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Technical Paper

(Particle) Emissions of Small 2-& 4-Stroke Scooters with (Hydrous) Ethanol Blends

2010-04-12
2010-01-0794
The objectives of the present work are to investigate the regulated and unregulated (particle) emissions of a classical and modern 2-stroke and a typical 4-stroke scooter with different ethanol blend fuels. There is also comparison of two different ethanol fuels: pure ethanol (E) *) and hydrous ethanol (EH) which contains 3.9% water and is denatured with 1.5% gasoline. Special attention is paid in this research to the hydrous ethanol, since the production costs of hydrous ethanol are much less than those for (dry) ethanol. The vehicles are with carburettor and without catalyst, which represents the most frequent technology in Eastern Asia and offers the information of engine-out emissions. Exhaust emissions measurements have been performed with fuels containing ethanol (E), or hydrous ethanol (EH) in the portion of 5, 10, 15 and 20% by volume. During the test systematical analysis of particle mass (PM) and nano-particles counts (NP) were carried out.
Journal Article

0W-16 Fuel Economy Gasoline Engine Oil Compatible with Low Speed Pre-Ignition Performance

2017-10-08
2017-01-2346
It has been long established fact that fuel economy is a key driving force of low viscosity gasoline engine oil research and development considered by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and lubricant companies. The development of low viscosity gasoline engine oils should not only focus on fuel economy improvement, but also on the low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) prevention property. In previous LSPI prevention literatures, the necessity of applying Ca/Mg-based detergents system in the engine oil formulations was proposed. In this paper, we adopted a specific Group III base oil containing Ca-salicylate detergent, borated dispersant, Mo-DTC in the formulation and investigated the various effects of Mg-salicylate and Mg-sulfonate on the performance of engine oil. It was found that Mg-sulfonate showed a significant detrimental impact on silicone rubber compatibility while the influence from Mg-salicylate remains acceptable.
Technical Paper

1.8L Sierra-Mondeo Turbo-Diesel Valvetrain Friction Reduction Using a Solid Film Lubricant

1994-10-01
941986
A 1.8L turbocharged diesel engine valvetrain friction was investigated, and the effectiveness of using a solid film lubricant (SFL) coating in reducing friction was determined throughout the operable speed range. This valvetrain design features direct acting mechanical bucket valve lifters. Camshaft journal bearing surfaces and all camshaft rubbing surfaces except lobe tips were coated. The direct acting bucket shims were etched with a cross hatch pattern to a depth sufficient to sustain a SFL film coating on the shim rubbing surfaces subjected to high surface loads. The SFL coated valvetrain torque was evaluated and compared with uncoated baseline torque. Coating the cam bearing journal surfaces alone with II-25D SFL reduced valvetrain friction losses 8 to 17% for 250 to 2000 rpm cam speed range (i.e. 500 - 4000 rpm engine speed). When bucket tappet and shims were also coated with the SFL, further significant reductions in coated valvetrain friction were observed.
Technical Paper

100,000 Miles of Fueling 5.9L Cummins Engines with 100% Biodiesel

1996-10-01
962233
Two Cummins B5.9L engines were fueled with 100% biodiesel in excess of 48 months by the Agricultural Engineering Department at the University of Missouri-Columbia. The engines used to power Dodge pickups. The engine lubricating oil was sampled at 1000 mile intervals for analysis. Statistical analysis of the engine lubricating oil indicated that the wear metal levels in the lubricating oil were normal. A reduction in power was noted when the engines were tested using a chassis dynamometer. The 1991 pickup has been driven 110,451 km and the 1992 pickup has been driven approximately 177,022 km. The pickups averaged 6.9 km/L. Engine fuel efficiency and material compatibility issues are addressed in the paper.
Technical Paper

100,000-Mile Evaluation of Transit Buses Operated on Biodiesel Blends (B20)

2006-10-16
2006-01-3253
Nine identical 40-ft. transit buses were operated on B20 and diesel for a period of two years - five of the buses operated exclusively on B20 (20% biodiesel blend) and the other four on petroleum diesel. The buses were model year 2000 Orion V equipped with Cummins ISM engines, and all operated on the same bus route. Each bus accumulated about 100,000 miles over the course of the study. B20 buses were compared to the petroleum diesel buses in terms of fuel economy, vehicle maintenance cost, road calls, and emissions. There was no difference between the on-road average fuel economy of the two groups (4.41 mpg) based on the in-use data, however laboratory testing revealed a nearly 2% reduction in fuel economy for the B20 vehicles. Engine and fuel system related maintenance costs were nearly identical for the two groups until the final month of the study.
Technical Paper

110 Ton Payload on Two Axles with Hydro-Mechanical Drive

1966-02-01
660237
Late developments in tires and in lightweight, high horsepower engines and transmissions have enabled the earthmoving and mining industry equipment manufacturers to design and produce several types of preproduction 100-ton capacity trucks. A straight-forward approach to the design of a 110-ton end dump truck on two axles with a hydro-mechanical drive was followed by KW-Dart Truck Co. to produce a low cost per ton-mile vehicle.
Technical Paper

