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Technical Paper

1983 Ford Ranger Truck HSLA Steel Wheel

1982-02-01
820019
The demand for improved fuel economy in both cars and trucks has emphasized the need for lighter weight components. The application of high strength steel to wheels, both rim and disc, represents a significant opportunity for the automotive industry. This paper discusses the Ranger HSLA wheel program that achieved a 9.7 lbs. per vehicle weight savings relative to a plain carbon steel wheel of the same design. It describes the Ranger wheel specifications, the material selection, the metallurgical considerations of applying HSLA to wheels, and HSLA arc and flash butt welding. The Ranger wheel design and the development of the manufacturing process is discussed, including design modifications to accommodate the lighter gage. The results demonstrate that wheels can be successfully manufactured from low sulfur 60XK HSLA steel in a conventional high volume process (stamped disc and rolled rim) to meet all wheel performance requirements and achieve a significant weight reduction.
Technical Paper

3-D Modeling of Diesel Engine Intake Flow, Combustion and Emissions

1991-09-01
911789
Manufacturers of heavy-duty diesel engines are facing increasingly stringent, emission standards. These standards have motivated new research efforts towards improving the performance of diesel engines. The objective of the present program is to develop a comprehensive analytical model of the diesel combustion process that can be used to explore the influence of design changes. This will enable industry to predict the effect of these changes on engine performance and emissions. A major benefit of the successful implementation of such models is that engine development time and costs would be reduced through their use. The computer model is based on the three-dimensional KIVA-II code, with state-of-the-art submodels for spray atomization, drop breakup / coalescence, multi-component fuel vaporization, spray/wall interaction, ignition and combustion, wall heat transfer, unburned HC and NOx formation, and soot and radiation.
Technical Paper

48 V Diesel Hybrid - Advanced Powertrain Solution for Meeting Future Indian BS 6 Emission and CO2 Legislations

2019-01-09
2019-26-0151
The legislations on emission reduction is getting stringent everywhere in the world. India is following the same trend, with Government of India (GOI) declaring the nationwide implementation of BS 6 legislation by April 2020 and Real Driving Emission (RDE) Cycle relevant legislation by 2023. Additionally GOI is focusing on reduction of CO2 emissions by introduction of stringent fleet CO2 targets through CAFE regulation, making it mandatory for vehicle manufacturers to simultaneously work on gaseous emissions and CO2 emissions. Simultaneous NOx emission reduction and CO2 reduction measures are divergent in nature, but with a 48 V Diesel hybrid, this goal can be achieved. The study presented here involves arriving at the right future hybrid-powertrain layout for a Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) in the Indian scenario to meet the future BS 6 and CAFÉ legislations. Diesel engines dominate the current LCV and SUV segments in India and the same trend can be expected to continue in future.
Technical Paper

A Bench Test for the Evaluation of Silver-Steel Lubrication Properties of Railroad Diesel Oils

1969-02-01
690775
A pin and disc machine has been modified for the evaluation of silver-steel lubrication characteristics of railroad diesel oils. Use of silver pins on polished steel discs at selected loads and rubbing speeds allows good correlation with known engine behavior. In comparison with wear and friction data obtained by the four ball method, this pin and disc test gives better correlation with engine tests than the Modified Four Ball Test.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Fatigue Lives of Polyvinylchloride & Steel Welds

1988-04-01
880818
This paper describes the results of a series of fatigue studies relating the lives of several weld geometries. Rotating beam and axially loaded specimens were used. A comparison between steel and plastic (polyvinylchloride scale models is made. Using plastic scale models of welded structures for fatigue life determination is the ultimate goal of this work.
Technical Paper

A Composite Approach to Reducing Abrasive Wear

1983-09-12
831375
“Today, wearing parts are regularly subjected to abnormal loading conditions. They must be able to accept these conditions without failure. In continuous operations, unscheduled downtime greatly increases maintenance costs, not to mention the cost of lost production. White iron castings offer premium abrasion resistance for many of these applications, but are often not used due to the possibility of brittle failure and the difficulty of mechanical attachment. This paper discusses the properties and applications of a composite of martensitic white iron and mild steel. This laminate will accept medium to high impact without loss of service failure, and can be installed by mechanical means or with welded attachment.”
Technical Paper

A Cost Effective, New Coating for Multi Layer Steel Exhaust Gaskets

2003-11-10
2003-01-3403
Current trends in environmental and emissions regulations are driving changes in new engine systems, and increasing the need for more effectively sealed joints in exhaust systems. At the high temperatures in these exhaust systems it is difficult for traditional gaskets to provide an effective seal, as they degrade at high operating temperatures. This paper introduces a coating that has both excellent temperature stability and good compliance, thus forming an excellent sealing enhancement for metallic layers in exhaust system gaskets. Temperature stability data is presented along with sealing data, which illustrate the superior performance of this material compared to current systems.
Technical Paper

