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Technical Paper

1500 Hp Diesel Electric Tractor

The experience accumulated with a prototype 1000 HP diesel electric tractor since 1969 is described. The new 1500 HP V220 diesel electric tractors are described along with some of the initial operation of these two units. Experience with the initial 1000 HP unit and the two 1500 HP tractors confirm the necessity of additional testing and experimentation to refine the design to get greater productivity with reduced operator fatigue. The unpredictability of the load and operating surface are major problems that present a real challenge to the engineer.
Technical Paper

50 Years of Agricultural Tractor Development

The story of Power Farming is the great saga of our times. It is a story of free enterprise, perseverance and endurance of the individual, of vision, idealism and cooperation among men, of the lightening of human toil and the release of millions of workers from farms to feed the ever hungry industrial revolution. By no means least, it is the story of producing food necessary to win two global wars, keep our allies alive and millions of the defeated enemy from starvation. FOREWARD By 1915, the Steam Traction Engine had attained its highest development. It was the forerunner, rather than the predecessor, of the farm tractor. The former was the instrument of expansion; the latter, the instrument of progress. The invention of the tractor, following by only sixteen years Otto's practical embodiment application of the Beau de Rochas power cycle to a heat engine, marked the advent of a new order - - the age of Power Farming.
Technical Paper

A Basis for Estimating Mechanical Efficiency and Life of a Diesel Engine from its Size, Load Factor and Piston Speed

Parameters like brake mean effective pressure, mean velocity of the piston, hardness of the wear surface, oil film thickness, and surface areas of critical wear parts are similar for all the diesel engines. The mean piston velocity at the rated speed is nearly the same for all the diesel engines. The mechanical efficiency normalized to an arbitrary brake mean effective pressure (bmep) is dependent on the size of the engine. The engine life seems to be proportional directly to the square of a characteristic dimension namely, cylinder bore of the engine and inversely to speed and load factor for engines varying widely in sizes and ratings.
Technical Paper

A Bench Test for the Evaluation of Silver-Steel Lubrication Properties of Railroad Diesel Oils

A pin and disc machine has been modified for the evaluation of silver-steel lubrication characteristics of railroad diesel oils. Use of silver pins on polished steel discs at selected loads and rubbing speeds allows good correlation with known engine behavior. In comparison with wear and friction data obtained by the four ball method, this pin and disc test gives better correlation with engine tests than the Modified Four Ball Test.
Technical Paper

A Braking Force Distribution Strategy in Integrated Braking System Based on Wear Control and Hitch Force Control

A braking force distribution strategy in integrated braking system composed of the main braking system and the auxiliary braking system based on braking pad wear control and hitch force control under non-emergency braking condition is proposed based on the Electronically Controlled Braking System (EBS) to reduce the difference in braking pad wear between different axles and to decrease hitch force between tractors and trailers. The proposed strategy distributes the braking force based on the desired braking intensity, the degree of the braking pad wear and the limits of certain braking regulations to solve the coupling problems between braking safety, economical efficiency of braking and the comfort of drivers. Computer co-simulations of the proposed strategy are performed.
Technical Paper

A Cartridge Type Pivotal Pin and Bushing Joint

A cartridge type pivotal pin and bushing joint has been patented and is being tested and refined both in the laboratory and on construction machinery. It features “dry lubricated” (Teflon) bearings which are assembled and sealed prior to installation. It is suitable for heavy unit loads and use under severe wear conditions, such as in crawler track chains and loader bucket pivotal pin joints. A brief history of U. S. manufactured track pin joints is included to show the progress in extending the service life of these devices.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Automotive System Fatigue Models Processed in the Time and Frequency Domain

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that frequency domain methods for calculating structural response and fatigue damage can be more widely applicable than previously thought. This will be demonstrated by comparing results of time domain vs. frequency domain approaches for a series of fatigue/durability problems with increasing complexity. These problems involve both static and dynamic behavior. Also, both single input and multiple correlated inputs are considered. And most important of all, a variety of non-stationary loading types have been used. All of the example problems investigated are typically found in the automotive industry, with measured loads from the field or from the proving ground.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Braking Performance of Asbestos, Non-Asbestos, and Semi-Metallic Friction Material

