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Technical Paper

100-kWe Lunar/Mars Surface Power Utilizing the SP-100 Reactor with Dynamic Conversion

An integration study was performed coupling an SP-100 reactor with either a Brayton or Stirling power conversion subsystem. A power level of 100 kWe was selected for the study. The power system was to be compatible with both the lunar and Mars surface environment and require no site preparation. In addition, the reactor was to have integral shielding and be completely self-contained, including its own auxiliary power for start-up. Initial reliability studies were performed to determine power conversion redundancy and engine module size. Previous studies were used to select the power conversion optimum operating conditions (ratio of hot-side temperature to cold-side temperature). Results of the study indicated that either the Brayton or Stirling power conversion subsystems could be integrated with the SP-100 reactor for either a lunar or Mars surface power application.
Technical Paper

270-Vdc/Hybrid 115-Vac Electric Power Generating System Technology Demonstrator Evolution to a Dual-Channel, More Electric Aircraft Technology Development Testbed

Sundstrand has been investigating 270-Vdc/hybrid 115-Vac electrical power generating systems (EPGS) technology in preparation for meeting the electrical power generating system (EPGS) requirements for future aircraft (1). Systems such as the one being investigated are likely to be suitable for the More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) concepts presently under industry and military study. The present Sundstrand single-channel testbed is being further expanded to better understand the electrical system performance characteristics and power quality requirements of an MEA in which traditional mechanical subsystems are replaced by those of a “more-electric” nature. This paper presents the most recent Sundstrand 270-Vdc system transient performance data, and describes the modifications being made to the 270-Vdc/hybrid 115-Vac testbed.
Journal Article

4H-SiC VJFET Based Normally-off Cascode Switches for 300°C Electronic Applications

Vertical-Junction-Field-Effect-Transistors (VJFETs) are currently the most mature SiC devices for high power/temperature switching. High-voltage VJFETs are typically designed normally-on to ensure voltage control operation at high current-gain. However, to exploit the high voltage/temperature capabilities of VJFETs in a normally-off high-current voltage-controlled switch, high-voltage normally-on and low-voltage normally-off VJFETs were connected in the cascode configuration. In this paper, we review the high temperature DC characteristics of VJFETs and 1200 V normally-off cascode switches. The measured parameter shifts in the 25°C to 300°C temperature range are in excellent agreement with theory, confirming fabrication of robust SiC VJFETs and cascode switches.
Technical Paper

757/767 Flight Management System

The 757/767 Flight Management System provides the initial operational implementation of an integrated guidance, control and display equipments based upon digital technology for commercial transport airplanes. The applied equipments are based upon the new ARINC 700 series characteristics developed by the Industry over the past five years. These characteristics were developed on the basis of limited operational experience with selected elements of the system and upon R&D efforts within the Industry. The System features automatic/manual flight profiles for optimum economics, all weather landing including rollout guidance, electronic primary flight instruments based on color (shadow mask) CRTs, inertial attitude/velocity reference based upon laser gyros, improved caution/warning and other improved performance/functional features. The system also provides significant improvements in line and shop maintenance features.
Technical Paper

A -183°C Cryogenic Freezer for the International Space Station

In the course of CRYOSYSTEM phase B (development phase) financed by the European Space Agency, AIR LIQUIDE (France) and Astrium Space Infrastructure (Germany) have developed an optimized design of a −183°C freezer to be used on board the International Space Station for the freezing and storage of biological samples. The CRYOSYSTEM facility consists of the following main elements: - the CRYORACK, an outfitted standard payload rack (ISPR) accommodating up to three identical Vial Freezers - the Vial Freezer, a dewar vessel capable of fast and ultra-rapid freezing, and storing up to approximately 900 vials below −183°C; the dewar is cooled by a Stirling machine producing > 6 W at 90 K. The Vial Freezer is operational while accommodated in the CRYORACK or attached to the Life Science Glovebox (LSG). One CRYORACK will remain permanently on-orbit for several years while four Vial Freezers and two additional CRYORACKs support the cyclic upload/download of samples.
Technical Paper

A Brief Survey of the Experimental Methods Used for Wake Vortex Investigations

Some of the methods used for experimental detection and examination of wake vortices are presented. The aim of the article is to provide the reader a brief overview of the available methods. The material is divided into two major sections, one dealing with methods used primarily in the laboratory, and the second part devoted to those used in field operations. Over one hundred articles are cited and briefly discussed.
Technical Paper