A Design Tool for Tuning and Optimizing Carburizing and Heat Treat Processes

2002-03-19
2002-01-1475
A software tool has been developed to aid designers and process engineers in the development and improvement of heat treat processes. This tool, DANTE™, combines metallurgical phase transformation models with mass diffusion, thermal and mechanical models to simulate the heating, carburization, quenching and tempering of steel parts. The technology behind the DANTE software and some applications are presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

A Detailed Analysis of Proper Safety Features Implementation in the Design and Construction of Modern Automotive LPG and CNG Containers

2014-04-01
2014-01-0418
Paper describes analysis of the design process of modern automotive LPG and CNG containers. Over decade experience in the field of both computer based analysis as well as in the real conditions testing has been collected and presented in the paper. Authors present the potentials of modern FEM methodologies in the optimization and production of lightweight steel containers. It has been proved that the most sophisticated numerical analysis have to be followed by the construction verification, particularly considering direct exposure to fire. Bonfire test have become obligatory for both liquid and compressed gases containers. Properly chosen fire protection system, together with the adequate level of quality of materials applied for its production together with proper directing of the gas flowing out from safety devices are the essential factors defining gas containers fire safety.
Technical Paper

A Dual - Reductant HC LNC Approach to Commercial Vehicle Tier 4 Final Solutions

2011-09-13
2011-01-2203
Stringent global emissions legislations demand effective NOx reduction strategies for both the engine as well as the aftertreatment. Diesel applications have previously applied Lean NOx Catalysts (LNCs) [1, 2], but their reduction efficiency and longevity have been far less than that of the competing ammonia-based SCR systems, such as urea [3]. A catalyst has been developed to significantly reduce NOx emissions, approaching 60% with ULSD and exceeding 95% with E85. Both thermal and sulfur aging are applied, as well as on-engine aging, illustrating resilient performance to accommodate necessary life requirements. A robust system is developed to introduce both ULSD from the vehicle's tank as well as E85 (up to 85% ethanol with the balance being gasoline) from a moderately sized supplemental tank, enabling extended mileage service intervals to replenish the reductant, as compared with urea, particularly when coupled with an engine-out based NOx reduction technology, such as EGR.
Technical Paper

A Dual Fuel Injector for Diesel Engines

1985-09-01
851584
The authors designed and produced a new dual fuel injector that allows two different kinds of fuel to be injected. This injector contains both a throttle type nozzle and a hole type which are located coaxially. The injection timing as well as the fuel quantity can be controlled individually. The running test using two lines of gas oil brought a good reduction of NOx and exhaust smoke. The experiment using gas oil and alcohol also brought a satisfactory reduction of exhaust emission.
Technical Paper

A Fast Start-Up On-Board Diesel Fuel Reformer for NOx Trap Regeneration and Desulfation

2004-10-26
2004-01-2684
This paper describes recent progress in our program to develop an emissions technology allowing diesel engines to meet the upcoming 2007/2010 regulations for NOx. At the heart of this technology is the ArvinMeritor Diesel Fuel Reformer that reforms the fuel, on-demand, on-board a vehicle. The fuel reformer uses plasma to partially oxidize a mixture of diesel fuel and air creating a highly reducing mixture of Hydrogen and Carbon monoxide. In a previous publication, we have demonstrated that using a reformate rich in H2 and CO to regenerate a NOx trap is highly advantageous compared to vaporized diesel fuel used conventionally. In this paper we present results and a strategy for performing desulfation of the traps using the fuel reformer. In contrast to vaporized diesel, which requires very high temperatures that fall outside the normal exhaust operating temperatures for diesel engines, desulfation was achieved at temperatures lower by more than 100 °C using the Plasma Fuel Reformer.
Journal Article

A High Efficiency, Dilute Gasoline Engine for the Heavy-Duty Market

2012-09-24
2012-01-1979
A 13 L HD diesel engine was converted to run as a flame propagation engine using the HEDGE™ Dual-Fuel concept. This concept consists of pre-mixed gasoline ignited by a small amount of diesel fuel - i.e., a diesel micropilot. Due to the large bore size and relatively high compression ratio for a pre-mixed combustion engine, high levels of cooled EGR were used to suppress knock and reduce the engine-out emissions of the oxides of nitrogen and particulates. Previous work had indicated that the boosting of high dilution engines challenges most modern turbocharging systems, so phase I of the project consisted of extensive simulation efforts to identify an EGR configuration that would allow for high levels of EGR flow along the lug curve while minimizing pumping losses and combustion instabilities from excessive backpressure. A potential solution that provided adequate BTE potential was consisted of dual loop EGR systems to simultaneously flow high pressure and low pressure loop EGR.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Combustion Control Strategy for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Based on the Technologies of Multi-Pulse Injections, Variable Boost Pressure and Retarded Intake Valve Closing Timing

