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Technical Paper

A Combined Physical / Neural Approach for Real-Time Models of Losses in Combustion Engines

Reliable estimation of pumping and friction losses in modern combustion engines allows better control strategies aiming at optimal fuel consumption and emissions. Sophisticated simulation tools enable detailed simulation of losses based as well on physical and thermodynamic laws as well as on design data. Models embedded in these tools however are not real-time capable and cannot be implemented into the programs of the electronic control units (ECU's). In this paper an approach is presented that estimates the pumping and friction losses of a combustion engine with variable valve train (VVT). Particularly the pumping losses strongly depend on the control of variable valve train by ECU. The model is based on a combination of a globally physical structure embedding data driven sub models based on test bed measurements. Losses are separated concerning different component groups (bearings, pistons, etc.).
Technical Paper

Investigation of Predictive Models for Application in Engine Cold-Start Behavior

The modern engine development process is characterized by shorter development cycles and a reduced number of prototypes. However, simultaneously exhaust after-treatment and emission testing is becoming increasingly more sophisticated. It is expected that predictive simulation tools that encompass the entire powertrain can potentially improve the efficiency of the calibration process. The testing of an ECU using a HiL system requires a real-time model. Additionally, if the initial parameters of the ECU are to be defined and tested, the model has to be more accurate than is typical for ECU functional testing. It is possible to enhance the generalization capability of the simulation, with neuronal network sub-models embedded into the architecture of a physical model, while still maintaining real-time execution. This paper emphasizes the experimental investigation and physical modeling of the port fuel injected SI engine.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Simulation Environment for the Test of Driver Assistance Systems

The paper presents a simulation environment for the test of driver assistance systems. It covers software-in-the-loop and hardware-in-the-loop test capabilities. In the hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) configuration, real components such as electronic control units (ECUs) and actuators are embedded in the system. First, requirements for a virtual environment are defined. They build the basis for the entire simulation. Special emphasis is given to the interaction between the simulated vehicle under test and its traffic environment. A virtual environment was developed in which the simulated vehicle can drive on a road together with the surrounding traffic. The simulation environment is composed mainly of a traffic scenario generator and a simulation of sensor behavior allowing the recognition of the vehicle's surroundings. Appropriate critical traffic scenarios are generated depending on the tested driver assistance system.
Technical Paper

SI Engine Emissions Model Based on Dynamic Neural Networks and D-Optimality

In the last two decades the abilities of neural networks as universal approximation tools of non linear functional relationships as well as identification tools for nonlinear dynamic systems have been recognized and used successfully in many applications areas like modelling, control and diagnosis of technical systems. At the same time an increasing interest in optimal design methods is observed. Design of experiment is used to cope with the growing amount of measurements needed for the calibration of engines due to the rising number of control variables to be considered and the need for more accuracy in the description of engine behaviour to derive the best control strategies. In this paper a strategy for the integration of the concept of D-optimality in the learning process of neural networks is proposed. This leads to an optimal selection of data to be presented to the training procedure of the neural network aiming to a generation of robust neural models using fewer training data.