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Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Bladed Disk Roots

A procedure for obtaining the optimum disk serration and blade root geometry is presented. The procedure uses the -finite element method, a suitable objective function and a standard mathematical programming technique as its basis. The objective functions investigated are the mean von Mises stress concentration factor, the coefficient of efficiency, and the hoop stress and radial stress concentration factors. The mathematical programming techniques considered are the Steepest Descent Technique, the Hill Algorithm and the Box Method. Results presented in this paper include the relative cost and the degree of success achieved by the design optimization procedure.
Technical Paper

ESS Design Process Overview and Key Outcomes of Year Two of EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future

EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future (EcoCAR) is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM), and sponsored by more than 30 industry and government leaders. Fifteen university teams from across North America are challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. During the three-year program, EcoCAR teams follow a real-world Vehicle Development Process (VDP) modeled after GM's own VDP. The EcoCAR 2 VDP serves as a roadmap for the engineering process of designing, building and refining advanced technology vehicles.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Architecture Selection to Reduce Emissions and Petroleum Energy Consumption

The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech (HEVT) is participating in the 2012 - 2014 EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition series organized by Argonne National Lab (ANL), and sponsored by General Motors Corporation (GM), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The goals of the competition are to reduce well-to-wheel (WTW) petroleum energy consumption, WTW greenhouse gas and criteria emissions while maintaining vehicle performance, consumer acceptability and safety. Following the EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Development Process (VDP), HEVT will design, build, and refine an advanced technology vehicle over the course of the three year competition using a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu donated by GM as a base vehicle. In year 1 of the competition, HEVT has designed a powertrain to meet and exceed the goals of the competition.
Technical Paper

Improving Fuel Economy of Thermostatic Control for a Series Plugin-Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using Driver Prediction

This study investigates using driver prediction to anticipate energy usage over a 160-meter look-ahead distance for a series, plug-in, hybrid-electric vehicle to improve conventional thermostatic powertrain control. Driver prediction algorithms utilize a hidden Markov model to predict route and a regression tree to predict speed over the route. Anticipated energy consumption is calculated by integrating force vectors over the look-ahead distance using the predicted incline slope and vehicle speed. Thermostatic powertrain control is improved by supplementing energy produced by the series generator with regenerative braking during events where anticipated energy consumption is negative, typically associated with declines or decelerations.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of Inverter Switching Characteristics for HEV BLDC Motors

Although many simulations and analyses of three-phase insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) switching devices exist in the offline and post processing arenas, real-time simulation environments require varying levels of fidelity of real-time capable models, depending on the task at hand. This paper presents a comparison between existing basic real-time modeling techniques and more advanced techniques capable of simulating complex electrical characteristics in high fidelity, while retaining the capability of real-time simulation. Model development, simulation, and analysis of results was performed at Mississippi State University in an effort to better understand the effects of multiple brushless direct current (BLDC) IGBT inverters operating on the same high-voltage bus.
Technical Paper

Refinement and Testing of an E85 Split Parallel EREV

The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech (HEVT) is participating in the 2009 - 2011 EcoCAR: The NeXt Challenge Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition series organized by Argonne National Lab (ANL), and sponsored by General Motors Corporation (GM), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Following GM's Vehicle Development Process (VDP), HEVT established team goals that meet or exceed the competition requirements for EcoCAR in the design of a plug-in extended range hybrid electric vehicle. The competition requires participating teams to re-engineer a stock crossover utility vehicle donated by GM. The result of this design process is an Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV) that uses grid electric energy and E85 fuel for propulsion. The vehicle design has achieved an SAE J1711 utility factor corrected fuel consumption of 2.9 L(ge)/100 km (82 mpgge) with an all-electric range of 87 km (54 miles) [1].