2011-04-12
2011-01-1382
Combustion control strategy for high efficiency and low emissions in a heavy duty (H D) diesel engine was investigated experimentally in a single cylinder test engine with a common rail fuel system, EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) system, boost system and retarded intake valve closing timing actuator. For the operation loads of IMEPg (Gross Indicated Mean Effective Pressure) less than 1.1 MPa the low temperature combustion (LTC) with high rate of EGR was applied. The fuel injection modes of either single injection or multi-pulse injections, boost pressure and retarded intake valve closing timing (RIVCT) were also coupled with the engine operation condition loads for high efficiency and low emissions. A higher boost pressure played an important role in improving fuel efficiency and obtaining ultra-low soot and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

A MASS PRODUCED, ALL WELDED, HIGH TEMPERATURE SANDWICH

1959-01-01
590344
This paper presents some of the history of the Spacemetal process development; a discussion of the core forming machine, a description of the welder where corrugated core and facing sheets are joined; the quality control process employed for inspecting the finished product; and some of the material properties and applications. FOREWORD Development of a production process and the machines for fabrication of a resistance welded steel sandwich was made by Missile Division, North American Aviation, Inc. Development was carried forward under contract AF 33(600)-26154 from the Manufacturing Methods Branch, Industrial Resources Division of the Air Materiel Command USAF.
Technical Paper

A Method for Bearing Damage Analysis

1982-02-01
820634
A method for the analysis of a damaged bearing is described. An emphasis is placed on obtaining complete and accurate application information; conducting a thorough visual examination; making physical measurements as necessary; and conducting metallurgical tests. The method has been used for tapered roller bearings as well as a variety of other components of various steel types and processing histories.
Technical Paper

A Neat Methanol Direct Injection Combustion System for Heavy-Duty Applications

1986-09-01
861169
A combustion system has been developed to burn neat (pure) methanol in a direct-injection four-stroke-cycle engine. Primary objectives were to obtain low fuel consumption and long component life to make the engine suitable to replace heavy-duty diesel fueled engines. A glow plug was placed in a modified quiescent combustion chamber to ensure reliable methanol ignition at all engine operating conditions. The methanol engine provides thermal efficiency nearly equal to the diesel engine from which it is derived, in addition, nitrogen oxide emissions are reduced by 50 percent and exhaust smoke is negligible. Hydrocarbon emissions are still above the baseline diesel engine. Laboratory and field durability tests of over 2000 hours have been completed. Excellent cold-start capability has been established.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Titanium for Truck Suspension Springs

1994-11-01
942306
The titanium alloy system offers a range of properties conducive to weight/space savings. These properties include high strength, low elastic modulus and low density, which uniquely suit them for spring applications. By utilizing titanium in various spring designs, suspension engineers can save up to 60% of the weight and 20-30% of the space for a comparable steel spring. The primary impediment to widespread titanium part production and use in the past was cost. A new low cost titanium alloy system designed specifically for suspension and drive train application has been tested and proved to limit this cost problem. Working with titanium in their suspension designs, engineers will save significant weight/space over comparable steel and aluminum components.
Technical Paper

A New Concept in Commercial Vehicle Suspension

1973-02-01
730654
Developed to cut down on maintenance costs and increase the earning power of the vehicle, this family of suspensions provides for improved vehicular behavior - items such as stability, braking, cornering, and overall ride. The suspensions utilize a principle of providing a cushioned variable rate ride through the use of molded rubber springs. Floating walking beams distribute weight equally on both axles in the case of tandems. The axles are positively located by upper wishbones and lower torque rods. The parallelogram thus formed prevents windup and axle hop. The correct use of metals shows a substantial weight saving in the entire model range.
Technical Paper

A New Generation of Vibration Isolation for the Conventional Truck Cab

2000-12-04
2000-01-3515
A new concept in conventional truck cab vibration isolation has been developed by Holland Neway International. The system provides a significant improvement in ride comfort for the truck cab occupants in the truck of the twenty-first century. The single point isolator incorporates inclined sleeve type air springs to achieve a very low natural frequency, typically 0.9 - 1.1 hertz. A unique variable geometry damping system is used in conjunction with the sleeve springs to allow the configuration to achieve significant improvements in vibration isolation. The passive variable geometry control operates essentially undamped until large displacement disturbances are encountered allowing maximum possible isolation performance. Since the isolator natural frequency occurs in a region where the human physiology is most tolerant of vibratory motion, a high level of ride comfort is achieved.
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