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Technical Paper

10PC20 Swash Plate Type Variable Displacement Compressor for Automotive Air Conditioners

Up to now, various compressor models for automotive air conditioners have been manufactured to answer the needs of car manufacturers for fuel economy and quietness. The 10PC20 compressor, developed for automotive air conditioners, is the world's first swash plate type compressor having a continuously variable displacement mechanism. The 10PC20 is aimed at realizing a large displacement compressor with a continuously variable displacement mechanism, which has not been achieved until today. To achieve this goal, the 10PC20 design is based on the swash plate type compressor, consisting of double-headed pistons, which is adaptable to a large displacement and has excellent rotating balance and durability. The 10PC20 changes its displacement continuously by changing the inclination of the swash plate (swash plate angle) continuously. (See photo. 1 and 2) The 10PC20 adopts two variable displacement principles.
Technical Paper

12-Volt Vacuum Fluorescent Display Drive Circuitry for Electronically Tuned Radios

The trend towards battery voltage vacuum fluorescent displays continues the technological advances in design and construction of VFD's, as they are applied to the automobile environment. With the ever increasing use of electronic displays for electronically tuned radios (ETR's), compact disc (CD) players, and other entertainment systems, advances in battery voltage displays and their associated drive circuitry have become a necessity. With the inherent advantages of low voltage operation and high information density, VFD's will continue to dominate the automobile audio markets. This paper will discuss battery voltage displays, the basic circuitry necessary to operate a vacuum fluorescent display, and comment on the “off the shelf” controller and driver circuitry available.
Technical Paper

1500 W Deployable Radiator with Loop Heat Pipe

Two-phase capillary loops are being extensively studied as heat collection and rejection systems for space applications as they appear to satisfy several requirements like low weight, low volume, temperature control under variable heat loads and/or heat sink, operation under on ground and micro gravity conditions, simplicity of mounting and heat transfer through tortuous paths. In 1998–2000 Alenia defined and Lavochkin Association developed the Deployable Radiator on the base of honeycomb panels, axial grooved heat pipes and Loop Heat Pipe. It was designed for on-ground testing.
Technical Paper

1997 UTEP LPP-FI Propane Challenge Vehicle

As part of the 1997 Propane Vehicle Challenge, a team of twelve UTEP students converted a 1996 Dodge Grand Caravan with a 3.3 L V6 engine to dedicated Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) operation according to the 1997 Propane Vehicle Challenge (PVC) competition rules (16). The 1997 UTEP team developed an LPG liquid phase port fuel injection (LPP-FI) system for the minivan. The UTEP design strategy combines simplicity and sound engineering practices with the effective use of heat resistant materials to maintain the LPG in the liquid phase at temperatures encountered in the fuel delivery system. The team identified two options for fuel storage with in-tank fuel pumps. The competition vehicle incorporates a five-manifold eight inch diameter Sleegers Engineering LPG tank fitted with a Walbro LPTS in-tank pump system, providing a calculated range of 310 city miles and 438 highway miles.
Technical Paper

1D Engine Simulation Approach for Optimizing Engine and Exhaust Aftertreatment Thermal Management for Passenger Car Diesel Engines by Means of Variable Valve Train (VVT) Applications

Using a holistic 1D engine simulation approach for the modelling of full-transient engine operation, allows analyzing future engine concepts, including its exhaust gas aftertreatment technology, early in the development process. Thus, this approach enables the investigation of both important fields - the thermodynamic engine process and the aftertreatment system, together with their interaction in a single simulation environment. Regarding the aftertreatment system, the kinetic reaction behavior of state-of-the-art and advanced components, such as Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) or Selective Catalytic Reduction Soot Filters (SCRF), is being modelled. Furthermore, the authors present the use of the 1D engine and exhaust gas aftertreatment model on use cases of variable valve train (VVT) applications on passenger car (PC) diesel engines.
Technical Paper

1D Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Unsteady Reacting Flows in the Exhaust System with Catalytic Converter for S.I. Engines

This paper deals with some recent advances in the field of 1D fluid dynamic modeling of unsteady reacting flows in complex s.i. engine pipe-systems, involving a catalytic converter. In particular, a numerical simulation code has been developed to allow the simulation of chemical reactions occurring in the catalyst, in order to predict the chemical specie concentration in the exhaust gas from the cylinder to the tailpipe outlet, passing through the catalytic converter. The composition of the exhaust gas, discharged by the cylinder and then flowing towards the converter, is calculated by means of a thermodynamic two-zone combustion model, including emission sub-models. The catalytic converter can be simulated by means of a 1D fluid dynamic and chemical approach, considering the laminar flow in each tiny channel of the substrate.
Technical Paper