A Building for Testing European Rovers and Landers under Simulated Surface Conditions: Part 1 - Design and Phasing

Europe has embarked on a new programme of space exploration involving the development of rover, lander and probe missions to visit planets, moons and near Earth objects (NEOs) throughout the Solar System. Rovers and landers will require testing under simulated planetary, and NEO conditions to ensure their ability to land on and traverse the alien surfaces. ESA has begun work on a building project that will provide an enclosed and controlled environment for testing rover and lander functions such as landing, mobility, navigation and soil sampling. The facility will first support the European ExoMars mission due for launch in 2013. This mission will deliver a robotic rover to the Martian surface. This paper, the first of several on the project, gives an overview of its design configuration and construction phasing. Future papers will cover its applications and operations.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study Between Different Psychological Approaches During an ESA Space Simulation

The objectives are to compare different psychological methods used to assess the evolution of the interrelations inside the crew and the relationships between the crew and the outside in a sixty days isolation/confinement's simulation. After presenting each method, results are compared. The discussion try to point out if these methods are equivalent or if they are complementary. The specificity of each method is shown and conclusions try to associate some methods with specific scientific goals.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Turbulence Models in Axisymmetric Nozzle Flow

Two turbulence models have been studied to determine which of the models should be used in further Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) research. A zero-equation turbulence model, Baldwin-Lomax (B-L), is easy to use, requires no history of the flow, and requires little in the way of additional computations or additional computer memory space [1]. A two-equation k-ε model, Yang-Shih (Y-S), is more difficult to implement, does require flow history, and requires many more computations and much more computer space; however, it is potentially more accurate than the B-L model [2]. Using both Navier-Stokes (NS) and Parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) solvers, the two models and their codes were validated against the testbed of the Wright Laboratory (WL) Mach 12 wind tunnel nozzle.
Journal Article

A Comparison of the Apollo and Early Orion Environmental Control, Life Support and Active Thermal Control System's Driving Requirements and System Mass

The Orion Crew and Service Modules are often compared to the Apollo Command and Service Modules due to their similarity in basic mission objective: both were dedicated to getting a crew to lunar orbit and safely returning them to Earth. Both spacecraft rely on the environmental control, life support and active thermal control systems (ECLS/ATCS) for the basic functions of providing and maintaining a breathable atmosphere, supplying adequate amount of potable water and maintaining the crew and avionics equipment within certified thermal limits. This assessment will evaluate the driving requirements for both programs and highlight similarities and differences. Further, a short comparison of the two system architectures will be examined including a side by side assessment of some selected system's hardware mass.
Technical Paper

A Computer Aided Engineering Tool for ECLS Systems

This paper presents an overview of the Computer Aided Systems Engineering and Analysis (CASE/A)-ECLSS series which is designed as a generalised ECLSS design and analysis package. This system was developed under NASA MSEC contract NAS8-36407 to meet the Systems Analysis requirements of the Space Station ECLSS. The Space Station represents an order of magnitude increase in complexity over current Spacecraft technologies and will seriously tax current analysis techniques. This program is capable of simulating atmospheric revitalization systems, water recovery and management systems, and single phase active thermal control systems. The program evolved from both the G189A and the SINDA programs and shares the G189A architectural concepts. The designer/ analysis interface is graphics based and allows the designer to build a model by constructing a schematic of the system under consideration.
Technical Paper

A Computer Technique to Evaluate Routing of Fluid System Plumbing for Aircraft Engines

In the design of fluid systems plumbing for aircraft engines, the designer is continually challenged by the problem of component location and routing. In order to achieve accessibility and maintainability, and to avoid physical interferences, plumbing design is accomplished through extensive graphical projection and mockups. The solution to this problem must also satisfy tubing stress limits, resonant frequencies, bracket or clamping positions available and future space requirements. To facilitate and expedite this design procedure a digital computer technique has been developed which determines the clearances between tubing and other engine components. Though not a substitute for graphical projection, this program provides a means for accurate checking for interference. It also serves a valuable purpose in the storage of previous or alternate plumbing routing arrangements for comparison.
Technical Paper

A Concept for a Manned Artificial Gravity Research Ship

In the first half of the next century, Mankind will expand its sphere of existence to the Moon and space, and they will stand on Mars and study the other planets. Then, humans will inevitably be required to live for long periods, two years or more, in micro-gravity and/or low gravity environments. However, it is well known that such micro or low gravity environments adversely affect human physiology and psychology. The longer the period the greater such effects are and these can result in serious health problems. To improve living conditions in space by generating artificial gravity will be important to solving these problems.
Technical Paper

