CO to regenerate a NOx trap is highly advantageous compared to vaporized diesel fuel used conventionally. In this paper we present results and a strategy for performing desulfation of the traps using the fuel reformer. In contrast to vaporized diesel, which requires very high temperatures that fall outside the normal exhaust operating temperatures for diesel engines, desulfation was achieved at temperatures lower by more than 100 °C using the Plasma Fuel Reformer.
Journal Article

A High Efficiency, Dilute Gasoline Engine for the Heavy-Duty Market

A 13 L HD diesel engine was converted to run as a flame propagation engine using the HEDGE™ Dual-Fuel concept. This concept consists of pre-mixed gasoline ignited by a small amount of diesel fuel - i.e., a diesel micropilot. Due to the large bore size and relatively high compression ratio for a pre-mixed combustion engine, high levels of cooled EGR were used to suppress knock and reduce the engine-out emissions of the oxides of nitrogen and particulates. Previous work had indicated that the boosting of high dilution engines challenges most modern turbocharging systems, so phase I of the project consisted of extensive simulation efforts to identify an EGR configuration that would allow for high levels of EGR flow along the lug curve while minimizing pumping losses and combustion instabilities from excessive backpressure. A potential solution that provided adequate BTE potential was consisted of dual loop EGR systems to simultaneously flow high pressure and low pressure loop EGR.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Combustion Control Strategy for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Based on the Technologies of Multi-Pulse Injections, Variable Boost Pressure and Retarded Intake Valve Closing Timing

Combustion control strategy for high efficiency and low emissions in a heavy duty (H D) diesel engine was investigated experimentally in a single cylinder test engine with a common rail fuel system, EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) system, boost system and retarded intake valve closing timing actuator. For the operation loads of IMEPg (Gross Indicated Mean Effective Pressure) less than 1.1 MPa the low temperature combustion (LTC) with high rate of EGR was applied. The fuel injection modes of either single injection or multi-pulse injections, boost pressure and retarded intake valve closing timing (RIVCT) were also coupled with the engine operation condition loads for high efficiency and low emissions. A higher boost pressure played an important role in improving fuel efficiency and obtaining ultra-low soot and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper


This paper presents some of the history of the Spacemetal process development; a discussion of the core forming machine, a description of the welder where corrugated core and facing sheets are joined; the quality control process employed for inspecting the finished product; and some of the material properties and applications. FOREWORD Development of a production process and the machines for fabrication of a resistance welded steel sandwich was made by Missile Division, North American Aviation, Inc. Development was carried forward under contract AF 33(600)-26154 from the Manufacturing Methods Branch, Industrial Resources Division of the Air Materiel Command USAF.
Technical Paper

A Method for Bearing Damage Analysis

A method for the analysis of a damaged bearing is described. An emphasis is placed on obtaining complete and accurate application information; conducting a thorough visual examination; making physical measurements as necessary; and conducting metallurgical tests. The method has been used for tapered roller bearings as well as a variety of other components of various steel types and processing histories.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for the Derivation of Movement-and Load Spectra for Energy-Efficiency Test Cycles of Heavy Equipment Vehicles

As a result of the Kyoto Protocol [1], the European Union's legislation demands higher saving rates for the total energy consumption of technical equipment. Heavy Equipment, such as construction- and agricultural machines, contributes over 80% of the total off-road diesel fuel consumption in Germany per annum. It is therefore necessary to provide helpful solutions in order to reach this ambitious aim. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research cooperates with machine manufacturers, component suppliers and research institutes in the area of heavy equipment. Under the project name TEAM [2] a three year project has been started, which is focused on the development and integration of new propulsion and steering systems for heavy equipment. One task within the project is finding an appropriate way of evaluating the energy efficiency of the enhanced machines, after the powertrain modifications have been applied to it.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Titanium for Truck Suspension Springs

The titanium alloy system offers a range of properties conducive to weight/space savings. These properties include high strength, low elastic modulus and low density, which uniquely suit them for spring applications. By utilizing titanium in various spring designs, suspension engineers can save up to 60% of the weight and 20-30% of the space for a comparable steel spring. The primary impediment to widespread titanium part production and use in the past was cost. A new low cost titanium alloy system designed specifically for suspension and drive train application has been tested and proved to limit this cost problem. Working with titanium in their suspension designs, engineers will save significant weight/space over comparable steel and aluminum components.
Technical Paper

A New Concept in Commercial Vehicle Suspension

Developed to cut down on maintenance costs and increase the earning power of the vehicle, this family of suspensions provides for improved vehicular behavior - items such as stability, braking, cornering, and overall ride. The suspensions utilize a principle of providing a cushioned variable rate ride through the use of molded rubber springs. Floating walking beams distribute weight equally on both axles in the case of tandems. The axles are positively located by upper wishbones and lower torque rods. The parallelogram thus formed prevents windup and axle hop. The correct use of metals shows a substantial weight saving in the entire model range.
Technical Paper

A New Generation of Vibration Isolation for the Conventional Truck Cab

A new concept in conventional truck cab vibration isolation has been developed by Holland Neway International. The system provides a significant improvement in ride comfort for the truck cab occupants in the truck of the twenty-first century. The single point isolator incorporates inclined sleeve type air springs to achieve a very low natural frequency, typically 0.9 - 1.1 hertz. A unique variable geometry damping system is used in conjunction with the sleeve springs to allow the configuration to achieve significant improvements in vibration isolation. The passive variable geometry control operates essentially undamped until large displacement disturbances are encountered allowing maximum possible isolation performance. Since the isolator natural frequency occurs in a region where the human physiology is most tolerant of vibratory motion, a high level of ride comfort is achieved.
Technical Paper

A New Mechanism for Measuring Exhaust A/F

Exhaust gas air-fuel ratio (A/F) sensors are common devices in powertrain feedback control systems aimed at minimizing emissions. Both resistive (using TiO2) and electrochemical (using ZrO2) mechanisms are used in the high temperature ceramic devices now being employed. In this work a new mechanism for making the measurement is presented based on the change in the workfunction of a Pt film in interaction with the exhaust gas. In particular it is found that the workfunction of Pt increases reversibly by approximately 0.7 V at that point (the stoichiometric ratio) where the exhaust changes from rich to lean conditions. This increase arises from the adsorption of O2 on the Pt surface. On returning to rich conditions, catalytic reaction of the adsorbed oxygen with reducing species returns the workfunction to its original value. Two methods, one capacitive and one thermionic, for electrically sensing this workfunction change and thus providing for a practical device are discussed.
Journal Article

A New Piston Insulation Concept for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines to Reduce Heat Loss from the Wall

To reduce heat transfer between hot gas and cavity wall, thin Zirconia (ZrO2) layer (0.5mm) on the cavity surface of a forged steel piston was firstly formed by thermal spray coating aiming higher surface temperature swing precisely synchronized with flame temperature near the wall resulting in the reduction of temperature difference. However, no apparent difference in the heat loss was analyzed. To find out the reason why the heat loss was not so improved, direct observation of flame impingement to the cavity wall was carried out with the top view visualization technique, for which one of the exhaust valves was modified to a sapphire window. Local flame behavior very close to the wall was compared by macrophotography. Numerical analysis by utilizing a three-dimensional simulation was also carried out to investigate the effect of several parameters on the heat transfer coefficient.