To date, no definitive work to quantify and compare the braking rating horsepower relationships between vehicles equipped with brake assemblies containing asbestos, non-asbestos, and semi-metallic friction material has been completed. This paper will report the results of a brake fade evaluation performed on a 34,000-lb. GVW vehicle in accordance with SAE J880 Brake System Rating Test Code Procedures and has quantified braking horsepower, fade temperature resistance, thermal response temperature rise, lining wear, and drum wear.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Fatigue Life Estimation on the Frequency Domain with Test Data and Time Domain Calculations

This paper focus on some of the fatigue methodologies based on the frequency domain and how they can be used on the heavy vehicle industry. A calculation flow was developed which consist of two steps. At first the stresses on the desired frequency bandwidth are calculated using a finite element software and those are then used as inputs on a Matlab script that estimate the expected life using two different theories, Bendat’s narrow band and Dirlik. The proposed methodology is then compared with more established time domain calculations. At first a plain hand calculation with a simpler input is performed on both domains before evaluating the differences with a more complex random stress signal input. Finally, test data from a rig test is used to validate the frequency domain fatigue methods using real life data.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Fatigue Lives of Polyvinylchloride & Steel Welds

This paper describes the results of a series of fatigue studies relating the lives of several weld geometries. Rotating beam and axially loaded specimens were used. A comparison between steel and plastic (polyvinylchloride scale models is made. Using plastic scale models of welded structures for fatigue life determination is the ultimate goal of this work.
Technical Paper

A Composite Approach to Reducing Abrasive Wear

“Today, wearing parts are regularly subjected to abnormal loading conditions. They must be able to accept these conditions without failure. In continuous operations, unscheduled downtime greatly increases maintenance costs, not to mention the cost of lost production. White iron castings offer premium abrasion resistance for many of these applications, but are often not used due to the possibility of brittle failure and the difficulty of mechanical attachment. This paper discusses the properties and applications of a composite of martensitic white iron and mild steel. This laminate will accept medium to high impact without loss of service failure, and can be installed by mechanical means or with welded attachment.”
Technical Paper

A Contact Stress Model for Predicting Rolling Contact Fatigue

Predicting fatigue performance in concentrated contacts under thin film (or mixed) lubrication conditions has historically involved various empirical approaches. Typically a lubrication parameter is used in an experimentally derived equation to predict the expected rolling contact performance. However, this model doesn't explain the performance improvements. Enhanced finish bearings have exhibited longer life than standard finish bearings, especially when bearings are operated with thin EHL film. In this paper, the contact surfaces of test bearings were analyzed by using a micro-macro contact model in which the macro-contact was elastic contact, and the micro-contact was elastic-plastic contact. The interior subsurface stress maps were calculated from the real contact surfaces, which included the effects of roughnesses, waviness, and profiles.
Technical Paper

A Detailed Analysis of Proper Safety Features Implementation in the Design and Construction of Modern Automotive LPG and CNG Containers

Paper describes analysis of the design process of modern automotive LPG and CNG containers. Over decade experience in the field of both computer based analysis as well as in the real conditions testing has been collected and presented in the paper. Authors present the potentials of modern FEM methodologies in the optimization and production of lightweight steel containers. It has been proved that the most sophisticated numerical analysis have to be followed by the construction verification, particularly considering direct exposure to fire. Bonfire test have become obligatory for both liquid and compressed gases containers. Properly chosen fire protection system, together with the adequate level of quality of materials applied for its production together with proper directing of the gas flowing out from safety devices are the essential factors defining gas containers fire safety.
Technical Paper

A Diesel Oxidation Catalyst for Exhaust Emissions Reduction

The authors used a mass spectrometer to determine an SOF reduction mechanism of a diesel oxidation catalyst. The results indicate that SOF reduction lies in the catalytic conversion of high molecular organic matter to low molecular organic matter. And unregulated emissions are also reduced through this conversion. It is also found that the SOF reduction performance is highly dependent up on the condition of the wash coat. There is some limitation to improving diesel oxidation catalyst performance because of the sulfur content found in diesel fuel. Finally, the authors have determined what we think are the specifications of the presently best catalytic converter.
Technical Paper

