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Technical Paper

120VAC Power Inverters

1983-02-01
830131
Inverters are solid state devices which change DC to 120VAC electricity. They are sufficiently rugged and reliable to make them practical for use on utility vehicles for operating thumpers, tools, lights and induction motor loads. The SCR type rather than the transistor type inverter is generally required for inductive and reactive loads. Static inverters operate from battery input. They provide power without running an engine, but are limited by battery capacity so work best in intermittent load applications. Dynamic inverters operate from alternator input and will handle continuous loads to 7200 watts with truck engine running.
Technical Paper

1D Engine Simulation Approach for Optimizing Engine and Exhaust Aftertreatment Thermal Management for Passenger Car Diesel Engines by Means of Variable Valve Train (VVT) Applications

2018-04-03
2018-01-0163
Using a holistic 1D engine simulation approach for the modelling of full-transient engine operation, allows analyzing future engine concepts, including its exhaust gas aftertreatment technology, early in the development process. Thus, this approach enables the investigation of both important fields - the thermodynamic engine process and the aftertreatment system, together with their interaction in a single simulation environment. Regarding the aftertreatment system, the kinetic reaction behavior of state-of-the-art and advanced components, such as Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) or Selective Catalytic Reduction Soot Filters (SCRF), is being modelled. Furthermore, the authors present the use of the 1D engine and exhaust gas aftertreatment model on use cases of variable valve train (VVT) applications on passenger car (PC) diesel engines.
Technical Paper

1D Model of a Copper Exchanged Small Pore Zeolite Catalyst Based on Transient SCR Protocol

2013-04-08
2013-01-1578
Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are the leading aftertreatment technology for diesel engines, but there are major challenges associated with meeting future NOx emission standards, especially under transient drive cycle conditions that include large swings in exhaust temperatures. Here we present a simplified, transient, one-dimensional integral model of NOx reduction by NH₃ on a commercial small-pore Cu-zeolite urea-SCR catalyst for which detailed kinetic parameters have not been published. The model was developed and validated using data acquired from bench reactor experiments on a monolith core, following a transient SCR reactor protocol. The protocol incorporates NH₃ storage, NH₃ oxidation, NO oxidation and three global SCR reactions under isothermal conditions, at three space velocities and at three NH₃/NOx ratios.
Journal Article

3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution for Low CO2 and NOx Emissions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0590
Today turbo-diesel powertrains offering low fuel consumption and good low-end torque comprise a significant fraction of the light-duty vehicle market in Europe. Global CO₂ regulation and customer fuel prices are expected to continue providing pressure for powertrain fuel efficiency. However, regulated emissions for NO and particulate matter have the potential to further expand the incremental cost of diesel powertrain applications. Vehicle segments with the most cost sensitivity like compacts under 1400 kg weight look for alternatives to meet the CO₂ challenge but maintain an attractive customer offering. In this paper the concepts of downsizing and downspeeding gasoline engines are explored while meeting performance needs through increased BMEP to maintain good driveability and vehicle launch dynamics. A critical enabler for the solution is adoption of gasoline direct injection (GDi) fuel systems.
Technical Paper

3-D Numerical Study of Effect of Injection Parameters Upon the Uniformity of Ammonia in Urea-SCR

2013-11-27
2013-01-2768
Nowadays, due to the stringent engine emission norms, an efficient technique is required to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from automobiles especially from the lean burn engines. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is found to be an efficient after treatment method used to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from the exhaust. However, for light duty vehicles, because of the limited size of the catalysts, ammonia slip nullifies its advantages. Lack of uniformity of ammonia at the SCR monolith entrance causes ammonia slip. This study addresses the effect of injection parameters, location of injector and shape of injector upon the flow parameters, exhaust gas temperature and flow rate. The results obtained from this study provide useful guidelines for optimizing the injection parameters to avoid the ammonia slip. The evaporation of Urea Water Solution (UWS) is also investigated.
Technical Paper

