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Technical Paper

A Model Based Definition of a Reference CO2 Emissions Value for Passenger Cars under Real World Conditions

With the adoption of the Worldwide harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP) and the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) regulations for testing and monitoring the vehicle pollutant emissions, as well as CO2 and fuel consumption, the gap between real world and type approval performances is expected to decrease to a large extent. With respect to CO2, however, WLTP is not expected to fully eliminate the reported 40% discrepancy between real world and type approval values. This is mainly attributed to the fact that laboratory tests take place under average controlled conditions that do not fully replicate the environmental and traffic conditions experienced over daily driving across Europe. In addition, any uncertainties of a pre-defined test protocol and the vehicle operation can be optimized to lower the CO2 emissions of the type approval test. Such issues can be minimized in principle with the adoption of a real-world test for fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

A Novel Start Algorithm for CNG Engines Using Ion Sense Technology

This paper presents a start algorithm that is able to control the air/fuel ratio (AFR) during the cranking phase and immediately hereafter, where the ordinary λ-control is not yet enabled. The control is based on the ion sense principle, which means that a current through the spark plug is measured directly after the spark has disappeared. This current is a measure for the temperature and therefore of the combustion in the cylinder. This is an excellent way to start a CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) engine with unknown gas qualities. A typical example of application is when the vehicle is almost out of fuel and is refueled at a motel stop. The small amount of old fuel that is left in the system will mix with the new fuel resulting in an unknown fuel quality. The control system shall then be able to start the engine directly or after an accommodation over night. During the last condition, the oxygen sensor is still cold and thus not able to correct for fuel quality changes.
Technical Paper

A Seat Sensitivity Study on Vertical Vibrations and Seat Pressure Distributions using Numerical Models

The introduction of a new comfortable car seat or interior is a time consuming and costly process for car and seat manufacturers. The application of numerical models of human and seat could facilitate this process. Vertical vibrations and seat pressure distributions are two objective parameters that have been related to the subjective feeling of (dis)comfort that can be predicted by numerical tools. In this paper, human models suitable for prediction of human behaviour in vertical vibrations and seat pressure distributions are applied in a seat sensitivity study. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the applicability of the human models as design tools for car and seat developers in an early stage of the design process. The sensitivity of the output of the models for variations in seat characteristics for seat developers in the design process of a new comfortable car seat has been studied.
Technical Paper

Advances in numerical modelling of crash dummies

Nowadays virtual testing and prototyping are generally accepted methods in crash safety research and design studies. Validated numerical crash dummy models are necessary tools in these methods. Computer models need to be robust, accurate and CPU efficient, where the balance between accuracy and efficiency is depending on the nature of the study performed. This paper presents the application of advanced multibody-modelling techniques, in order to generate crash dummy models that are accurate as well as CPU efficient. Two techniques, deformable body modelling and arbitrary surface modelling, are combined. Their application is presented by means of an example model: the Hybrid III 50th percentile thorax. The method for generating the model is explained, after which the accuracy and efficiency of the model is illustrated by presenting some simulation results.
Technical Paper

Appliance of High EGR Rates With a Short and Long Route EGR System on a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

The goal of this work was to investigate the possibilities of applying high EGR rates with low NOx and PM emission levels on a two-stage turbocharged 12 liter heavy duty diesel engine. The EGR is applied by using a long and short route EGR system. For the ESC operating points A25 and C100 EGR is applied, such that the NOx emission is 0.5 g/kWh. Lowest PM level and BSFC are achieved when long route EGR is applied in A25 and short route is applied in C100. Increasing the fuel line pressure is an effective way to reduce PM at high EGR rate engine running conditions. At a fuel line pressure of 2400 bar PM emission are 0.06 g/kWh for A25 and 0.54 g/kWh for C100. At C100 the PM reduction coincides with also a significant fuel consumption improvement. Retarding the injection timing at C100 can improve the PM emission further to a level of 0.13 g/kWh at the expense of an increase in BSFC.
Technical Paper