A Configurable Solid State Power Management and Distribution System

Future vehicle power systems must achieve greater flexibility and reliability than those used in previous generations. New functions that enhance safety, such as arc detection and wiring integrity verification, are essential for new systems. Embedded autonomous control, and fault correction can be built into Fault Tolerant Processors that integrate into a vehicle Open System Architecture. This approach will provide status and fault detection information to maintenance interfaces and provide fault correction. Safety is enhanced by the prevention of dangerous restarts from crew and personnel. The embedded features allow for pre-flight mission configuration to setup systems before takeoff and on-board and off-board maintenance control. This enables operators to evaluate power system health and history to help reduce turn around time.
Journal Article

A Continuing Investigation of Diurnal and Location Trends in an Ice Crystal Icing Engine Event Database

Due to ongoing efforts by the aviation industry, much has been learned over the last several years regarding jet engine power loss and compressor damage events caused by the ingestion of high concentrations of ice crystal particles into the core flow path. Boeing has created and maintained a database of such ice crystal icing (ICI) events to aid in analysis and further study of this phenomenon. This article provides a general update on statistics derived from the Boeing event database, and provides more details on specific event clusters of interest. A series of three flight campaigns have, over the past five years, collected in-situ data in deep convective clouds that will be used for the assessment of the new FAA CFR Part 33 ice crystal environmental envelope Appendix D, and the equivalent EASA CS-25 Appendix P.
Technical Paper

A Description and Comparison of U.S. and Russian Urine Processing Hardware for the International Space Station

The Russian space program has maintained crews on long duration space flights nearly continuously over the past two decades. As a result, a strong emphasis has been placed on the development of regenerative life support systems. One of these systems is a urine processor which has been operating on-orbit since 1990. The U. S has also been developing urine processing systems to reclaim water from urine over the past twenty years. This paper will describe the two different technologies used for urine processing for long-term human presence in space and will compare the operating characteristics of the two systems.
Technical Paper

A Discussion and Demonstration of Some Characteristics of an Advanced HLA/RTI Environment for Aerospace Applications

Modeling and Simulation - M&S is recently gaining more importance and emphasis as an essential method for developing engineering systems especially for aerospace and automotive systems, due to their complexity, integration and even human involvement. The main reasons for M&S having that important role nowadays are: 1) M&S can predict system behavior and possible problems. Therefore, it can reduce time and cost for developing systems, it can avoid future corrections into systems, as well. 2) M&S can be used for conception, training, maintenance, etc., requiring less expensive tools and previously preparing people to the real scenario. 3) When it comes to situations that involve aerospace or other products, where high costs are involved, mistakes can be avoided or at least minimized. Summarizing, M&S can reduce project cost and schedule, and improve quality.
Technical Paper

A Discussion on Fault Detection, Isolation, Identification and Reconfiguration in Networked Control Systems of Aerospace Vehicles

In this work, the problem of fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration (FDIR) for Networked-Control Systems (NCS) of aerospace vehicles is discussed. The concept of fault-tolerance is introduced from a generic structure, and a review on quantitative and qualitative methods (state estimation, parameter estimation, parity space, statistic testing, neural networks, etc.) for FDIR is then performed. Afterwards, the use of networks as loop-closing elements is introduced, followed by a discussion on advantages (flexibility, energy demand, etc.) and challenges (networks effects on performance, closed-loop fault-effects on safety, etc.) represented thereby. Finally, examples of applications on aerospace vehicles illustrate the importance of the discussion herein exposed.
Technical Paper

A Discussion on Time Synchronization and their Effects in Distributed Cyber-Physical Control Systems

Cyber-physical systems are joint instances of growing complexity and high integration of elements in the information and physical domains reaching high levels of difficulty to engineer an operate them. This happens with satellites, aircraft, automobiles, smart grids and others. Current technologies as computation, communication and control integrate those domains to communicate, synchronize and operate together. However, the integration of different domains brings new challenges and adds new issues, mainly in real time distributed control systems, beginning with time synchronization. In this paper, we present a discussion on time synchronization and their effects in distributed cyber-physical control systems. To do that, we review the literature, discuss some time synchronization techniques used in cyber-physical systems, and illustrate them via model and simulation of a system representative of the aerospace area.