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Technical Paper

A Fast Running Loading Methodology for Ground Vehicle Underbody Blast Events

A full-system, end-to-end blast modeling and simulation of vehicle underbody buried blast events typically includes detailed modeling of soil, high explosive (HE) charge and air. The complex computations involved in these simulations take days to just capture the initial 50-millisecond blast-off phase, and in some cases, even weeks. The single most intricate step in the buried blast event simulation is in the modeling of the explosive loading on the underbody structure from the blast products; it is also one of the most computationally expensive steps of the simulation. Therefore, there is significant interest in the modeling and simulation community to develop various methodologies for fast running tools to run full simulation events in quicker turnarounds of time.
Technical Paper

A Military Space Plane Candidate

This paper presents a Military Space Plane design concept. While the current military space plane activity is focused on rocket-powered concepts, the concept presented here is powered by a rocket-based combined cycle engine that uses both rocket and air-breathing engine cycles. The design concept is the reference SSTO design concept used in the NASA HRST ANSER study. The reference concept is a derivative of the NASA air-breathing Access to Space study SSTO design concept. The Access to Space air-breathing vehicle's combined cycle engine was replaced by the Aerojet rocket-based combined cycle engine. The orbital performance capability of the reference design concept is presented for 100 n mi., polar, and 225 n mi., 51 deg. orbits. The sensitivity of GTOW to payload and margin is also presented.
Training / Education

A Primer on Regulations and Liability Considerations for HAV’s

Potential regulations surrounding the development, testing and commercial launch of Highly Automated Vehicles and possible liability exposure for the manufacturing and operation of Highly Automated Vehicles are fluid and changing areas, that will continue to evolve over the next several years. The first half of this course reviews where regulations are at the state and federal levels, what actions are currently under consideration, how current regulations will need to change to accommodate HAV’s, and how and when new regulations might be implemented. The second half covers both common law and strict liability and how it may apply to HAV’s.
Training / Education

AS13000 Problem Solving Requirements for Suppliers

AS13000 defines the Problem-Solving standard for suppliers within the aero-engine sector, with the Eight Disciplines (8D) problem solving method the basis for this standard. This two-day course provides attendees with a comprehensive and standardized set of tools to become an 8D practitioner and meets all the requirements of the training syllabus in AS13000. Successful application of 8D achieves robust corrective and preventive actions to reduce the risk of repeat occurrences and minimize the cost of poor quality.
Training / Education

AS13002 Qualifying an Alternate Inspection Frequency Plan

AS13002 defines the process for qualifying an Alternate Inspection Frequency Plan for suppliers within the aero-engine sector.  This two-day course will provide common requirements for developing and qualifying an alternate inspection plan, other than 100% inspection of all features.  This course is designed to cover the basic elements of the process to be applied to design characteristics (as defined in AS9102), and parts or inspection processes as defined by the purchaser.
Training / Education

AS13003 Measurement System Analysis (MSA) Requirements for Aerospace Engine Supplier Quality

AS 13003:2015 stipulates requirements to establish an acceptable measurement system (for variable and attribute features) for use on aerospace engines parts and assemblies.  Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA) is used to evaluate and improve measurement systems in the workplace because it evaluates the test method, measuring instruments, and the process of acquiring measurements. The Aerospace Engine Supplier Quality (AESQ) Strategy Group published AS13003 to define the minimum requirements for conducting MSA for variable attribute assessment on characteristics as defined on the drawing specification.
Training / Education

AS13004 Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (PFMEA) and Control Plans

In the Aerospace Industry there is a growing focus on Defect Prevention to ensure that quality goals are met. Process Failure Mode & Effects Analysis (PFMEA) and Control Plan activities described in AS13004 are recognized as being one of the most effective, on the journey to Zero Defects. This two-day course is designed to explain the core tools of Process Flow Diagrams, Process Failure Mode & Effects Analysis (PFMEA) and Control Plans as described in AS13004. It will show the links to other quality tools such as Design FMEA, Characteristics Matrix and Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA).
Training / Education