Automated Model Fit Tool for SCR Control and OBD Development

Reaching EUROVI Heavy Duty emission limits will result in more testing time for developing control and OBD algorithms than to reach EUROV emissions. It is likely that these algorithms have to be adapted for a WHTC (World Heavy Duty Transient Cycle) for EUROVI. This cycle when started cold can only be performed a limited times a day on the engine testbench, because of the cooling down time. The development time and cost increases to reach EUROVI emission levels. Accurate simulation tools can reduce the time and costs by reducing the amount of tests required on the testbench. In order to use simulation tools to develop pre calibrations, the models must be fitted and validated. This paper will focus on the fit process of an SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) model. A unique test procedure has been developed to characterize an SCR catalyst using an engine testbench in ±2 days. This data is used in an automatic SCR fit tool to obtain the model parameters in a few days.
Journal Article

Cost and Fuel Efficient SCR-only Solution for Post-2010 HD Emission Standards

A promising SCR-only solution is presented to meet post-2010 NOx emission targets for heavy duty applications. The proposed concept is based on an engine from a EURO IV SCR application, which is considered optimal with respect to fuel economy and costs. The addition of advanced SCR after treatment comprising a standard and a close-coupled SCR catalyst offers a feasible emission solution, especially suited for EURO VI. In this paper, results of a simulation study are presented. This study concentrates on optimizing SCR deNOx performance. Simulation results of cold start FTP and WHTC test cycles are presented to demonstrate the potential of the close-coupled SCR concept. Comparison with measured engine out emissions of an EGR engine shows that a close-coupled SCR catalyst potentially has NOx reduction performance as good as EGR. Practical issues regarding the use of an SCR catalyst in close-coupled position will be addressed, as well as engine and exhaust layout.
Technical Paper

Determination of Human-Seat-Interaction in Vertical Vibrations in MADYMO

The importance of automotive comfort is increasing, both socially and economically. Especially professional drivers often have comfort-related physical complaints, such as lower back pain. In addition, car manufacturers can use comfort to distinguish their cars from their competitors. However, the development and design of a new, more comfortable car seat is very time consuming and costly. The use of computer models of human and seat could facilitate this process. MADYMO human and seat models offer the possibility to predict comfort. This paper describes the application of the MADYMO multi-body 50th percentile human model for determination of human-seat interaction in vertical vibrations. The validation of the human model is based on volunteer tests with both a rigid seat and a standard car seat. The human model shows a good correlation with the volunteers.
Technical Paper

Development, Validation and ECM Embedment of a Physics-Based SCR on Filter Model

SCR on Filter (SCRoF) is an efficient and compact NOX and PM reduction technology already used in series production for light-duty applications. The technology is now finding its way into the medium duty and heavy duty market. One of the key challenges for successful application is the robustness to real world variations. The solution to this challenge can be found by using model-based control algorithms, utilizing state estimation by physics-based catalyst models. This paper focuses on the development, validation and real time implementation of a physics-based control oriented SCRoF model. An overview of the developed model will be presented, together with a brief description of the model parameter identification and validation process using engine test bench measurement data. The model parameters are identified following a streamlined approach, focusing on decoupling the effects of deNOx and soot phenomena.
Technical Paper

Experimental Demonstration of a Model-Based Control Design and Calibration Method for Cost Optimal Euro-VI Engine-Aftertreatment Operation

This paper presents a model-based control and calibration design method for online cost-based optimization of engine-aftertreatment operation under all operating conditions. The so-called Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy online minimizes the fuel and AbBlue consumption. Based on the actual state of engine and aftertreatment systems, optimal air management settings are determined for EGR-SCR balancing. Following a model-based approach, the strategy allows for a systematic control design and calibration procedure for engine and aftertreatment systems. The potential of this time efficient method is demonstrated by experiments for a heavy-duty Euro-VI engine. The Integrated Emission Management strategy is developed and calibrated offline over a cold and hot World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC) for the set emission targets. The total IEM development and calibration process takes approximately 20 weeks from model identification to the acceptance tests.
Technical Paper

Is Closed-Loop SCR Control Required to Meet Future Emission Targets?