1D Modeling of AC Refrigerant Loop and Vehicle Cabin to Simulate Soak and Cool Down

Simulation has become an integral part in the design and development of an automotive air-conditioning (AC) system. Simulation is widely used for both system level and component level analyses and are carried out with one-dimensional (1D) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools. This paper describes a 1D approach to model refrigerant loop and vehicle cabin to simulate the soak and cool down analysis. Soak and cool down is one of the important tests that is carried out to test the performance of a heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system of a vehicle. Ability to simulate this cool down cycle is thus very useful. 1D modeling is done for the two-phase flow through the refrigerant loop and air flow across the heat exchangers and cabin with the commercial software AMESim. The model is able to predict refrigerant pressure and temperature inside the loop at different points in the cycle.

1D Simulation and Experimental Analysis of a Turbocharger Compressor for Automotive Engines under Unsteady Flow Conditions

Zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, and quasi-dimensional models for simulation of SI and CI engines with respect to: engine breathing and boosting; SI combustion and emissions; CI combustion and emissions; fundamentals of engine thermodynamics; thermal management; mechanical and lubrication systems; system level models for controls; system level models for vehicle fuel economy and emissions predictions. Presenter Fabio Bozza, Universita di Napoli
Technical Paper

1D Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Modelling of a S.I. Engine Exhaust System for the Prediction of Warm-Up and Emission Conversion during a NEDC Cycle

This work describes an experimental and numerical investigation of the thermal transient of i.c. engine exhaust systems. A prototype of exhaust system has been investigated during a NEDC cycle in two different configurations. Firstly an uncoated catalyst has been adopted to consider only the effect of the gas-wall heat transfer. The measurements have been repeated on the same exhaust system equipped with a coated catalyst to point out the contribution of the chemical reactions to the thermal transient of the system. The measured values have been compared to the predicted results carried out with a 1D thermo fluid dynamic code, developed in-house to account for the thermal transient of the system and the chemical reactions occurring in the catalyst.
Technical Paper

1D Transient Thermal Model of an Automotive Electric Engine Cooling Fan Motor

For the thermal management of an automobile, the induced airflow becomes necessary to enable the sufficient heat transfer with ambient. In this way, the components work within the designed temperature limit. It is the engine-cooling fan that enables the induced airflow. There are two types of engine-cooling fan, one that is driven by engine itself and the other one is electrically driven. Due to ease in handling, reduced power consumption, improved emission condition, electrically operated fan is becoming increasingly popular compared to engine driven fan. The prime mover for electric engine cooling fan is DC motor. Malfunction of DC motor due to overheating will lead to engine over heat, Poor HVAC performance, overheating of other critical components in engine bay. Based upon the real world driving condition, 1D transient thermal model of engine cooling fan motor is developed. This transient model is able to predict the temperature of rotor and casing with and without holes.
Technical Paper

1D Unsteady Flows with Chemical Reactions in the Exhaust Duct-System of S.I. Engines: Predictions and Experiments

This paper describes some recent advances of the research work concerning the 1D fluid dynamic modeling of unsteady reacting flows in s.i. engine pipe-systems, including pre-catalysts and main catalysts. The numerical model GASDYN developed in previous work has been further enhanced to enable the simulation of the catalyst. The main chemical reactions occurring in the wash-coat have been accounted in the model, considering the mass transfer between gas and solid phase. The oxidation of CO, C3H6, C3H8, H2 and reduction of NO, the steam-reforming reactions of C3H6, C3H8, the water-gas shift reaction of CO have been considered. Moreover, an oxygen-storage sub-model has been introduced, to account for the behavior of Cerium oxides. A detailed thermal model of the converter takes into account the heat released by the exothermic reactions as a source term in the heat transfer equations. The influence of the insulating mat is accounted.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke Engine Options for Automotive Use: A Fundamental Comparison of Different Potential Scavenging Arrangements for Medium-Duty Truck Applications

The work presented here seeks to compare different means of providing scavenging systems for an automotive 2-stroke engine. It follows on from previous work solely investigating uniflow scavenging systems, and aims to provide context for the results discovered there as well as to assess the benefits of a new scavenging system: the reverse-uniflow sleeve-valve. For the study the general performance of the engine was taken to be suitable to power a medium-duty truck, and all of the concepts discussed here were compared in terms of indicated fuel consumption for the same cylinder swept volume using a one-dimensional engine simulation package. In order to investigate the sleeve-valve designs layout drawings and analysis of the Rolls-Royce Crecy-type sleeve had to be undertaken.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT - Interior Trim & Electrical

