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Technical Paper

100% LPG Long Haul Truck Conversion - Economy and Environmental Benefits

2012-09-24
2012-01-1983
Advanced Vehicle Technologies (AVT), a Ballarat Australia based company, has developed the World's first diesel to 100% LPG conversion for heavy haul trucks. There is no diesel required or utilized on the trucks. The engine is converted with minimal changes into a spark ignition engine with equivalent power and torque of the diesel. The patented technology is now deployed in 2 Mercedes Actros trucks. The power output in engine dynamometer testing exceeds that of the diesel (in excess of 370 kW power and 2700 Nm torque). In on-road application the power curve is matched to the diesel specifications to avoid potential downstream power-train stress. Testing at the Department of Transport Energy & Infrastructure, Regency Park, SA have shown the Euro 3 truck converted to LPG is between Euro 4 and Euro 5 NOx levels, CO2 levels 10% better than diesel on DT80 test and about even with diesel on CUEDC tests.
Technical Paper

1983 Ford Ranger Truck HSLA Steel Wheel

1982-02-01
820019
The demand for improved fuel economy in both cars and trucks has emphasized the need for lighter weight components. The application of high strength steel to wheels, both rim and disc, represents a significant opportunity for the automotive industry. This paper discusses the Ranger HSLA wheel program that achieved a 9.7 lbs. per vehicle weight savings relative to a plain carbon steel wheel of the same design. It describes the Ranger wheel specifications, the material selection, the metallurgical considerations of applying HSLA to wheels, and HSLA arc and flash butt welding. The Ranger wheel design and the development of the manufacturing process is discussed, including design modifications to accommodate the lighter gage. The results demonstrate that wheels can be successfully manufactured from low sulfur 60XK HSLA steel in a conventional high volume process (stamped disc and rolled rim) to meet all wheel performance requirements and achieve a significant weight reduction.
Technical Paper

1985 Light-Duty Truck Fuel Economy

1980-10-01
801387
This paper addresses fuel economy standards that can be obtained in 1985 for two-wheel drive LDT's using existing technology. To estimate the fuel economy, the fleet of LDT's is first segmented into market classes based on the concept of utility. The 1985 sales share of each class is predicted from an extrapolation of current trends as well as published sales forecasts. The 1985 fuel economy of each market class is projected using 1) MY '80 truck technology and fuel economy as a baseline, 2) a regression equation that allows an estimate of fuel economy based on the weight, drag, and engine displacement, and 3) the addition of fuel-efficient technologies. Estimates of weight reduction and new model introduction within each market class were derived from published manufacturers' plans. Based on this methodology, this analysis concludes that a fleet fuel economy in excess of 24/25 mpg is feasible for 1985 without/with the use of diesel engines.
Technical Paper

1990 Clean Air Act Impacts on Finishing Technology and Operations in the Medium and Heavy Duty Truck & Bus Industry

1995-11-01
952662
The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 have brought about wholesale changes in the mandated requirements for the EPA and states to bring clean air to the country. Of particular interest to the light and heavy duty truck and bus industry are the requirements for VOC reductions in Title I, the hazardous pollutant reductions requirements in Title III, and the new permitting scheme required under Title V of the Act. The inter-relationship of lower VOC coatings, hazardous pollutant reduction, and permitting requirements will be presented. Since the Act does not fully mesh these requirements, the pathways that coating suppliers and coating application facilities can use to come into compliance will be explored. Specific VOC content of conforming coatings will be presented, how they will impact application processes, and how hazardous air pollutant reductions can be achieved is explored.
Technical Paper

1998 Ranger Pulse Vacuum Hublock 4x4 System

1997-11-17
973237
This paper describes the design and features of the 1998 Ranger Pulse Vacuum Hublock (or PVH) 4x4 system. This part-time 4x4 system with wheel-end disconnect offers optimized fuel economy in a robust design that requires no regularly scheduled maintenance under normal driving conditions. The system allows silent 4WD shift on the fly at any speed or temperature and does not require reversing the vehicle to disengage the hublocks.
Technical Paper

2000 University of Maryland FutureTruck Design Description

2001-03-05
2001-01-0681
The University of Maryland team converted a model year 2000 Chevrolet Suburban to an ethanol-fueled hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) and tied for first place overall in the 2000 FutureTruck competition. Competition goals include a two-thirds reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a reduction of exhaust emissions to meet California ultra-low emissions vehicle (ULEV) Tier II standards, and an increase in fuel economy. These goals must be met without compromising the performance, amenities, safety, or ease of manufacture of the stock Suburban. The University of Maryland FutureTruck, Proteus, addresses the competition goals with a powertrain consisting of a General Motors 3.8-L V6 engine, a 75-kW (100 hp) SatCon electric motor, and a 336-V battery pack. Additionally, Proteus incorporates several emissions-reducing and energy-saving modifications; an advanced control strategy that is implemented through use of an on-board computer and an innovative hybrid-electric drive train.
Technical Paper