1962 passenger-car engineering trends

1962-01-01
620066
The phenomenal success of the small car is leading to many engineering changes in the automobile industry. It has brought increased emphasis on weight reduction on both small and full-size cars. Improving reliability and designing to eliminate grease fittings have also become important objectives.
Technical Paper

1st Order Boom Noise Relationship to Driveline Imbalance

2005-05-16
2005-01-2299
Two vehicle level test methods were developed that illustrate the relationship between 1st order noise in a cabin, and driveline imbalance contributors. At the launch of a new 2005 4WD sport utility vehicle program, a significant boom noise complaint was observed on many vehicles between 55-70 mph. The full time, electronic actively controlled, torque biasing transfercase was intensely reviewed as a potential source of excessive torque induced imbalance. Testing of the transfercase was performed on imbalance measurement stands, dynamometers, and in the vehicle. The result was the identification of two issues. First was that two internal to the transfercase parts were found to have excessive runout. Second was that there was a lack of vehicle correlation to transfercase imbalance. An extensive effort involving over 50 vehicles of the same model was pursued to find the source of the problem.
Technical Paper

2000 HP Tractor-Trailer for the 21st Century

2002-11-18
2002-01-3141
This paper presents the conceptual design of a high-power, high-speed tractor-trailer for severe duty applications. Design of the tractor-trailer introduces several new concepts, including the general vehicle architecture, a new electrical transmission system and a new electric tandem axle. The vehicle architecture consists of a low drag cab concept with a fully integrated turbo-generator power source, an exhaust gas electric decontamination system and auxiliaries. The electric transmission introduces a new combination of electrical machines and power electronics designed to perform under maximum load with minimum dimension, weight and price. The electric tandem axle is a new concept of an all-wheel steering independent suspension with virtual electromagnetic differential.
Technical Paper

21 Cubic Yard 580 PAY® Loader

1975-02-01
750817
To effectively utilize larger trucks (85 ton and up), open-pit mines and quarries need a larger front-end loader with high reliability and performance. This paper describes the design approach and tests carried out to design 21 cubic yard 580 PAY® loader to meet these requirements. Long fatigue life of structures was obtained by use of full penetration welds. New concept for power control was designed to effectively distribute power between hydraulics and drive train. Spring applied - pressure released brakes were designed into the axle. Tests were carried out in our laboratory and proving grounds to determine performance and reliability.
Technical Paper

26 Development of “BF-Coat” for Snowmobile Piston

2002-10-29
2002-32-1795
The pistons in a snowmobile engine are subjected to severe temperature conditions not only because snowmobiles are operated in extremely cold temperatures but also because the engine has a high output per unit volume of approximately 150kW/liter. The temperature of the piston top may go from -40°C (when a cold engine is started) to 400°C or higher (when the engine is running at full load). When the piston and cylinder inner wall are cold, the performance of the lubricating oil drops; when they are hot, scuffing may be produced by problems such as tearing of the oil film between the piston and cylinder. When the engine is run at full load for a long time, moreover, the piston is subjected to prolonged high-temperature use, which is conducive to the production of piston boss hole abrasion and ring groove adhesive wear.
Technical Paper

4 x 4 Highway Tractor Concepts

1972-02-01
720901
Two new 4 X 4 drivetrain systems have been developed for highway tractors that are used to pull multiple trailer combinations. The first one is a 4 X 2 that automatically becomes a 4 X 4 when conditions exist that require 4 X 4 operation. The second one is a full-time 4 X 4 that proportions the drive torque 36% to the front axle and 64% to the rear axle. A unique front driving steering axle has also been developed that permits a 4 X 4 system to be installed in a standard 4 X 2 truck. There is no need to relocate any major components to make space available for a front driving steering axle.
Technical Paper

4-Sensor 2-Channel Anti-Lock System for FWD Cars

1986-02-01
860511
The possibility of 2 Channel anti-lock system, which controls each of two independent hydraulic circuits of diagonal split braking system of FWD car seperately, were studied. Theoretical investigation suggested two out of four possible control logics to be promising and they were proved to be practically satisfactory through vehicle test. This system is almost as effective as expensive 3-channel or 4-channel system, when the braking force distribution between front and rear axles is correct as required by EEC Braking regulation. Under extreme condition that rear wheels lock earlier than fronts, the compromise between stopping distance and stability is necessary.
Technical Paper