AS9145 Requirements for Advanced Product Quality Planning and Production Part Approval

Production and continual improvement of safe and reliable products is key in the aviation, space and defense industries. Customer and regulatory requirements must not only be met, but they are typically expected to exceeded requirements. Due to globalization, the supply chain of this industry has been expanded to countries which were not part of it in the past and has complicated the achievement of requirements compliance and customer satisfaction. The IAQG has established and deployed the AS9145 Standard, as a step to help achieve these objectives.
Training / Education

Advanced Concepts of GD&T 1994 3-day

This course teaches the advanced concepts of GD&T as prescribed in the ASME Y14.5M-1994 Standard.  Utilizing the expertise of world-renowned GD&T expert Alex Krulikowski, this course offers an in-depth explanation of advanced GD&T topics like composite tolerancing, tolerance analysis, datum selection, non-rigid part dimensioning, and many more key dimensioning topics, including the system approach for part dimensioning. Newly acquired learning is reinforced throughout the class with more than 250 practice problems.
Training / Education

Aircraft Virtual Flight Testing and Certification in Off-nominal Multifactorial Situations

The behavior of a 'pilot-automaton-aircraft-operating environment' system (the System) in off-nominal situations with multiple risks can be unpredictably dangerous. Most multifactorial flight scenarios (corner cases) are considered as theoretically improbable. Such anomalies do nonetheless occur in operations and can lead to inconceivable accidents - 'black swan' events.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Frequency and Mechanism of Injury to Warfighters in the Under-body Blast Environment

During Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, improvised explosive devices were used strategically and with increasing frequency. To effectively design countermeasures for this environment, the Department of Defense identified the need for an under-body blast-specific Warrior Injury Assessment Manikin (WIAMan). To help with this design, information on Warfighter injuries in mounted under-body blast attacks was obtained from the Joint Trauma Analysis and Prevention of Injury in Combat program through their Request for Information interface. The events selected were evaluated by Department of the Army personnel to confirm they were representative of the loading environment expected for the WIAMan. A military case review was conducted for all AIS 2+ fractures with supporting radiology. In Warfighters whose injuries were reviewed, 79% had a foot, ankle or leg AIS 2+ fracture. Distal tibia, distal fibula, and calcaneus fractures were the most prevalent.
Training / Education

Applications of GD&T 2-Day

This course teaches the thought processes involved in assigning GD&T to components and will change the way many engineers think about part tolerancing. Utilizing the expertise of world-renowned GD&T expert Alex Krulikowski, the course focuses on what constitutes good and poor drawing practices, common dimensioning methods used in industry, using GD&T to communicate system functions on component dimensions, and the logic of how to apply GD&T to components.

Automatic Target Recognition, Third Edition

This third edition of Automatic Target Recognition provides a roadmap for breakthrough ATR designs―with increased intelligence, performance, and autonomy. Clear distinctions are made between military problems and comparable commercial deep-learning problems. These considerations need to be understood by ATR engineers working in the defense industry as well as by their government customers. A reference design is provided for a next-generation ATR that can continuously learn from and adapt to its environment. The convergence of diverse forms of data on a single platform supports new capabilities and improved performance. This third edition broadens the notion of ATR to multisensor fusion. Radical continuous-learning ATR architectures, better integration of data sources, well-packaged sensors, and low-power teraflop chips will enable transformative military designs.