25W HID Headlamp - First Series Production in Hybrid Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-0108
Due to the general requirements in the automotive industry to reduce the power consumption, fuel consumption rate and CO2 emission a new HID (High Intensity Discharge) bulb with only 25W is under development for front lighting systems. A first headlamp integrated in a hybrid vehicle is now launched as a first application in the market. The current regulation in ECE allows to get rid of the mandatory headlamp cleaning system and the automatic leveling requirement once the 25W HID bulb is applied. The reason for this is the objective luminous flux of the 25W HID bulb, which emits less than 2000 lm, a boundary defined in the regulation, where a headlamp cleaning and an automatic leveling is requested. That simplifies especially the integration in smaller vehicles and electric and hybrid vehicles. The paper describes the special design of the headlamp, the projector unit, the light performance, packaging advantages and future outlook of further applications in the near future.
Technical Paper

3-D Modeling of Diesel Engine Intake Flow, Combustion and Emissions

1991-09-01
911789
Manufacturers of heavy-duty diesel engines are facing increasingly stringent, emission standards. These standards have motivated new research efforts towards improving the performance of diesel engines. The objective of the present program is to develop a comprehensive analytical model of the diesel combustion process that can be used to explore the influence of design changes. This will enable industry to predict the effect of these changes on engine performance and emissions. A major benefit of the successful implementation of such models is that engine development time and costs would be reduced through their use. The computer model is based on the three-dimensional KIVA-II code, with state-of-the-art submodels for spray atomization, drop breakup / coalescence, multi-component fuel vaporization, spray/wall interaction, ignition and combustion, wall heat transfer, unburned HC and NOx formation, and soot and radiation.
Technical Paper

48 V Diesel Hybrid - Advanced Powertrain Solution for Meeting Future Indian BS 6 Emission and CO2 Legislations

2019-01-09
2019-26-0151
The legislations on emission reduction is getting stringent everywhere in the world. India is following the same trend, with Government of India (GOI) declaring the nationwide implementation of BS 6 legislation by April 2020 and Real Driving Emission (RDE) Cycle relevant legislation by 2023. Additionally GOI is focusing on reduction of CO2 emissions by introduction of stringent fleet CO2 targets through CAFE regulation, making it mandatory for vehicle manufacturers to simultaneously work on gaseous emissions and CO2 emissions. Simultaneous NOx emission reduction and CO2 reduction measures are divergent in nature, but with a 48 V Diesel hybrid, this goal can be achieved. The study presented here involves arriving at the right future hybrid-powertrain layout for a Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) in the Indian scenario to meet the future BS 6 and CAFÉ legislations. Diesel engines dominate the current LCV and SUV segments in India and the same trend can be expected to continue in future.
Book

9th AVL International Commercial Powertrain Conference (2017)

2017-05-21
Organized in cooperation with SAE International, AVL’s International Commercial Powertrain Conference- ICPC, happens every two years. It is the premier forum for truck, agricultural and construction equipment manufacturers to discuss powertrain technology challenges and solutions across their industries. This event offers a unique opportunity for engineers to address the synergy effects and distinctive characteristics of commercial vehicles, agricultural tractors and non-road vehicles, and industrial machinery. In 2017, the 9th ICPC focused on alternative powertrain technologies and innovations improving operating efficiency. These proceedings focus on: • Future challenges for engines and emissions • Smart Technologies Changing Farming • Cyber Physical Systems in Agriculture Business • OEM View of the Future of the Construction Machinery Industry • Powertrain Developments • CO2 Reduction • CVT Transmission Platform Technology • Autonomous and Connected Trucks
Technical Paper

A 2D Model for Tractor Tire-Soil Interaction: Evaluation of the Maximum Traction Force and Comparison with Experimental Results

2011-04-12
2011-01-0191
The paper investigates the interaction between soil and tractor tires through a 2D numerical model. The tire is schematized as a rigid ring presenting a series of rigid tread bars on the external circumference. The outer profile of the tire is divided into a series of elements, each one able to exchange a normal and a tangential contact force with the ground. A 2D soil model was developed to compute the forces at the ground-tire interface: the normal force is determined on the basis of the compression of the soil generated by the sinking of the tire. The soil is modeled through a layer of springs characterized by two different stiffness for the loading (lower stiffness) and unloading (higher stiffness) condition. This scheme allows to introduce a memory effect on the soil which results stiffer and keeps a residual sinking after the passage of the tire. The normal contact force determines the maximum value of tangential force provided before the soil fails.
Technical Paper

A Bench Test for the Evaluation of Silver-Steel Lubrication Properties of Railroad Diesel Oils

1969-02-01
690775
A pin and disc machine has been modified for the evaluation of silver-steel lubrication characteristics of railroad diesel oils. Use of silver pins on polished steel discs at selected loads and rubbing speeds allows good correlation with known engine behavior. In comparison with wear and friction data obtained by the four ball method, this pin and disc test gives better correlation with engine tests than the Modified Four Ball Test.
Technical Paper

