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Technical Paper

An Improved Friction Model for Spark-Ignition Engines

A spark-ignition engine friction model developed by Patton et al. in the late 1980s was evaluated against current engine friction data, and improved. The model, which was based on a combination of fundamental scaling laws and empirical results, includes predictions of rubbing losses from the crankshaft, reciprocating, and valvetrain components, auxiliary losses from engine accessories, and pumping losses from the intake and exhaust systems. These predictions were based on engine friction data collected between 1980 and 1988. Some of the terms are derived from lubrication theory. Other terms were derived empirically from measurements of individual friction components from engine teardown experiments. Recent engine developments (e.g., improved oils, surface finish on piston liners, valve train mechanisms) suggested that the model needed updating.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Oil Consumption Behavior during Ramp Transients in a Production Spark Ignition Engine

Engine oil consumption is recognized to be a significant source of pollutant emissions. Unburned or partially burned oil in the exhaust gases contributes directly to hydrocarbon and particulate emissions. In addition, chemical compounds present in oil additives poison catalytic converters and reduce their conversion efficiency. Oil consumption can increase significantly during critical non-steady operating conditions. This study analyzes the oil consumption behavior during ramp transients in load by combining oil consumption measurements, in-cylinder measurements, and computer-based modeling. A sulfur based oil consumption method was used to measure real-time oil consumption during ramp transients in load at constant speed in a production spark ignition engine. Additionally in-cylinder liquid oil behavior along the piston was studied using a one-point Laser-Induced-Fluorescence (LIF) technique.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Catalyzed Soot Oxidation with NO2, NO and O2 using a Lab-Scale Flow Reactor System

Today's diesel PM reduction systems are mainly based on catalyzed particulate filter(CPF) systems. However, most of their reaction kinetics remain unresolved. Among others, the soot oxidation rate over catalyst is particularly important in the evaluation of the performance of the catalysts and the efficient control of CPF regeneration. This study, therefore, investigated the oxidation rate of carbon black (Printex-U) over various Pt supported catalysts using a flow reactor setup simulating diesel exhaust conditions. Compared to non-catalyzed soot oxidation, the oxidation rate of carbon black over Pt catalysts was to an extent shifted towards low temperatures. This activity enhancement of soot oxidation over a catalyst can be attributed principally to NO to NO2 conversion because NO2 oxidizes soot with much lower activation energy (Ea=60kJ/mol) than O2 (Ea=177kJ/mol).
Technical Paper

Contribution of Liquid Fuel to Hydrocarbon Emissions in Spark Ignition Engines

The purpose of this work was to develop an understanding of how liquid fuel transported into the cylinder of a port-fuel-injected gasoline-fueled SI engine contributes to hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. To simulate the liquid fuel flow from the valve seat region into the cylinder, a specially designed fuel probe was developed and used to inject controlled amounts of liquid fuel onto the port wall close to the valve seat. By operating the engine on pre-vaporized Indolene, and injecting a small amount of liquid fuel close to the valve seat while the intake valve was open, we examined the effects of liquid fuel entering the cylinder at different circumferential locations around the valve seat. Similar experiments were also carried out with closed valve injection of liquid fuel at the valve seat to assess the effects of residual blowback, and of evaporation from the intake valve and port surfaces.
Technical Paper

Development and Evaluation of a Friction Model for Spark-Ignition Engines

The details of a model which predicts friction mean effective pressure (fmep) for spark-ignition engines are described. The model, which was based on a combination of fundamental scaling laws and empirical results, includes predictions of rubbing losses from the crankshaft, reciprocating, and valvetrain components, auxiliary losses from engine accessories, and pumping losses from the intake and exhaust systems. For some predictions, it was possible to derive terms which were proportional to fmep based on lubrication theory. For other predictions, phenomenological terms which described the results of the processes rather than the processes themselves were used. Each of the predictions was “calibrated” using fmep data from published sources. The sum of these predictions gave reliable estimates of spark-ignition engine fmep and serves as a useful tool for understanding how the major engine design and operating variables affect individual component friction.
Journal Article

Effects of Secondary Air Injection During Cold Start of SI Engines

An experimental study was performed to develop a more fundamental understanding of the effects of secondary air injection (SAI) on exhaust gas emissions and catalyst light-off characteristics during cold start of a modern SI engine. The effects of engine operating parameters and various secondary air injection strategies such as spark retardation, fuel enrichment, secondary air injection location and air flow rate were investigated to understand the mixing, heat loss, and thermal and catalytic oxidation processes associated with SAI. Time-resolved HC, CO and CO₂ concentrations were tracked from the cylinder exit to the catalytic converter outlet and converted to time-resolved mass emissions by applying an instantaneous exhaust mass flow rate model. A phenomenological model of exhaust heat transfer combined with the gas composition analysis was also developed to define the thermal and chemical energy state of the exhaust gas with SAI.
Technical Paper