3-D Numerical Study of Flow Mixing in Front of SCR for Different Injection Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1578
The urea Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) exhaust system has been proved to be the reliable aftertreatment device with the capability of reducing tail pipe NOx emission by 75% to 90%, HC by 50% and Particulate Matter (PM) by 30%. Constrained by increasingly stringent packaging envelope, flow mixing in front of substrate is becoming one of the major concerns to achieve ideal performance of higher NOx conversion and lower ammonia (NH3) slip. Three dimensional CFD simulations are performed in current study to investigate flow mixing phenomenon in a SCR system. First, for a traditional tube injector with single or multiple nozzles, the effects of mass flow rates of injected NH3 and exhaust gas on flow mixing and pressure loss are investigated. Then, a concept of ring shape injector with multiple nozzles are initiated and built for 3-D CFD simulations. The comparisons of flow mixing index and injection pressure are made between two type injectors.
Technical Paper

3-D Numerical Study of Mixing Characteristics of NH3 in Front of SCR

2006-10-16
2006-01-3444
The Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology is one of the major mature exhaust aftertreatment technologies which are demonstrated to be able to lower tail pipe NOx emission by 90%. The system consists of a urea injection at upstream pipe and a downstream SCR converter. A well mixed flow (exhaust gas and NH3) in front of SCR substrate, which is usually constrained by tight design packaging, is very critical to ensure the desired performance. Current paper addresses the geometrical effects on flow mixing by using three dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool. The mixing enhancement is achieved by adding flow mixer. The shapes and locations of flow mixers, as well as the number of blades inside mixer are investigated to show the effect on fluid mixing in downstream along the flow direction. Results show great improvement of flow mixing by adding a delta wing mixer.
Technical Paper

3D Unsteady Modelling of the Loading Process in a Diesel Engine PM-Filter

2007-04-16
2007-01-1132
Particulate Matter (PM) filters are becoming a standard component of Diesel engines exhaust aftertreatment devices to comply with the forthcoming engine emission regulations. However, cost reduction and durability are still critical issues in particular for the integration of the PM-filter with other components of the after-treatment system (e.g. pre-turbo-catalyst, close-coupled-catalyst, PM-filter, SCR). To respect functional (available temperature and gas composition) and space restraints, very complex shapes may result from the design causing tortuous flow patterns and influencing the flow distribution into the PM-filter. Uneven soot distributions in the filter may cause a non-homogeneous development of filter regeneration, leading to failures, for example due to the occurrence of large temperature gradients during the oxidation of soot deposits.
Technical Paper

3D-Semi 1D Coupling for a Complete Simulation of an SCR System

2013-04-08
2013-01-1575
The presented work describes how numerical modeling techniques were extended to simulate a full Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) NOx aftertreatement system. Besides predicting ammonia-to-NOX ratio (ANR) and uniformity index (UI) at the SCR inlet, the developed numerical model was able to predict NOx reduction and ammonia slip. To reduce the calculation time due to the complexity of the chemical process and flow field within the SCR, a semi-1D approach was developed and applied to model the SCR catalyst, which was subsequently coupled with a 3D model of the rest of the exhaust system. Droplet depletion of urea water solution (UWS) was modeled by vaporization and thermolysis techniques while ammonia generation was modeled by the thermolysis and hydrolysis method. Test data of two different SCR systems were used to calibrate the simulation results. Results obtained using the thermolysis method showed better agreement with test data compared to the vaporization method.
Technical Paper

A 3.4 kW, 42 V High Efficiency Automotive Power Generation System

2000-08-21
2000-01-3064
A 3.4 kW, 42 V permanent magnet alternator based high power generation system was built and tested in the Delphi R&D laboratory. It is belt driven system with 3.37: 1 pulley ratio. The size of the alternator is slightly less than the production CS-144 Lundell machine with 1/3 less inertia. For cost reasons, the controller uses a single SCR bridge rectifier. The prototype, which is capable of producing 34A/80A at idle/cruising speed, has been tested in the laboratory yielding 84.5%/70.7% efficiencies. Up to cruising speed, the system shows an improvement in full load efficiencies of 5-6 percentile points over a similar 14 V permanent magnet machine with dual SCR bridge. This efficiency improvement is due to the reduction in the converter losses as the current is reduced to one third of its 14 V values even with the same copper losses in both machines.
Technical Paper

A Case Study of a Cu-SSZ-13 SCR Catalyst Poisoned by Real-World High Sulfur Diesel Fuel