Driven by a tight vehicle development schedule and unique performance and styling goals for the new Ford GT, a Ford-Lear team delivered a complete interior and electrical package in just 12 months. The team used new materials, processes and suppliers, and produced what may be the industry's first structural instrument panel.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT Magnesium I/P Structure

This paper describes a new concept for a Ford GT instrument panel (IP) based on structural magnesium components, which resulted in what may be the industry's first structural IP (primary load path). Two US-patent applications are ongoing. Design criteria included cost, corrosion protection, crashworthiness assessments, noise vibration harshness (NVH) performance, and durability. Die casting requirements included feasibility for production, coating strategy and assembly constraints. The magnesium die-cast crosscar beam, radio box and console top help meet the vehicle weight target. The casting components use an AM60 alloy that has the necessary elongation properties required for crashworthiness. The resulting IP design has many unique features and the flexibility present in die-casting that would not be possible using conventional steel stampings and assembly techniques.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT Magnesium Instrument Panel Cross Car Beam

Ford GT 2005 vehicle was designed for performance, timing, cost, and styling to preserve Ford GT40 vintage look. In this vehicle program, many advanced manufacturing processes and light materials were deployed including aluminum and magnesium. This paper briefly explains one unique design concept for a Ford GT instrument panel comprised of a structural magnesium cross-car beam and other components, i.e. radio box and console top, which is believed to be the industry's first structural I/P from vehicle crash load and path perspectives. The magnesium I/P design criteria include magnesium casting properties, cost, corrosion protection, crashworthiness assessments, noise vibration harshness performance, and durability. Magnesium die casting requirements include high pressure die cast process with low casting porosity and sound quality, casting dimensional stability, corrosion protection and coating strategy, joining and assembly constraints.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT- Maintaining Your Cool at 200 MPH

An integrated engineering approach using computer modeling, laboratory and vehicle testing enabled the Ford GT engineering team to achieve supercar thermal management performance within the aggressive program timing. Theoretical and empirical test data was used during the design and development of the engine cooling system. The information was used to verify design assumptions and validate engineering efforts. This design approach allowed the team to define a system solution quickly and minimized the need for extensive vehicle level testing. The result of this approach was the development of an engine cooling system that adequately controls air, oil and coolant temperatures during all driving and environmental conditions.
Journal Article

25cc HCCI Engine Fuelled with DEE

This paper describes the set-up and testing of a single cylinder 25cc, air cooled, 4-stroke Spark Ignition (SI) engine converted to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode with the aid of various combustion control systems. The combustion control systems were investigated regarding their effects on combustion stability and heat release phasing. Engine operation was compared with unique findings from previous work done on a very small 2-stroke HCCI engine. HCCI engine operation was possible between 1000 - 4000 rpm when using Diethyl Ether (DEE) as the test fuel. Maximum operational fuel-air equivalence ratio (Φ) was 0.75 when operating without Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). This relatively high equivalence ratio was attainable due to thermal gradients induced by the high surface area to volume ratio of the small engine combustion chamber, resulting in high chamber heat transfer.
Technical Paper

27 A New Method for Valve Seat without Ring

A surface modification method by electrical discharge has been developed for the valve seats of aluminum cylinder heads. This method employs a conventional electrical discharge machine to generate continuous discharge arcs between an electrode and a cylinder head, whereby the molten electrode material is transferred and clad onto the valve seat area on the cylinder head. Using this new cladding method, a wear-resistant cladding can be formed on each valve seat area in a matter of minutes and, if the same number of electrodes as valve seat areas are set one on one, all the valve seat areas can be clad simultaneously. The advantages of this method include local cladding capability, outstanding adhesion, quick cladding speed, and excellent adaptability to various types of engines. The chemical composition of the cladding was determined by a preliminary test using dynamo engines, and the durability of the cladding was evaluated using the same dynamo engines.
Technical Paper

3-D Modeling of Diesel Engine Intake Flow, Combustion and Emissions

Manufacturers of heavy-duty diesel engines are facing increasingly stringent, emission standards. These standards have motivated new research efforts towards improving the performance of diesel engines. The objective of the present program is to develop a comprehensive analytical model of the diesel combustion process that can be used to explore the influence of design changes. This will enable industry to predict the effect of these changes on engine performance and emissions. A major benefit of the successful implementation of such models is that engine development time and costs would be reduced through their use. The computer model is based on the three-dimensional KIVA-II code, with state-of-the-art submodels for spray atomization, drop breakup / coalescence, multi-component fuel vaporization, spray/wall interaction, ignition and combustion, wall heat transfer, unburned HC and NOx formation, and soot and radiation.