Effects of Substantial Spark Retard on SI Engine Combustion and Hydrocarbon Emissions

Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of substantial spark retard on combustion, hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, and exhaust temperature, under cold engine conditions. A single-cylinder research engine was operated at 20° C fluid temperatures for various spark timings and relative air/fuel ratios. Combustion stability was observed to decrease as the phasing of the 50% mass fraction burned (MFB) occurred later in the expansion stroke. A thermodynamic burn rate analysis indicated combustion was complete at exhaust valve opening with -20° before top dead center (BTDC) spark timings. Chemical and thermal energy of the exhaust gas was tracked from cylinder-exit to the exhaust runner. Time-resolved HC concentrations measured in the port and runner were mass weighted to obtain an exhaust HC mass flow rate. Results were compared to time averaged well downstream HC levels.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Soot Oxidation Characteristic with NO2 and O2 using a Flow Reactor Simulating DPF

Characteristics of soot oxidation were investigated with a carbon black (Printex-U). A flow reactor system which can simulate the condition of diesel particulate filter and diesel exhaust gas (1 bar, O2 0 ∼ 10%, NO2 200 ∼ 900ppm) was designed and used with the temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and constant temperature oxidation (CTO) techniques. The temperature increase rate was 5°C/min for TPO experiments. From the experiments, the apparent activation energy for carbon oxidation with nitrogen dioxide was determined as 60 ± 3 kJ/mol with the first order of carbon in the range of 10∼90% oxidation and the temperature range of 250∼500°C. This value was exceedingly lower than the activation energy of oxygen oxidation which was 177 ± 1 kJ/mol. When oxygen exists with nitrogen dioxide, the reaction rate increased with the concentration of oxygen. Its rate of increase was faster for low oxygen concentration and slower for high concentration.
Technical Paper

Fast Gas Temperature Measurement by Velocity of Sound for IC Engine Applications

In the study of internal combustion engines, gas temperatures within the system are of significant importance. The adverse conditions under firing operation, however, make measurements by any means very difficult. This current study seems to have gone the farthest to date for velocity of sound gas temperature measurements in internal combustion engine applications. An ultrasound signal is sent by a transmitting transducer, through the gas medium, and into the receiving transducer. The received signal is recorded, and the gas temperature determined from the time of flight. In-cylinder and exhaust manifold gas temperatures under fired conditions are presented, and are all consistent. Impacts of operating parameters like mixture equivalence ratio and coolant temperature are investigated.
Technical Paper

Flame Propagation and Knock Detection Using an Optical Fiber Technique in a Spark-Ignition Engine

In this research, an optical system for the detection of the flame propagation under the non-knocking and knocking conditions is developed and applied to a mass produced four cylinder SI engine. The normal flames are measured and analyzed under the steady state operating conditions at various engine speeds. For knocking cycles, the flame front propagations before and after knock occurrence are simultaneously taken with cylinder pressure data. In non-knocking and knocking cycles, flame propagation shows cycle-by-cycle variations, which are quite severe especially in the knocking cycles. The normal flame propagations are analyzed at various engine speeds, and show that the flame front on the exhaust valve side becomes faster as the engine speed increases. According to the statistical analysis, knock occurence location and flame propagation process after knock can be categorized into five different types.
Technical Paper

Low Temperature Active Regeneration of Soot Using Hydrogen in a Multi-Channel Catalyzed DPF

Diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems are being used to reduce the particulate matter emissions of diesel vehicles. The DPF should be regenerated after certain driving hours or distance to eliminate soot in the filter. The most widely used method is active regeneration with oxygen at 550~650°C. Fuel penalty occurs when the exhaust gas temperature is increased. The low temperature oxidation technique is needed to reduce fuel consumption. In this study, we found that hydrogen could be used to decrease the PM oxidation temperature significantly on a catalyzed DPF (CDPF). The oxidation characteristics of PM with hydrogen supplied to CDPF were studied using a partial flow system. The partial flow system was used to control temperature and a flow rate independently. The CDPF was coated with Pt/Al₂O₃ 25g/ft₃, and a multi-channel CDPF (MC CDPF) with a square cross section of 1.65 cm width and length of 10 cm was used.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Spark Ignition Engine Warm-Up Process to Predict Component Temperatures and Hydrocarbon Emissions