2020-04-14
2020-01-1319
To meet increasingly stringent diesel engine emission regulations, diesel engines are required to use ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and are equipped with advanced aftertreatment systems. Cu-SSZ-13 zeolite catalysts are widely used as selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts due to their high NOx reduction and excellent hydrothermal stability. However, active Cu sites of Cu-SSZ-13 catalysts can be poisoned by exposure to engine exhaust sulfur species. This poison effect can be mitigated with the use of ULSD and high temperature exposure from engine operation. On the other hand, ULSD is still not universally available where regulations require it, and vehicles may inadvertently operate with high sulfur diesel fuel (HSD) in some locations. The high concentration of exhaust sulfur species resulting from HSD combustion may rapidly poison the Cu-SSZ-13 SCR catalyst. In this study, the catalytic performance of a sulfur poisoned Cu-SSZ-13 SCR catalyst is analyzed.
Technical Paper

A Combined 3D/Lumped Modeling Approach to Ammonia SCR After-treatment Systems: Application to Mixer Designs

2006-04-03
2006-01-0469
In practical applications of ammonia SCR aftertreatment systems using urea as the reductant storage compound, one major difficulty is the often constrained packaging envelope. As a consequence, complete mixing of the urea solution into the exhaust gas stream as well as uniform flow and reductant distribution profiles across the catalyst inlet face are difficult to achieve. This paper discusses a modeling approach, where a combination of 3D CFD and a lumped parameter SCR model enables the prediction of system performance, even with non-uniform exhaust flow and ammonia distribution profiles. From the urea injection nozzle to SCR catalyst exit, each step in the modeling process is described and validated individually. Finally the modeling approach was applied to a design study where the performance of a range of urea-exhaust gas mixing sections was evaluated.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Study on DOC Selection for Euro 6 Compliant Heavy Commercial Vehicles

2021-09-22
2021-26-0216
Euro 6 emission norms are getting implemented in India from April 2020 and it is being viewed as one of the greatest challenges ever faced by the Indian automotive industry. In order to achieve such stringent emission norms along with top performance for vehicle, a good strategy should be incorporated to control system out NOx emissions and soot regeneration. Extruded Vanadium catalyst is deployed for this passive regeneration system with DOC (Diesel Oxidation Catalyst), DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) and SCR (Selective Catalyst Reduction), where the amount of catalyst loading in DOC plays an apex role in deciding conversion efficiency of SCR and passive regeneration capabilities. This study mainly focuses on the impact of catalyst loading of DOC over SCR efficiency. NO2 to NOx ratio should be close to 0.5 for optimum conversion efficiency of SCR. Catalyst loading in DOC decides the amount of NO2 coming upstream to SCR.
Technical Paper

A Controls Overview on Achieving Ultra-Low NOx

2020-04-14
2020-01-1404
The California Air Resources Board (CARB)-funded Stage 3 Heavy-Duty Low NOX program focusses on evaluating different engine and after-treatment technologies to achieve 0.02g/bhp-hr of NOX emission over certification cycles. This paper highlights the controls architecture of the engine and after-treatment systems and discusses the effects of various strategies implemented and tested in an engine test cell over various heavy-duty drive cycles. A Cylinder De-Activation (CDA) system enabled engine was integrated with an advanced after-treatment controller and system package. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) had implemented a model-based controller for the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system in the CARB Stage 1 Low-NOX program. The chemical kinetics for the model-based controller were further tuned and implemented in order to accurately represent the reactions for the catalysts used in this program.
Technical Paper

A DEVELOPMENT OF SCR (SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION) MODEL AND ITS APPLICATIONS

2022-03-29
2022-01-0557
SCR physics model was developed based on five independent SGB(Synthetic Gas Bench) tests. There are NH3 adsorption & desorption test, NO oxidation test, NH3 oxidation test, SCR reaction(NOx+NH3) test and SV(Space Velocity) test. To validate the accuracy of SCR model's prediction, transient reactor tests were conducted at four different input conditions. A newly developed SCR model showed more than 90% prediction accuracy in view of cumulative NOx in the WLTC mode. Based upon this accurate SCR model, SCR maps used for urea dosing control were made and validated in the vehicle emission test mode such as WLTC and RDE(Real Driving Emission). NOx and NH3 slip from SCR model's map were comparable with those from conventional maps calibrated on engine bench test and vehicle test. In the RDE test, NH3 slip from SCR model's maps was less than NH3 Slip from conventional maps. It was found that map data from SCR model can replace map data from conventional engine and vehicle test.
Technical Paper