To meet 2010 emission targets, optimal SCR system performance is required. In addition, attention has to be paid to in-use compliance requirements. Closed-loop control seems an attractive option to meet the formulated goals. This study deals with the potential and limitations of closed-loop SCR control. High NOx conversion in combination with acceptable NH3 slip can be realized with an open-loop control strategy. However, closed-loop control is needed to make the SCR system robust for urea dosage inaccuracy, catalyst ageing and NOx engine-out variations. Then, the system meets conformity of production and in-use compliance norms. To demonstrate the potential of closed-loop SCR control, a NOx sensor based control strategy with cross-sensitivity compensation is compared with an adaptive surface coverage/NH3 slip control strategy and an open-loop strategy. The adaptive surface coverage/NH3 slip control strategy shows best performance over simulated ESC and ETC cycles.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Experience with the IR-TRACC Chest Deflection Transducer

In 1998, Rouhana et al. described development of a new device, called the IR-TRACC (InfraRed - Telescoping Rod for Assessment of Chest Compression). In its original concept, the IR-TRACC uses two infrared LEDs inside of a telescoping rod to measure deflection. One LED serves as a light transmitter and the other as a light receiver. The output from the receiver LED is converted to a linear function of chest compression using an analog circuit. Tests have been performed with IR-TRACC units at various labs around the world since 1998. A first-generation IR-TRACC system was retrofit into a Q3 dummy by TNO. Similarly, a mid sized male Hybrid III dummy thorax and a small female Hybrid III dummy thorax have been designed by First Technology Safety Systems (FTSS) such that each contains 4 second-generation IR-TRACC units. The second-generation IR-TRACC is the result of continued development by FTSS, especially in the areas of the analysis circuit, manufacturing and calibration methods.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Approach for Calibration and Validation by Simulation of Emission Control Solutions for Next Generation Off-Road Vehicles

The next generation off-road vehicles will see additional exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, ranging from DOC-SCR only to full DOC-DPF-SCR-AMOX systems. This will increase system complexity and development effort significantly. Emission requirements and the high number of vehicle configurations within the off-road industry will require a new process for development and validation. The introduced model-based approach using physical models of aftertreatment can reduce development effort and cost, improve performance robustness and help to identify performance issues early in the development process. A method to investigate and optimize a large matrix of variations by simulation is introduced. This can lead to a significant reduction in the number of required calibrations and can assist in the development of design specifications for the aftertreatment system. A case study for SCR calibration successfully demonstrates the potential of model-based development.
Technical Paper

Numerical Prediction of Seating Position in Car Seats

Two of the main design objectives for car interiors are comfort and safety. These aspects are both determined by the seating position of the occupant. Seat manufacturers use the SAE Three-Dimensional H-Point Machine™ to measure seating positions to design, audit, and benchmark seats. The seating positions measured with the H-Point Machine form the basis of a seat design, including comfort and safety aspects. Currently, the seat design process is largely based on prototype testing, which makes this process time-consuming and expensive. Consequently, there is a large demand for efficient design tools that enable an optimal combination of seating comfort and safety aspects. Numerical modeling provides an efficient means to optimally combine various seat design characteristics prior to prototype testing, thereby reducing design costs and time-to-market.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Urea SCR deNOx Systems for HD Diesel Engines

In the past decade, SCR deNOx technology with urea injection has grown to maturity. European OEMs will apply SCR deNOx to meet future heavy-duty emissions legislation starting with EURO-4 (2005/2006). Numerous research programs in Europe and the US have shown a variety of system layouts and control strategies. The main differences are formed by: the engine-out NOx calibration the application of an NO to NO2 catalyst open-loop or closed-loop urea dosage control. This paper gives an overview of possible SCR system configurations that are required for different stages of future emission legislation. Engine-out NOx emission is strongly influenced by ambient conditions. Projections in this study show that a combination of cold climate and a wintergrade fuel is the most severe: it may lead to 30% lower engine-out NOx emission with respect to laboratory conditions.
Technical Paper