A Case Study on the Response Surface Method Applied to the Optimization of the Dynamical Behavior of Vehicles

2001-03-05
2001-01-3850
This paper describes the application of statistical techniques related to the condensation of computational models so that gradient based optimization procedures can be used more effectively. The adoption of these techniques is encouraged by the possibility of an important reduction in time and cost associated to the vehicle development process. A sophisticated computational model of a Mini-baja vehicle is defined in the virtual environment by means of CAD/CAE software, intending to provide the major information related to the study of its dynamic behaviour and to define the statistical surrogates (approximate models). The creation of the computational model deals with the determination of physical and geometric properties, and is fed by stiffness and damping parameters obtained through experimental procedures.
Technical Paper

A Co-Simulation Environment for Virtual Prototyping of Ground Vehicles

2007-10-30
2007-01-4250
The use of virtual prototyping early in the design stage of a product has gained popularity due to reduced cost and time to market. The state of the art in vehicle simulation has reached a level where full vehicles are analyzed through simulation but major difficulties continue to be present in interfacing the vehicle model with accurate powertrain models and in developing adequate formulations for the contact between tire and terrain (specifically, scenarios such as tire sliding on ice and rolling on sand or other very deformable surfaces). The proposed work focuses on developing a ground vehicle simulation capability by combining several third party packages for vehicle simulation, tire simulation, and powertrain simulation. The long-term goal of this project consists in promoting the Digital Car idea through the development of a reliable and robust simulation capability that will enhance the understanding and control of off-road vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Investigation of Filter Performance Under Laboratory and Field Conditions

1986-04-01
860735
The Standard Multipass (Beta) Filter Method (ISO 4572) has been a highly recognized and widely accepted test throughout industry since its introduction in the early 1970's. In the past decade, the Beta Method has indeed made a major contribution in assisting users in selecting filters to meet system design requirements. However, many complaints have been voiced by users that filters normally produce a lower particle removal efficiency under field applications than they do during laboratory tests. Research results from work carried out at the Fluid Power Research Center at Oklahoma State University indicate that the degradation of the filtration (Beta) ratio in service depends mainly on the filter's retentivity characteristic. This paper highlights the theoretical basis of the Epsilon Rating Method and the concept of retentivity. Most important, the paper uses these concepts to correlate filter performance between laboratory tests and field operation.
Technical Paper

A Comparison Between Micromachined Piezoresistive and Capacitive Pressure Sensors

1997-11-17
973241
Hundreds of millions of micromachined, piezoresistive Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensors have been produced to reduce pollution and improve fuel efficiency in engine control systems. Other vehicle applications for micromachined pressure sensors include monitoring turbo pressure, barometric pressure, fuel tank leakage, fuel rail pressure and tire pressure. Exhaust gas recirculation and even door compression for side impact detection are employing micromachined silicon pressure sensors. Piezoresistive pressure sensors have dominated the automotive market to date. Practical micromachined capacitive pressure sensors have recently been developed and could replace the piezoresistive sensor in many applications. This paper will examine the advantages of both pressure sensing technologies, and discuss applications that an inexpensive capacitive pressure sensor will open up.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Controller Designs for an Active, Electromagnetic, Offroad Vehicle Suspension System Traveling at High Speed

1998-02-23
980924
This paper discusses controller development for an active, off-road vehicle suspension system. A brief review of electronic filters and their characteristics is used to provide insight on the difficulties of designing a control algorithm for negotiating hilly and rough terrain at higher speeds. Two controller designs are presented. One was designed by pole placement and causes the suspension response to approximate a Type 1 Chebychev filter. The other was designed using constrained optimization. A comparison and discussion of simulation results leads to the conclusion that the suspension should be adaptively or predictively controlled for arbitrary terrain and velocity conditions.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of HEV Engine Operation and HD Engine Emissions Test Cycles

2000-12-04
2000-01-3469
Currently, all heavy-duty on-road engines in the USA are certified for emissions compliance using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) heavy-duty transient cycle. The engine in a hybrid drive system, on the other hand, is controlled at a more steady-state level to reduce emissions over conventional drive systems. In this study, Allison Electric Drive seeks a better standardized emissions test cycle to certify (in the near term) engines which will be used in parallel and series hybrid drive systems. Actual revenue service data from a transit hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) was compared to several standard engine test cycles including the US FTP, ISO 8178 (a collection of many steady-state cycles), the Euro III (ESC) 13-mode cycle, and the Japanese 13-mode cycle. Graphical analysis of actual hybrid engine data revealed that the ESC cycle reflects field data better than other cycles, including the US FTP, which has little correlation.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Fatigue Lives of Polyvinylchloride & Steel Welds

1988-04-01
880818
This paper describes the results of a series of fatigue studies relating the lives of several weld geometries. Rotating beam and axially loaded specimens were used. A comparison between steel and plastic (polyvinylchloride scale models is made. Using plastic scale models of welded structures for fatigue life determination is the ultimate goal of this work.
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