A Downhill Brake Strategy Focusing on Temperature and Wear Loss Control of Brake Systems

Aiming at achieving the economy and safety of downhill brake process (running downward along a long slope at a constant velocity) of commercial vehicles, an integrated control strategy of the main brake system and auxiliary brake systems is proposed. Based on Electronic Controlled Braking System (EBS), the strategy distributes braking force to each brake system and each axle according to the thermodynamic feature of them and the wear loss of each brake lining, in order to achieve economy at the premise of safety. A simulation is conducted based on MATLAB/Simulink and TruckSim. Simulation results show that the strategy proposed could control the temperature of each brake system at a rational value, and the balanced wear loss of brake linings is facilitated, thus, the safety and economy of downhill brake is ensured.
Technical Paper

A Field Information System for SSCM

Site-Specific Crop Management (SSCM) involves use of automated seeders and chemical applicators to make spatially-variable applications to agricultural fields. Soil productivity is spatially variable and thus, SSCM provides an opportunity to reduce total applications of seed and fertilizer without reducing crop yields. Also, more complete crop use of fertilizers with SSCM could reduce the potential for environmental contamination. A key element in SSCM is a Field Information System (FIS) for preparing application maps to control application rates.
Technical Paper

A Field Performance Prediction Technique for Light Truck Structural Components

A method has been developed which allows prediction of the field performance of structural components based on prototype vehicle test procedures and results. Component designs can then be optimized by selecting prototype durability test objectives which more accurately reflect actual field usage. This procedure, which is based on fatigue damage calculations from component strain histories, has been successfully applied to non-safety related body, frame and suspension structural components of light trucks and vans.
Technical Paper

A Fuzzy Logic Based Driver Fatigue Detection System

In this paper, we explain the process of designing fuzzy based analyzers which can be installed in a vehicle. These analyzers use some kinds of sensors to detect the driver fatigue. This system helps a driver to be alert during vehicle driving. We propose a fatigue detection method which works in different way from the previous systems. In this method using some tactile sensors, the system predicts fatigue before the driver falls asleep, while driver's alertness and reaction decreases and the probability of the accident increases. An alarm massage concentrates the driver attention while s/he is going to be fallen in sleep. An advantage of this kind of fatigue detection is that it doesn't interfere with the driver's habit in vehicle control and it resumes functioning only in critical moments.
Technical Paper

A High Performance Solution for In-Vehicle Networking - ‘Controller Area Network (CAN)’

Recently, significant focus and development effort has been dedicated toward in-vehicle networking. This effort includes work on behalf of the American Trucking Association (ATA), the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), the International Standards Organization (ISO), and independent developments by automotive and semiconductor manufacturers. In-vehicle networking extends, as a result, beyond passenger cars into heavy truck, military, and construction vehicles. In the course of these developments, the benefits of networking have been examined and networking is perceived as having significant benefits, resulting in production and custom development [1, 2, 3]. The Controller Area Network (CAN) is a high-performance serial communication solution which has been designed to meet the requirements for the broad range of applications and has now progressed from a specification to a product.
Technical Paper

A Knowledge-Based System for Tillage Equipment Management

A knowledge-based system for agricultural tillage equipment selection and management is presented. There are ten tillage systems suitable for corn and soybean production in Ontario. These systems manipulate the soil by different amounts resulting in varying levels of soil degradation, crop yields, and weed problems. Many factors, such as soil characteristics, climate, farm economics, and environmental impact make the selection of the most appropriate tillage practice a difficult task. Except for mouldboard plough, few farmers have experience operating and managing these tillage systems. Knowledge and information obtained from three experts is incorporated into the knowledge-based computer program to aid farmers in the selection and management of tillage systems. Selection criteria included in the program are environmental impact, management difficulty, economic return, and energy output/input ratio.