Ramped Versus Square Injection Rate Experiments in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

CO2 regulations on heavy-duty transport are introduced in essentially all markets within the next decade, in most cases in several phases of increasing stringency. To cope with these mandates, developers of engines and related equipment are aiming to break new ground in the fields of combustion, fuel and hardware technologies. In this work, a novel diesel fuel injector, Delphi’s DFI7, is utilized to experimentally investigate and compare the performance of ramped injection rates versus traditional square fueling profiles. The aim is specifically to shift the efficiency and NOx tradeoff to a more favorable position. The design of experiments methodology is used in the tests, along with statistical techniques to analyze the data. Results show that ramped and square rates - after optimization of fueling parameters - produce comparable gross indicated efficiencies. For the highest engine speed tested, ramped profiles attain these efficiency values at considerably lower NOx levels.
Journal Article

Robust Emission Management Strategy to Meet Real-World Emission Requirements for HD Diesel Engines

Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in different application areas, like long-haul, city distribution, dump truck and building and construction industry. For these wide variety of areas, the engine performance needs to comply with the real-world legislation limits and should simultaneously have a low fuel consumption and good drivability. Meeting these requirements takes substantial development and calibration effort, where an optimal fuel consumption for each application is not always met in practice. TNO's Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy, is able to deal with these variations in operating conditions, while meeting legislation limits and obtaining on-line cost optimization. Based on the actual state of the engine and aftertreatment, optimal air-path setpoints are computed, which balances EGR and SCR usage.
Journal Article

Robust, Cost-Optimal and Compliant Engine and Aftertreatment Operation using Air-path Control and Tailpipe Emission Feedback

Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in a wide range of applications. For varying operating environments, the engine and aftertreatment system must comply with the real-world emission legislation limits. Simultaneously, minimal fuel consumption and good drivability are crucial for economic competitiveness and usability. Meeting these requirements takes substantial development and calibration effort, and complying with regulations results in a trade-off between emissions and fuel consumption. TNO's Integrated Emission Management (IEM) strategy finds online, the cost-optimal point in this trade-off and is able to deal with variations in operating conditions, while complying with legislation limits. Based on the actual state of the engine and aftertreatment system, an optimal engine operating point is computed using a model-based optimal-control algorithm.
Technical Paper

Robust, Model-Based Urea Dosing Control for SCR Aftertreatment Systems using a Cross-Sensitive Tailpipe NOx Sensor

This article describes a NOx sensor based urea dosing control strategy for heavy-duty diesel aftertreatment systems using Selective Catalytic Reduction. The dosing control strategy comprises of a fast-response, model-based ammonia storage control system in combination with a long-timescale tailpipe-feedback module that adjusts the dosing quantity according to current aftertreatment conditions. This results in a control system that is robust to system disturbances such as biased NOx sensors and variations in AdBlue concentrations. The cross-sensitivity of the tailpipe NOx sensor to ammonia is handled by a novel, smart signal filter that can reliably identify the contributions of NOx and NH3 in the tailpipe sensor signal, without requiring an artificial perturbation of the dosing signal.
Technical Paper

Simulation of a vehicle with an ICE, CVT, and ISG powertrain - A pre-study for concept evaluation and dimensioning

Up to now, reduction of fuel consumption of vehicles equipped with CVT transmission has not been exploited to its full potential due to the reduced driveability when driving the optimum efficiency engine operating points. An ISG system with torque boost capabilities can be used to restore this driveability. This paper discusses the goals, the CAE simulation tool, the methodology used in the preparative study for evaluation and dimensioning of a CVT-ISG concept, as well as the simulation results. The conclusions, generated from numerous simulations, provide vital information for the component selection, and for the development of the powertrain management system.