Automotive Gear Lubricants for Commercial and Military Use

The gear lubricants covered by this standard exceed American Petroleum Institute (API) Service Classification API GL-5 and are intended for hypoid-type, automotive gear units, operating under conditions of high-speed/shock load and low-speed/high-torque. These lubricants may be appropriate for other gear applications where the position of the shafts relative to each other and the type of gear flank contact involve a large percentage of sliding contact. Such applications typically require extreme pressure (EP) additives to prevent the adhesion and subsequent tearing away of material from the loaded gear flanks. These lubricants are not appropriate for the lubrication of worm gears. Appendix A is a mandatory part of this standard. The information contained in Appendix A is intended for the demonstration of compliance with the requirements of this standard and for listing on the Qualified Products List (QPL) administered by the Lubricant Review Institute (LRI).
Technical Paper

Challenging Power Density Requirements for Future Fighter APUs

Future fighters will require more compact, lighter weight, small gas turbine auxiliary power units (APUs) capable of faster starting, and operation, up to altitudes of 50,000 ft. The US Air Force is currently supporting an Advanced Components Auxiliary Power Unit (ACAPU) research program to demonstrate the technologies that will be required to accomplish projected secondary power requirements for these advanced fighters. The requirements of the ACAPU Program represent a challenging task requiring significant technical advancements over the current state-of-the-art, prominent among which are: Small high heat release high altitude airbreathing combustors. High temperature monolithic ceramic and metallic small turbines. Capability to operate, and transition from non-airbreathing to airbreathing modes. This paper discusses these challenging requirements and establishes technology paths to match and exceed the required goals.
Journal Article

Combined Battery Design Optimization and Energy Management of a Series Hybrid Military Truck

Abstract This article investigates the fuel savings potential of a series hybrid military truck using a simultaneous battery pack design and powertrain supervisory control optimization algorithm. The design optimization refers to the sizing of the lithium-ion battery pack in the hybrid configuration. The powertrain supervisory control optimization determines the most efficient way to split the power demand between the battery pack and the engine. Despite the available design and control optimization techniques, a generalized mathematical formulation and solution approach for combined design and control optimization is still missing in the literature. This article intends to fill that void by proposing a unified framework to simultaneously optimize both the battery pack size and power split control sequence. This is achieved through a combination of genetic algorithm (GA) and Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP) where the design parameters are integrated into the Hamiltonian function.
Technical Paper

Computing Remaining Fatigue Life Under Incrementally Updated Loading Histories

After manufacture, every military vehicle experiences a unique history of dynamic loads, depending on loads carried, missions completed, etc. Damage accumulates in vehicle structures and components accordingly, leading eventually to failures that can be difficult to anticipate, and to unpredictable consequences for mission objectives. The advent of simulation-based fatigue life prediction tools opens a path to Digital Twin based solutions for tracking damage, and for gaining control over vehicle reliability. An incremental damage updating feature has now been implemented in the Endurica CL fatigue solver with the aim of supporting such applications for elastomer components. The incremental updating feature is demonstrated via the example of a simple transmission mount component. The damage state of the mount is computed as it progresses towards failure under a series of typical loading histories.

Coolant Hose - Normal Service Type Convoluted, Wire Support Hose (Supplement to SAE J20 for Government Use Replacing Part of MS51008)

This SAE Standard provides ordering information for any SAE 20R5 hose type (such as “EC, HT, LT” or combination thereof.) This is a wire-reinforced hose for coolant circulating systems of automotive type engines. This hose consists of a convoluted section with plain ends. The hose shall contain a wire helix or helices in the convoluted section. It is a supplement for Government use but may be used by others.

Counterfeit Parts and Their Impact on the Supply Chain, Second Edition

Why should the supply chain be concerned if their buyers or subcontractors are purchasing counterfeit electronic parts or if their products contain counterfeit electronic parts? If these parts end up in items that are safety critical and security-risk sensitive such as aviation, space, and defense products, whole secure systems can be comprised. As organizations have become aware of counterfeit parts, one of their responses may be to test upon acceptance or prior to receipt. But testing alone may not detect all counterfeits. Possible sources of counterfeits include products that did not meet quality control requirements and were not destroyed, overruns sold into the market place, unauthorized production shifts, theft, and e-waste. The counterfeited electronic part ends up in the supply chain when ordered by an unsuspecting buyer, who does not confirm the originating source of the part.