In order to understand better the operation of spark-ignition engines during the warm-up period, a computer model had been developed which simulates the thermal processes of the engine. This model is based on lumped thermal capacitance methods for the major engine components, as well as the exhaust system. Coolant and oil flows, and their respective heat transfer rates are modeled, as well as friction heat generation relations. Piston-liner heat transfer is calculated based on a thermal resistance method, which includes the effects of piston and ring material and design, oil film thickness, and piston-liner crevice. Piston/liner crevice changes are calculated based on thermal expansion rates and are used in conjunction with a crevice-region unburned hydrocarbon model to predict the contribution to emissions from this source.
Technical Paper

Models for Heat Transfer, Mixing and Hydrocarbon Oxidation in a Exhaust Port of a Spark-Ignited Engine

The fate of hydrocarbon species in the exhaust systems of spark-ignition engines is an important part of the overall hydrocarbon emissions problem. In this investigation models were developed for the instantaneous heat transfer, fluid mixing, and hydrocarbon oxidation in an engine exhaust port. Experimental measurements were obtained for the instantaneous cylinder pressure and instantaneous gas temperature at the exhaust port exit for a range of engine operating conditions. These measurements were used to validate the heat transfer model and to provide data on the instantaneous cylinder gas state for a series of illustrative exhaust port hydrocarbon oxidation computations as a function of engine operating and design variables. During much of the exhaust process, the exhaust port heat transfer was dominated by large-scale fluid motion generated by the jet-like flow at the exhaust valve.
Technical Paper

Performance Scaling of Spark-Ignition Engines: Correlation and Historical Analysis of Production Engine Data

This study examines the scaling between engine performance, engine configuration, and engine size and geometry, for modern spark-ignition engines. It focuses especially on design features that impact engine breathing. We also analyze historical trends to illustrate how changes in technology have improved engine performance. Different geometric parameters such as cylinder displacement, piston area, number of cylinders, number of valves per cylinder, bore to stroke ratio, and compression ratio, in appropriate combinations, are correlated to engine performance parameters, namely maximum torque, power and brake mean effective pressure, to determine the relationships or scaling laws that best fit the data. Engine specifications from 1999 model year vehicles sold in the United States were compiled into a database and separated into two-, three-, and four-valves-per-cylinder engine categories.
Technical Paper

Time Resolved Measurements of Exhaust Composition and Flow Rate in a Wankel Engine

Measurements were made of exhaust histories of the following species: unburned hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitric oxide (NO). The measurements show that the exhaust flow can be divided into two distinct phases: a leading gas low in HC and high in NO followed by a trailing gas high in HC and low in NO. Calculations of time resolved equivalence ratio throughout the exhaust process show no evidence of a stratified combustion. The exhaust mass flow rate is time resolved by forcing the flow to be locally quasi-steady at an orifice placed in the exhaust pipe. The results with the quasi-steady assumption are shown to be consistent with the measurements. Predictions are made of time resolved mass flow rate which compare favorably to the experimental data base. The composition and flow histories provide sufficient information to calculate the time resolved flow rates of the individual species measured.
Technical Paper

Time Resolved Measurements of the Exhaust from a Jet Ignition Prechamber Stratified Charge Engine

In the jet-ignition prechamber stratified-charge spark-ignition engine, the fuel-air mixture at the time of combustion is non-uniform. Instantaneous exhaust mass flow rates and emission concentrations from this engine were measured and used to determine the degree to which this charge stratification persists in the products of combustion immediately downstream of the exhaust valve throughout the exhaust process. In all the cases studied no appreciable variations, during the exhaust process, were detected either in the air-fuel ratio of the exhaust gases as a function of time or in the instantaneous concentrations of CO2, O2 and NOx. The experimentally obtained instantaneous HC and CO concentrations in the exhaust, however, displayed large fluctuations and were used to study the sources of these two pollutants in this engine.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurements of Hydrocarbon Mass Flowrate in the Exhaust of a Spark-Ignition Engine

Experimental measurements of the instantaneous exhaust gas temperature, mass flowrate, and hydrocarbon concentration have been made in the exhaust of a single cylinder research engine. The temperature measurements were accomplished using an infrared optical technique and observing the radiation of the exhaust gas at the 4.4 μm band of CO2. Instantaneous exhaust gas mass flowrates were monitored by placing a restriction in the exhaust manifold and measuring the instantaneous pressures across the restriction. Time-resolved hydrocarbon concentrations were measured using a fast-acting sampling valve with an open time of 2 ms. From these measurements, the hydrocarbon mass flowrate is calculated as a function of crank angle.