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Technical Paper

100-kWe Lunar/Mars Surface Power Utilizing the SP-100 Reactor with Dynamic Conversion

An integration study was performed coupling an SP-100 reactor with either a Brayton or Stirling power conversion subsystem. A power level of 100 kWe was selected for the study. The power system was to be compatible with both the lunar and Mars surface environment and require no site preparation. In addition, the reactor was to have integral shielding and be completely self-contained, including its own auxiliary power for start-up. Initial reliability studies were performed to determine power conversion redundancy and engine module size. Previous studies were used to select the power conversion optimum operating conditions (ratio of hot-side temperature to cold-side temperature). Results of the study indicated that either the Brayton or Stirling power conversion subsystems could be integrated with the SP-100 reactor for either a lunar or Mars surface power application.
Technical Paper

1967 Guide to Governmental Assurance Documentation: In the Areas of Quality, Reliability, Maintainability, Value Engineering, Safety, Human Factors, and Zero Defects

Governmental assurance documentation bibliography updated; new tabulation effective as of April 1, 1967. Latest revision indicated in all instances, but no attempt was made to list supplements or amendments. Department of Defense Index of Specifications and Standards (DODISS) published annually in three parts (alphabetic, numerical, and listing of Federal Supply Classification following unclassified documents.

2018 Ultimate GD&T Pocket Guide 2nd Ed

The 2018 Ultimate GD&T Pocket Guide explains the most common rules, symbols, and concepts used in geometric dimensioning and tolerancing. This one-of-a-kind reference guide includes more than 100 detailed examples to illustrate concepts. Numerous charts for quick reference provide explanations of each GD&T symbol, modifier, and more. This valuable on-the-job resource clarifies how to interpret standard-compliant technical drawings that use ASME Y14.5-2018.
Technical Paper

270-Vdc/Hybrid 115-Vac Electric Power Generating System Technology Demonstrator Evolution to a Dual-Channel, More Electric Aircraft Technology Development Testbed

Sundstrand has been investigating 270-Vdc/hybrid 115-Vac electrical power generating systems (EPGS) technology in preparation for meeting the electrical power generating system (EPGS) requirements for future aircraft (1). Systems such as the one being investigated are likely to be suitable for the More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) concepts presently under industry and military study. The present Sundstrand single-channel testbed is being further expanded to better understand the electrical system performance characteristics and power quality requirements of an MEA in which traditional mechanical subsystems are replaced by those of a “more-electric” nature. This paper presents the most recent Sundstrand 270-Vdc system transient performance data, and describes the modifications being made to the 270-Vdc/hybrid 115-Vac testbed.
Technical Paper

3D Countersink Measurement

Accurate measurement of countersinks in curved parts has always been a challenge. The countersink reference is defined relative to the panel surface which includes some degree of curvature. This curvature thus makes accurate measurements very difficult using both contact and 2D non-contact measurements. By utilizing structured light 3D vision technologies, the ability to very accurately measure a countersink to small tolerances can be achieved. By knowing the pose of the camera and projector, triangulation can be used to calculate the distance to thousands of points on the panel and countersink surface. The plane of the panel is then calculated using Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) method from the dataset of points which can be adjusted to account for panel curvatures. The countersink is then found using a similar RANSAC method.

400 Hz Connection Aircraft Electrical Maintenance Procedures

This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes field-level procedures to determine if 400 Hz electrical connections for external power may have been subjected to excessive wear, which may result in inadequate disengagement forces.


This SAE Recommended Practice which defines the terms and tabulates the limits of the characteristics for various protective devices used in conjunction with 400-cycle ground power for civil aircraft is intended to assist the airlines in standardizing on 400-cycle protective systems. The limits found to be acceptable in the civil aircraft industry are presented.
Journal Article

4H-SiC VJFET Based Normally-off Cascode Switches for 300°C Electronic Applications

Vertical-Junction-Field-Effect-Transistors (VJFETs) are currently the most mature SiC devices for high power/temperature switching. High-voltage VJFETs are typically designed normally-on to ensure voltage control operation at high current-gain. However, to exploit the high voltage/temperature capabilities of VJFETs in a normally-off high-current voltage-controlled switch, high-voltage normally-on and low-voltage normally-off VJFETs were connected in the cascode configuration. In this paper, we review the high temperature DC characteristics of VJFETs and 1200 V normally-off cascode switches. The measured parameter shifts in the 25°C to 300°C temperature range are in excellent agreement with theory, confirming fabrication of robust SiC VJFETs and cascode switches.

649 Handbook

This handbook is intended to assist the user to understand the ANSI/EIA-649B standard principles and functions for Configuration Management (CM) and how to plan and implement effective CM. It provides CM implementation guidance for all users (CM professionals and practitioners within the commercial and industry communities, DoD, military service commands, and government activities (e.g., National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)) with a variety of techniques and examples. Information about interfacing with other management systems and processes are included to ensure the principles and functions are applied in each phase of the life cycle for all product categories.
Technical Paper

757/767 Flight Management System

The 757/767 Flight Management System provides the initial operational implementation of an integrated guidance, control and display equipments based upon digital technology for commercial transport airplanes. The applied equipments are based upon the new ARINC 700 series characteristics developed by the Industry over the past five years. These characteristics were developed on the basis of limited operational experience with selected elements of the system and upon R&D efforts within the Industry. The System features automatic/manual flight profiles for optimum economics, all weather landing including rollout guidance, electronic primary flight instruments based on color (shadow mask) CRTs, inertial attitude/velocity reference based upon laser gyros, improved caution/warning and other improved performance/functional features. The system also provides significant improvements in line and shop maintenance features.
Technical Paper