42LE Electronic Four-Speed Automatic Transaxle

1993-03-01
930671
A new electronically controlled transaxle has been put into production for Chrysler's family of LH cars. Among the attributes of this new transaxle are its ability to handle engines of high torque and high power coupled with high-speed shifts. Engine torque management is used in specific operating regimes. A feature of the transaxle is electronic modulation of the converter clutch. A number of logic features have been combined with hardware to provide good performance and shift quality over a wide operating range. An output transfer chain and a hypoid gear set are used to provide torque to the front wheels in a longitudinal power train orientation. Obtaining acceptable endurance life of the hypoid gears within an aluminum housing presented a significant challenge. New approaches were required to provide a chain-sprocket system with acceptable noise characteristics.
Technical Paper

50,000km On-Road Durability Test of Common-Rail Vehicle with 10% Blend of High Quality Biodiesel (H-FAME) from Jatropha

2015-03-30
2015-01-0115
The effects of high quality biodiesel, namely, partially Hydrogenated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester or H-FAME, on 50,000km on-road durability test of unmodified common-rail vehicle have been investigated. Thailand popular brand new common-rail light duty vehicle, Isuzu D-Max Spacecab, equipped with 4JK1-STD engine (DOHC 4-cylinder 2.5L, M/T 4×2, Euro III emission) was chosen to undergo on-road test composed of well-mixed types of mountain, suburb and urban road conditions over the entire 50,000km. Jatropha-derived high quality biodiesel, H-FAME, conforming to WWFC (worldwide fuel charter) specification, was blended with normal diesel (Euro IV) at 10% (v/v) as tested fuel. Engine performance (torque and power), emission (CO, NOx, HC+NOx and PM), fuel consumption and dynamic response (0-100km acceleration time and maximum velocity) were analyzed at initial, middle and final distance; whereas, used lube oil analysis was conducted every 10,000km.
Technical Paper

50,000km On-Road Durability Test of Common-Rail Vehicle with 20% Blend of High Quality Palm Biodiesel (H-FAME)

2016-03-27
2016-01-1736
The effects of high quality biodiesel, namely, partially Hydrogenated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester or H-FAME, on 50,000km on-road durability test of unmodified common-rail vehicle have been investigated. Thailand brand new common-rail light duty vehicle, Isuzu D-Max Extended cab, equipped with 4JK1-TCX engine (DOHC 4-cylinder 2.5L, M/T 4×2, Euro IV emission) was chosen to undergo on-road test composed of well-mixed types of mountain, suburb and urban road conditions over the entire 50,000km. Palm-derived high quality biodiesel, H-FAME, conforming to WWFC (worldwide fuel charter) specification, was blended with normal diesel (Euro IV) at 20% (v/v) as tested fuel. Engine performance (torque and power), emission (CO, NOx, HC+NOx and PM), fuel consumption and dynamic response (0-100km acceleration time and maximum velocity) were analyzed at initial, middle and final distance; whereas, used lube oil analysis was conducted every 10,000km.
Technical Paper

5500 Ton Press - Forming Rear Axle Spindles

1962-01-01
620134
A five-year development program by the American Metal Products Co. to process stamped axle housings has culminated in the application of cold extrusion to spindles. The new process involved the installation of a 5500 ton press capable of driving a punch through a 20 lb billet, as well as modification and rearrangement of existing equipment. The system has not only resulted in considerable production savings but has also contributed to an overall expansion program. The company, although fully preoccupied with the basic spindle for production of axle housings, has already investigated other applications of the new equipment toward product diversification.
Technical Paper

A Bearing Life Prediction Method for Utilizing Progressive Functional Surface Damage Analysis from a Debris Contaminated Lubrication Environment

1999-09-13
1999-01-2793
Many lubrication environments in various equipment applications are inherently contaminated with debris and require mechanical components that are, as much as possible, resistant to the potential detrimental effects of debris particles. Many design engineers and lubricant specialists often overlook potential relationships between the various component failure modes, lubricant debris contamination levels, and engineering solutions that are created to overcome them. In addition, design engineers are in need of an analysis tool that can combine the various amounts of cumulative bearing damage occurring over time. As an example, bearing functional surfaces in many cases are progressively damaged over the life of the equipment. A new surface analysis tool is available which allows surface damage analysis to be completed at various stages of equipment life. This new surface analysis tool is appropriately called Debris Signature Analysis(sm).
Technical Paper

A Bench Technique for Evaluating High Temperature Oxidation and Corrosion Tendencies of Automotive Crankcase Lubricants

1968-02-01
680538
A technique for evaluating high temperature oxidation and corrosion tendencies of automotive crankcase lubricants is described. The technique utilizes a versatile bench apparatus which, with a minimum of modification, can be used for either evaluating thermal oxidation stability of gear lubricants or oxidation-corrosion tendencies of automotive crankcase lubricants. The apparatus is relatively compact and requires a minimal lubricant sample. Design of the apparatus permits close control of all operating parameters and provides satisfactory test data repeatability. Retainable copper-lead test bearings are used as the indicator in predicting a pass or fail of fully formulated crankcase lubricants as in the case of the CRC L-38-559 (Federal Test Method 3405) technique. Engine and bench test data are compared to illustrate the capabilities of this new bench technique.
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