A Development of Urea Solution Injection Quantity Decision Logic for SCR System

2013-04-08
2013-01-1069
In this project, phenomena in a SCR catalyst, such as heat transfer and catalytic reactions, are modeled numerically. The model is simplified to be integrated on an electronic control unit. The calibration process for this model has been developed, which is performed on gas bench and validated on a vehicle equipped with a Urea-SCR system and a Rapid Prototype Control Unit. With this simplified SCR reaction model, it is possible to estimate NH3 consumption and properly control the urea injection quantity with less calibration efforts.
Technical Paper

A Diesel Engine Emission System Based on Brownian Diffusion a Separation

2021-04-06
2021-01-0583
Diesel engine exhaust poses an ongoing threat to human health as well as to the environment. Automotive exhaust treatment systems have been developed over the years to reduce the large amount of diesel particulate matter (DPM) released to the atmosphere. Current systems can be categorized as selective catalytic reduction, catalytic converters, and diesel particulate filters. This study presents an emission system that focuses on the removal of exhaust particles using Brownian diffusion of DPM toward fog drops followed by cyclonic separation of DPM rich fog drops. The experimental system consisted of a 13.2 kW diesel engine, heat exchanger to cool the exhaust to saturation temperature, ultrasonic fogger, cyclone separator, and recovery of waste particulate. Representative emission tests have been performed at five different diesel engine speeds and corresponding crankshaft loads.
Technical Paper

A Durable and Efficient Cu Zeolite based SCR Catalyst for Cold Start and High Temperature DeNOx Applications

2021-09-22
2021-26-0190
Typical diesel engine-out emissions consist of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM) & oxides of nitrogen (NOx). The HC and CO emissions are oxidized by a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), placed upstream, closer to the exhaust manifold. The DOC is often followed by a diesel particulate filter (DPF), which entraps and combusts PM. The NOx is often controlled by a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst. An SCR catalyst commonly uses NH3 to reduce the NOx to N2. Vanadium-based SCR catalysts have been widely used for many years. More recently, Cu-Zeolite based SCR (CuZ-SCR) is gaining much attention primarily due to the potential environmental hazards of vanadium and a wider temperature window of effective operation. The SCR reaction is facilitated by the presence of NO2 at lower exhaust gas temperatures by means of the so-called “fast” reaction. However, this is only advantageous up to about 300°C.
Journal Article

A Fast Modeling Approach for the Numerical Prediction of Urea Deposit Formation

2020-04-14
2020-01-0358
The permanently tightening emission regulations for NOx pollutants force further development of automotive exhaust aftertreatment systems with selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Of particular interest is the long-term reliability of SCR systems with regard to unfavorable operating conditions, such as high injection rates of urea water solution (UWS) or a low exhaust gas temperature. Both of them may lead to formation of solid deposits which increase backpressure and impair ammonia uniformity. A fast modeling approach for numerical prediction of deposit formation in urea SCR systems is desired for optimization of system design. This paper presents a modified methodology for the modeling of deposit formation risk. A new determination of the initial footprint of the spray, where the deposit formation is inhibited, is proposed. The threshold values for the evaluation of the film transport were validated based on experimental results.
Technical Paper

A LNT+SCR System for Treating the NOx Emissions from a Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0210
An aftertreatment system involving a LNT followed by a SCR catalyst is proposed for treating the NOx emissions from a diesel engine. NH3 (or urea) is injected between the LNT and the SCR. The SCR is used exclusively below 400°C due to its high NOx activity at low temperatures and due to its ability to store and release NH3 below 400°C, which helps to minimize NH3 and NOx slip. Above 400°C, where the NH3 storage capacity of the SCR falls to low levels, the LNT is used to store the NOx. A potassium-based LNT is utilized due to its high temperature NOx storage capability. Periodically, hydrocarbons are oxidized on the LNT under net lean conditions to promote the thermal release of the NOx. NH3 is injected simultaneously to reduce the released NOx over the SCR. The majority of the hydrocarbons are oxidized on the front portion of the LNT, resulting in the rapid release of stored NOx from that portion of the LNT.
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