A -183°C Cryogenic Freezer for the International Space Station

In the course of CRYOSYSTEM phase B (development phase) financed by the European Space Agency, AIR LIQUIDE (France) and Astrium Space Infrastructure (Germany) have developed an optimized design of a −183°C freezer to be used on board the International Space Station for the freezing and storage of biological samples. The CRYOSYSTEM facility consists of the following main elements: - the CRYORACK, an outfitted standard payload rack (ISPR) accommodating up to three identical Vial Freezers - the Vial Freezer, a dewar vessel capable of fast and ultra-rapid freezing, and storing up to approximately 900 vials below −183°C; the dewar is cooled by a Stirling machine producing > 6 W at 90 K. The Vial Freezer is operational while accommodated in the CRYORACK or attached to the Life Science Glovebox (LSG). One CRYORACK will remain permanently on-orbit for several years while four Vial Freezers and two additional CRYORACKs support the cyclic upload/download of samples.
Technical Paper

A 3D User and Maintenance Manual for UAVs and Commercial Aircrafts Based on Augmented Reality

Traditional User/Maintenance Manuals provide useful information when dealing with simple machines. However, when dealing with complex systems of systems and highly miniaturized technologies, like UAVs, or with machines with millions of parts, a commercial aircraft is a case in point, new technologies taking advantage of Augmented Reality can rapidly and effectively support the maintenance operations. This paper presents a User/Maintenance Manual based on Augmented Reality to help the operator in the detection of parts and in the sequence to be followed to assemble/disassemble systems and subsystems. The proposed system includes a handheld device and/or an head mounted display or special goggles, to be used by on-site operators, with software management providing data fusion and overlaying traditional 2D user/maintenance manual information with an augmented reality software and appropriate interface.
Technical Paper

A Bioreactor System for the Nitrogen Loop in an Engineered Closed/Controlled Ecosystem

As space missions become longer in duration, the need to recycle waste into useful compounds rises dramatically. This problem can be addressed through the integration of human and plant modules in an ecological life support system. One of the waste streams leaving the human module is urine. In addition to the reclamation of water from urine, recovery of the nitrogen is important because it can be used as a nutrient for the plant module. A 3-step biological process for the conversion of nitrogenous waste (urea) to resource (nitrate) is proposed. Mathematical modeling was used to investigate the bioreactor system, with the goal of maximizing the ratio of performance to volume and energy requirements. Calculations show that separation of the two microbial conversions into two steps requires a smaller total reactor volume than combining them in a single bioreactor.
Technical Paper

A Brief Survey of the Experimental Methods Used for Wake Vortex Investigations

Some of the methods used for experimental detection and examination of wake vortices are presented. The aim of the article is to provide the reader a brief overview of the available methods. The material is divided into two major sections, one dealing with methods used primarily in the laboratory, and the second part devoted to those used in field operations. Over one hundred articles are cited and briefly discussed.
Technical Paper

A Building for Testing European Rovers and Landers under Simulated Surface Conditions: Part 1 - Design and Phasing

Europe has embarked on a new programme of space exploration involving the development of rover, lander and probe missions to visit planets, moons and near Earth objects (NEOs) throughout the Solar System. Rovers and landers will require testing under simulated planetary, and NEO conditions to ensure their ability to land on and traverse the alien surfaces. ESA has begun work on a building project that will provide an enclosed and controlled environment for testing rover and lander functions such as landing, mobility, navigation and soil sampling. The facility will first support the European ExoMars mission due for launch in 2013. This mission will deliver a robotic rover to the Martian surface. This paper, the first of several on the project, gives an overview of its design configuration and construction phasing. Future papers will cover its applications and operations.
Technical Paper

A CFD-Based, Application-Oriented, Integrated Simulation Environment for Rapid Prediction of Aerodynamic Sensitivities of 3-D Configurations

Within the frame of a series of initiatives aimed at improving effectiveness of its aircraft design and analysis capabilities, the Military Division of Daimler-Benz Aerospace (Dasa) is developing MIDAS, a multidisciplinary integration framework for a suite of numerical codes suitable to quickly and still accurately assess aircraft performance. As MIDAS specifically targets support of configurational studies in a Conceptual and Preliminary Design environment, peculiar requirements such as scope, range of applicability, and robustness of the system components, reliability of results, care-free operability, and fast response times have to be properly addressed.
Technical Paper

A Case Study of Stormwater Runoff Containing Deicing / Anti-icing Fluids Treatment at DFW Airport

Airline tenants at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW Airport) use deicing/anti-icing chemicals, as may be needed, to maintain wintertime operations. DFW Airport has implemented best management practices for pollution prevention measures relating to deicing/anti-icing activities. However, as the planes leave the deicing pads, deicing/anti-icing fluids can drip from the planes onto the runways, taxiways, and ramp areas. As planes take off, the fluids can also shear off onto Airport property. During winter storm events, these deicing/anti-icing fluids are flushed off the runways, etc., with the stormwater. Stormwater containing deicing/anti-icing fluids can discharge through outfalls into Trigg Lake located in the southwestern part of the DFW Airport property.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study Between Different Psychological Approaches During an ESA Space Simulation

The objectives are to compare different psychological methods used to assess the evolution of the interrelations inside the crew and the relationships between the crew and the outside in a sixty days isolation/confinement's simulation. After presenting each method, results are compared. The discussion try to point out if these methods are equivalent or if they are complementary. The specificity of each method is shown and conclusions try to associate some methods with specific scientific goals.